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1.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine steps taken by correctional staff to prevent COVID-19 from spreading through correctional facilities and explores strategies used by incarcerated individuals to reduce their own risk of contracting COVID-19 during confinement. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were drawn from interviews with 327 individuals incarcerated after March 16, 2020, in Midwest1, Midwest2 and Southeast state using a questionnaire developed for this purpose. All study participants were actively involved in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral health reentry intervention and the human subjects board approved the supplement of this study on COVID-19; interviews were conducted from April 15 to November 19, 2020. FINDINGS: Overall, 9.89% of participants contracted COVID-19. Most (68.50%) individuals learned about COVID-19 from television compared to official correctional facility announcements (32.42%). Participants wore face masks (85.02%), washed hands (84.40%) and practiced physical distancing when possible (66.36%). Participants reported that facilities suspended visitation (89.60%) and volunteers (82.57%), provided face masks (83.18%), sanitized (68.20%), conducted temperature checks (55.35%) and released individuals early (7.34%). SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: Longitudinal observational study on the implementation and effectiveness of public health guidelines in prisons and jails may identify best practices for containing the infectious disease. Maximizing transparent communications, as well as COVID-19 prevention and mitigation efforts, are critical to achieving universal best practices for virus containment and amplifying public health. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Data presented indicate the early adoption of many Centers for Disease Control guidelines by individuals and correctional facilities, although broad variation existed. Data support the identification of containment strategies for feasible implementation in a range of correctional spaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Correctional Facilities , Guideline Adherence , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Interviews as Topic , Prisoners/psychology , Adult , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , World Health Organization
3.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360392

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine how prisoners' early release affects other citizens' perceived insecurity and their attitudes towards those released prisoners, and how citizens' political orientation influences these variables. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A total of 383 Portuguese participants were presented with a recommendation from the United Nations for the release of prisoners because of COVID-19 and then asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring their political orientation, support for the early release of prisoners, perceived insecurity regarding such measure and their attitudes towards the released prisoners. FINDINGS: Results showed that support for the release of prisoners during COVID-19 is associated with perceived insecurity and both, in turn, predicts inclusive attitudes regarding these prisoners, while only perceived insecurity is associated with an agreement with an intensification of social control measures. Right-wing participants were found to express the negative side. The more participants felt insecure, the more they believed released prisoners should not have the same rights as common citizens and the more they should be left out of the community. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The major limitation of this study concerns the sample: the authors collected answers from Portuguese participants exclusively, most of which held a university degree. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: At least two major implications can be drawn from this study's results. These implications deal with prisoners' entrance in what can be considered a cycle of exclusion and the promotion of their social reintegration once they are released from prison. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings point out the necessity to firstly put an effort in deconstructing the insecurity perception that results from the prospective of having prisoners back into society - that is to understand why it happens and how it can be reduced - promoting efficacy in the inclusion of these prisoners and preventing the emergence of controlling or protective approaches directed to these individuals in their return to society by enhancing people's awareness that the social reintegration of ex-prisoners will benefit the whole community. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The authors present a different perspective of the impact that managing COVID-19 in prisons has on society.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Politics , Prisoners/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Inclusion , Social Perception
4.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354375

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to explore the psychological effects of lockdown during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living in an Italian prison. The suspension of family visits and most activities, along with the difficulties in applying social distancing to this vulnerable population was associated with increased psychological distress. Riots broke out over two days in more than 22 prisons across Italy at the beginning of March 2020, highlighting the negative psychological impact of the pandemic and the country's emergency policies. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The research involves 17 men (Italians and foreigners) detained in a Lombardy prison from 1 March to 4 May 2020, corresponding to the lockdown phase in Italy. The qualitative content analysis (CA) of 27 posts, written by participants during that period and published on the blog "L'Oblò", were analysed. The analysis allowed the identification of topics and subtopics that are related to two major categories of content: cognitions and emotional connotations about the COVID-19 lockdown in prison. FINDINGS: Analysis showed that blog post content was predominately negative in terms of emotional connotations. The most frequent coded negative emotional connotations were: missing, worry, psychological pain and fear, whilst the most frequent coded positive emotional connotations were: hope and gratitude for the support they received from prison workers. The rest of the blog content was coded as "cognitions". Cognitions were coded as descriptions of lockdown effect on detention; prison during the COVID-19 emergency; the pandemic situation in general; and comparison between inside and outside prison. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The current study is original as it describes through blog CA the psychological condition of prisoners during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in the most affected region in Italy.


Subject(s)
Blogging , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Emotions , Prisoners/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prisons , Qualitative Research , Riots
7.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(5): 892-896, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223541

ABSTRACT

In many correctional facilities across the United States, COVID-19 vaccine refusal rates are as high as 50%. Most women leaving jails have low SES, health literacy, and mistrust of governmental institutions, thus exacerbating existing health disparities and making women leaving jail vulnerable. Data from 25 interviews with recently released women suggest that interventions to promote vaccines to this population will have to address health education and mitigate mistrust, misinformation, and conspiracy theories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Prisoners , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Jails , Prisoners/psychology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Qualitative Research , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 473-477, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168276

ABSTRACT

Incarcerated and detained persons are at increased risk for acquiring COVID-19. However, little is known about their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. During September-December 2020, residents in three prisons and 13 jails in four states were surveyed regarding their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination and their reasons for COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy or refusal. Among 5,110 participants, 2,294 (44.9%) said they would receive a COVID-19 vaccination, 498 (9.8%) said they would hesitate to receive it, and 2,318 (45.4%) said they would refuse to receive it. Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was lowest among Black/African American (Black) (36.7%; 510 of 1,390) persons, participants aged 18-29 years (38.5%; 583 of 1,516), and those who lived in jails versus prisons (43.7%; 1,850 of 4,232). Common reasons reported for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were waiting for more information (54.8%) and efficacy or safety concerns (31.0%). The most common reason for COVID-19 vaccination refusal was distrust of health care, correctional, or government personnel or institutions (20.1%). Public health interventions to improve vaccine confidence and trust are needed to increase vaccination acceptance by incarcerated or detained persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine steps taken by correctional staff to prevent COVID-19 from spreading through correctional facilities and explores strategies used by incarcerated individuals to reduce their own risk of contracting COVID-19 during confinement. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were drawn from interviews with 327 individuals incarcerated after March 16, 2020, in Midwest1, Midwest2 and Southeast state using a questionnaire developed for this purpose. All study participants were actively involved in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral health reentry intervention and the human subjects board approved the supplement of this study on COVID-19; interviews were conducted from April 15 to November 19, 2020. FINDINGS: Overall, 9.89% of participants contracted COVID-19. Most (68.50%) individuals learned about COVID-19 from television compared to official correctional facility announcements (32.42%). Participants wore face masks (85.02%), washed hands (84.40%) and practiced physical distancing when possible (66.36%). Participants reported that facilities suspended visitation (89.60%) and volunteers (82.57%), provided face masks (83.18%), sanitized (68.20%), conducted temperature checks (55.35%) and released individuals early (7.34%). SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: Longitudinal observational study on the implementation and effectiveness of public health guidelines in prisons and jails may identify best practices for containing the infectious disease. Maximizing transparent communications, as well as COVID-19 prevention and mitigation efforts, are critical to achieving universal best practices for virus containment and amplifying public health. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Data presented indicate the early adoption of many Centers for Disease Control guidelines by individuals and correctional facilities, although broad variation existed. Data support the identification of containment strategies for feasible implementation in a range of correctional spaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Correctional Facilities , Guideline Adherence , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Interviews as Topic , Prisoners/psychology , Adult , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , World Health Organization
11.
Int J Prison Health ; 17(1): 54-68, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084093

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to synthesise the available peer-reviewed literature on the impact of time out of cell (TOOC) and time in purposeful activity (TIPA) on adverse mental outcomes amongst people in prison. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The outcomes of interest of this literature review were mental health, suicide, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and violence. Exposures of interest were TOOC, TIPA or a partial or indirect measure of either. In total, 14 studies were included. An abbreviated review methodology was used because of time constraints. FINDINGS: There was consistent evidence of an association between lower TOOC and TIPA and worse mental health and higher suicide risk. Limited evidence suggests a link between TOOC and DSH. No evidence was identified regarding the relationship between TOOC/TIPA and violence. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: A lack of longitudinal studies prevents conclusions regarding causality. Significant heterogeneity of mental health outcomes limits the comparability of studies. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings highlight the importance of considering the impact of TOOC and TIPA on adverse mental outcomes for prisoners when designing prison regimes, including during urgent adaptation of such regimes in response to Covid-19. They are likely to be of interest to practitioners and policymakers concerned with prison regime design. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper is the first to synthesise the existing literature on the impact of TOOC and TIPA on mental health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Confined Spaces , Correctional Facilities , Mental Health , Prisoners/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
12.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 38(6): 731-733, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076102

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is devastating the health of hundreds of thousands of people who live and work in U.S. jails and prisons. Due to dozens of large outbreaks in correctional facilities, tens of thousands of seriously ill incarcerated people are receiving medical care in the community hospital setting. Yet community clinicians often have little knowledge of the basic rights and ethical principles governing care of seriously ill incarcerated patients. Such patients are legally entitled to make their own medical decisions just like non-incarcerated patients, and retain rights to appoint surrogate decision makers and make advance care plans. Wardens, correctional officers, and prison health care professionals should not make medical decisions for incarcerated patients and should not be asked to do so. Dying incarcerated patients should be offered goodbye visits with their loved ones, and patients from federal prisons are legally entitled to them. Community health care professionals may need to advocate for this medically vulnerable hospitalized patient population to receive ethically appropriate, humane care when under their care in community hospitals. If ethical care is being obstructed, community health care professionals should contact the prison's warden and medical director to explain their concerns and ask questions. If necessary, community clinicians should involve a hospital's ethics committee, leadership, and legal counsel. Correctional medicine experts and legal advocates for incarcerated people can also help community clinicians safeguard the rights of incarcerated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Palliative Care/ethics , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons/organization & administration , Terminal Care/ethics , Attitude of Health Personnel , Humans , Prisoners/psychology , United States , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
13.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S60-S65, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the 11 million people currently incarcerated worldwide is the subject of many concerns. Prisons and jails are filled with people suffering from many preexisting medical conditions increasing the risk of complications. Detainees' access to medical services is already limited and overcrowding poses a threat of massive contagion. Beyond the health impact of the crisis, the tightening of prison conditions worries. On March 16, 2020, in France, the lockdown measures have been accompanied by specific provisions for prisons: all facilities have suspended visitations, group activities and external interventions. Over 10,000 prisoners have been released to reduce the prison population and the risk of virus propagation. These adjustments had major consequences on the healthcare system in French prisons. The objectives of this article are to describe the reorganization of the three levels of psychiatric care for inmates in France in the context of Covid-19 pandemic and to have a look at the impact of lockdown measures and early releases on mental health of prisoners. METHODS: This work is based on a survey conducted in April 2020 in France among psychiatric healthcare providers working in 42 ambulatory units for inmates and in the 9 full-time inpatient psychiatric wards exclusively for inmates called "UHSAs" (which stands for "unités hospitalières spécialement aménagées", and can be translated as "specially equipped hospital units"). A review of the international literature on mental healthcare system for inmates during the Covid-19 epidemic has also been performed. RESULTS: The Covid-19 epidemic has been rather contained during the period of confinement in French prisons but the impact of confinement measures on the prison population is significant. The three levels of psychiatric care for inmates have implemented specific measures to ensure continuity of care, to support detainees during Coronavirus lockdown and to prevent an infection's spread. Among the most important are: limitation of medical consultations to serious and urgent cases, creation of "Covid units", cancellation of voluntary psychiatric hospitalizations, reinforcement of preventive hygiene measures and reshuffling of medical staff. Prolonged confinement has consequences on mental health of detainees. Currently, mental health workers are facing multiple clinical situations such as forced drug and substance withdrawal (linked to difficulties in supplying psychoactive substances), symptoms of anxiety (due to concerns for their own and their relatives' well-being) and decompensation among patients with severe psychiatric conditions. Early releases from prison may also raise some issues. People recently released from prison are identified as at high risk of death by suicide and drug overdose. The lack of time to provide the necessary link between health services within prisons and health structures outside could have serious consequences, emphasizing the well-known "revolving prison doors" effect. DISCUSSION: The current lockdown measures applied in French jails and prisons point out the disparities between psychiatric care for inmates and psychiatric care for general population. Giving the high vulnerability of prison population, public health authorities should pay more attention to health care in prisons.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Prisoners/psychology , Prisons , Adult , Ambulatory Care/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Accessibility , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S3-S13, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The lack of ressources and coordination to face the epidemic of coronavirus raises concerns for the health of patients with mental disorders in a country where we keep in memory the dramatic experience of famine in psychiatric hospitals during the Second World War. This article aims at proposing guidance to ensure mental health care during the SARS-CoV epidemy in France. METHODS: Authors performed a narrative review identifying relevant results in the scientific and medical literature and local initiatives in France. RESULTS: We identified four types of major vulnerabilities in patients suffering from mental disorders during this pandemic: (1) medical comorbidities that are more frequently found in patients suffering from mental disorders (cardiovascular and pulmonary pathologies, diabetes, obesity, etc.) which represent risk factors for severe infections with Covid-19; (2) age (the elderly constituting the population most vulnerable to coronavirus); (3) cognitive and behavioral troubles which can hamper compliance with confinement and hygiene measures and finally and (4) psychosocial vulnerability due to stigmatization and/or socio-economic difficulties. Furthermore, the mental health healthcare system is more vulnerable than other healthcare systems. Current government plans are poorly adapted to psychiatric establishments in a context of major shortage of organizational, material and human resources. In addition, a certain number of structural aspects make the psychiatric institution particularly vulnerable: many beds are closed, wards have a high density of patients, mental health community facilities are closed, medical teams are understaffed and poorly trained to face infectious diseases. We could also face major issues in referring patients with acute mental disorders to intensive care units. To maintain continuity of psychiatric care in this pandemic situation, several directions can be considered, in particular with the creation of Covid+ units. These units are under the dual supervision of a psychiatrist and of an internist/infectious disease specialist; all new entrants should be placed in quarantine for 14 days; the nurse staff should benefit from specific training, from daily medical check-ups and from close psychological support. Family visits would be prohibited and replaced by videoconference. At the end of hospitalization, in particular for the population of patients in compulsory ambulatory care situations, specific case-management should be organized with the possibility of home visits, in order to support them when they get back home and to help them to cope with the experience of confinement, which is at risk to induce recurrences of mental disorders. The total or partial closure of mental health community facilities is particularly disturbing for patients but a regular follow-up is possible with telemedicine and should include the monitoring of the suicide risk and psychoeducation strategies; developing support platforms could also be very helpful in this context. Private psychiatrists have also a crucial role of information with their patients on confinement and barrier measures, but also on measures to prevent the psychological risks inherent to confinement: maintenance of sleep regularity, physical exercise, social interactions, stress management and coping strategies, prevention of addictions, etc. They should also be trained to prevent, detect and treat early warning symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, because their prevalence was high in the regions of China most affected by the pandemic. DISCUSSION: French mental healthcare is now in a great and urgent need for reorganization and must also prepare in the coming days and weeks to face an epidemic of emotional disorders due to the containment of the general population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aftercare , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Child , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Drug Interactions , France/epidemiology , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Hospitals, Psychiatric/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health Services/supply & distribution , Patient Care Team , Patient Compliance , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Suicide/prevention & control , Vulnerable Populations
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113669, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989071

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the possible impacts on the prison population's mental health in the context of the new COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative study was carried out following a lexical and content analysis using the software IRaMuTeQ, version 0.7 alpha 2, in the speech of the short communication and headlines from newspapers. Three groups emerged from the analysis: "spatial conditions for infection" (39.2% of the text segments); "disease outbreaks in prisons" (30,4%) and "public responsibility" (30,4%). Precarious conditions of prisons, high rate of infections and psychiatric illnesses, and lack of government assistance are issues that should be given special attention in order to formulate health promotion and prevention policies focusing on mental health in prison population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Health Promotion , Humans , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , Public Assistance , Risk Factors
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3493-3502, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-910846

ABSTRACT

Resumo Saúde prisional é, em sua essência, saúde pública. A pandemia de COVID-19 representa uma grande ameaça para o mundo e tem demonstrado que prevenir a escalada da doença em prisões faz parte do combate ao novo coronavírus na sociedade em geral. Sabe-se, até o momento, que a mais efetiva medida de contenção ao avanço da doença é o isolamento social. No entanto, em instituições penais, muitas vezes superlotadas, tal medida torna-se de difícil implementação e, quando acontece, leva a população privada de liberdade a um superisolamento, tendo consequências em sua saúde mental. Além disso, indivíduos presos sofrem com ambientes sem ventilação, falta de materiais de higiene pessoal, condições sanitárias básicas precárias e dificuldade de acesso a serviços de saúde. O presente artigo objetiva ser uma revisão narrativa sobre os efeitos da pandemia em presídios e como governos e sociedade civil têm se organizado a fim de reduzir as consequências sobre esses locais. A publicação foi dividida em três seções: na primeira, há uma revisão da literatura em saúde sobre a temática; na segunda, é tratado o modo como diferentes países estão lidando com a situação carcerária no contexto da pandemia; na terceira e última parte, é abordado o modo como o Sistema Penal brasileiro tem reagido à nova doença.


Abstract Prisional health is, in its essence, public health. The COVID-19 pandemic poses a great threat to the world and has shown that preventing the disease escalation in prisons integrates the novel corona virus clash in society in general. Up to this moment, the most effective known measure to curb the disease spread is social isolation. Nevertheless, in penal institutions, often overcrowded, social isolation becomes difficult to carry out and, when it happens, it takes the enclosed population to overisolation, with consequences to their mental health. Besides, prisoners suffer with clogged up environment, lack of materials for personal hygiene, poor basic sanitary conditions and difficulties in accessing health services. This paper deals with a narrative review on the pandemic effects in prisons and how government and civil society have organized themselves in order to reduce the disease consequences at those places. The text has been divided into three sections: the first with literature review on the current health theme; the second discusses how different countries have been dealing with the prison situation in the pandemic context, and, the last part focuses on how the Brazilian Penal System has reacted to the new disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , Social Isolation , Brazil , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility
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