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1.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117026

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to describe the COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies implemented in California prisons and the impact of these policies on the mental health of incarcerated women. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with ten women who were over the age of 50 and/or had a chronic illness and had been incarcerated in California prisons during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors also interviewed ten health-care providers working in California jails or prisons during the pandemic. Interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory coding framework and triangulated with fieldnotes from ethnographic observations of medical and legal advocacy efforts during the pandemic. FINDINGS: Participants described being locked in their cells for 23 hours per day or more, often for days, weeks or even months at a time in an effort to reduce the spread of COVID-19. For many participants, these lockdowns and the resulting isolation from loved ones both inside and outside of the prison were detrimental to both their physical and mental health. Participants reported that access to mental health care for those in the general population was limited prior to the pandemic, and that COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies, including the cessation of group programs and shift to cell-front mental health services, created further barriers. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: There has been little qualitative research on the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on incarcerated populations. This paper provides insight into the mental health effects of both the COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies for the structurally vulnerable older women incarcerated in California prisons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Humans , Female , Aged , Prisons , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisoners/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , California/epidemiology
2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1626-1634, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a heightened toll on people incarcerated in prisons in the United States, with those incarcerated experiencing a higher rate of infection and mortality than the US population more generally. What is less well known is the degree to which COVID-19 outcomes differ among incarcerated populations, especially by race and ethnicity, where significant differences have been found among the US population as a whole. This knowledge gap is, in part, due to a lack of reporting of COVID-19 outcomes by race and ethnicity by most state prison systems. To shed light on this topic, we analyzed mortality patterns of the population incarcerated in Texas state prison facilities during both the year before (beginning April 1, 2019) and the first year of (beginning April 1, 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a unique data set of roster information from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice and medical examiner records. COVID-19 mortality was 1.61 and 2.12 times higher for Black and Hispanic populations, respectively, when compared with the White population in Texas prisons. Strategies for COVID-19 mitigation in carceral settings, such as vaccination and decarceration, should include an equity component to minimize disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Humans , Prisons , Ethnicity , Pandemics , Texas/epidemiology
4.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 38(3): 232-233, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096530
5.
CMAJ Open ; 10(4): E922-E929, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maximizing uptake of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among people in prison is essential in mitigating future outbreaks. We aimed to determine factors associated with willingness to receive SARS-CoV-2 vaccination before vaccine availability. METHODS: We chose 3 Canadian federal prisons based on their low uptake of influenza vaccines in 2019-2020. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and beliefs toward vaccines. The primary outcome was participant willingness to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, measured using a 5-point Likert scale to the question, "If a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine becomes available in prison, how likely are you to get vaccinated?" We calculated the association of independent variables (age, ethnicity, chronic health conditions, 2019-2020 influenza vaccine uptake and prison security level), identified a priori, with vaccine willingness using logistic regression and crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We recruited 240 participants from Mar. 31 to Apr. 19, 2021 (median age 46 years; 19.2% female, 25.8% Indigenous). Of these, 178 (74.2%) were very willing to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Participants who received the 2019-2020 influenza vaccine (adjusted OR 5.20, 95% CI 2.43-12.00) had higher odds of vaccine willingness than those who did not; those who self-identified as Indigenous (adjusted OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.60) and in medium- or maximum-security prisons (adjusted OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.12-0.92) had lower odds of vaccine willingness than those who identified as white or those in minimum-security prisons, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Most participants were very willing to receive vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 before vaccine roll-out. Vaccine promotion campaigns should target groups with low vaccine willingness (i.e., those who have declined influenza vaccine, identify as Indigenous or reside in high-security prisons).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Prisoners , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Prisons , Cross-Sectional Studies , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology
6.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087990

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The menstrual health and menstrual hygiene management (MHM) of incarcerated women remains relatively low on the agenda of public health interventions globally, widening the inequitable access of incarcerated women to safe and readily available menstrual health products (MHP). The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted on the MHM gains made in various development sectors in the global North and South, through its amplification of vulnerability for already at-risk populations. This is especially significant to developing countries such as South Africa where the incarcerated female population are an often-forgotten minority. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This viewpoint highlights the ignominious silence of research and policy attention within the South African carceral context in addressing MHM. The ethical and political implications of such silences are unpacked by reviewing international and local literature that confront issues of inequality and equitable access to MHP and MHM resources within incarcerated contexts. FINDINGS: Structural inequalities in various contexts around the world have exacerbated COVID-19 and MHM. Within the prison context in South Africa, women face multiple layers of discrimination and punishment that draw attention to the historical discourses of correctional facilities as a site of surveillance and discipline. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This study acknowledges that while this viewpoint is essential in rising awareness about gaps in literature, it is not empirical in nature. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The authors believe that this viewpoint is essential in raising critical awareness on MHM in carceral facilities in South Africa. The authors hope to use this publication as the theoretical argument to pursue empirical research on MHM within carceral facilities in South Africa. The authors hope that this publication would provide the context for international and local funders, to assist in the empirical research, which aims to roll out sustainable MHP to incarcerated women in South Africa. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: The authors believe that this viewpoint is the starting point in accelerating the roll out of sustainable MHP to incarcerated females in South Africa. These are females who are on the periphery of society that are in need of practical interventions. Publishing this viewpoint would provide the team with the credibility to apply for international and national funding to roll out sustainable solutions. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: It is hoped that the gaps in literature and nodes for social and human rights activism highlighted within this viewpoint establish the need for further participatory research, human rights advocacy and informed civic engagement to ensure the voices of these women and their basic human rights are upheld.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Menstruation , Female , Humans , Male , Hygiene , COVID-19/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prisons
7.
N Engl J Med ; 387(19): 1770-1782, 2022 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information regarding the protection conferred by vaccination and previous infection against infection with the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is limited. METHODS: We evaluated the protection conferred by mRNA vaccines and previous infection against infection with the omicron variant in two high-risk populations: residents and staff in the California state prison system. We used a retrospective cohort design to analyze the risk of infection during the omicron wave using data collected from December 24, 2021, through April 14, 2022. Weighted Cox models were used to compare the effectiveness (measured as 1 minus the hazard ratio) of vaccination and previous infection across combinations of vaccination history (stratified according to the number of mRNA doses received) and infection history (none or infection before or during the period of B.1.617.2 [delta]-variant predominance). A secondary analysis used a rolling matched-cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of three vaccine doses as compared with two doses. RESULTS: Among 59,794 residents and 16,572 staff, the estimated effectiveness of previous infection against omicron infection among unvaccinated persons who had been infected before or during the period of delta predominance ranged from 16.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1 to 23.7) to 48.9% (95% CI, 41.6 to 55.3). Depending on previous infection status, the estimated effectiveness of vaccination (relative to being unvaccinated and without previous documented infection) ranged from 18.6% (95% CI, 7.7 to 28.1) to 83.2% (95% CI, 77.7 to 87.4) with two vaccine doses and from 40.9% (95% CI, 31.9 to 48.7) to 87.9% (95% CI, 76.0 to 93.9) with three vaccine doses. Incremental effectiveness estimates of a third (booster) dose (relative to two doses) ranged from 25.0% (95% CI, 16.6 to 32.5) to 57.9% (95% CI, 48.4 to 65.7) among persons who either had not had previous documented infection or had been infected before the period of delta predominance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in two high-risk populations suggest that mRNA vaccination and previous infection were effective against omicron infection, with lower estimates among those infected before the period of delta predominance. Three vaccine doses offered significantly more protection than two doses, including among previously infected persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Prisons , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , California/epidemiology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Police/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081849

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility to infection and the risk of a severe course of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 among inmates are greater than in the general population. Therefore, it is extremely important to control infections in penitentiary institutions and to vaccinate as many inmates as possible. The objectives of the study are to present the number and percentage of inmates quarantined, infected with the SARS CoV-2 virus, and vaccinated against COVID-19 in 2021, and to describe the rules and organization of immunization. The information presented in the study was obtained from the Ministry of Justice in the form of access to public information. In 2021, 2065 cases of SARS CoV-2 infection were detected among inmates, and 5707 people were quarantined. The waves of infections among inmates in Poland ran parallel to those in the general population. Immunization of inmates began at the turn of February and March 2021. It took place in accordance with the provisions of the National COVID-19 Immunization Program. The program ensured equality of the inmates' population with the group to which individual inmates belong in the community. In 2021, nearly half of the inmates were covered by the full vaccination course. Inmates were vaccinated immediately after the vaccines were made available. There have been cases of refusals among inmates. There are no data that could determine the magnitude of the phenomenon and its exact causes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Prisons , Poland/epidemiology , Vaccination
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, in the Italian prison of Santa Maria Capua Vetere (SMCV), prison police repressed a riot with extreme violence, bringing the state of prisons and the conditions of prisoners back to the attention of the Italian public opinion. OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study aimed to collect the experiences and the competent opinions of the social and health personnel of Italian prisons regarding the episode of violence that happened in SMCV; the general state of health of the Italian prison system was explored, too, together with the collection of proposals for interventions aimed at the eradication of violence in prison. METHOD: The study employed a qualitative research design. Eighteen social-health workers from 12 Italian prisons were interviewed using in-depth interviews of ~60 min each that were conducted and recorded via Skype video calls. The interview transcripts were analyzed with qualitative reflexive thematic analysis (RTA) to identify the most relevant and recursive themes. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: (1) reactions and thoughts about the events of SMCV; (2) structural problems of Italian prison police; (3) Italian prison system; and (4) reform proposals. CONCLUSIONS: A new and deeper awareness of the suffering of the current Italian penitentiary system emerged, together with courageous reform proposals that can restore dignity and centrality to the re-education of the detainees, preventing further future violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Humans , Prisons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Italy/epidemiology , Violence
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 43: 10, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067225

ABSTRACT

Despite implementing measures to prevent introduction of COVID-19 in prisons, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred at Moroto Prison, northern Uganda in September 2020. We investigated factors associated with the introduction and spread of COVID-19 in the prison. A case was PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in a prisoner/staff at Moroto Prison during August-September 2020. We reviewed prison medical records to identify case-patients and interviewed prison and hospital staff to understand possible infection mechanisms for the index case-patient and opportunities for spread. In a retrospective cohort study, we interviewed all prisoners and available staff to identify risk factors. Data were analyzed using log-binomial regression. On September 1, 2020, a recently-hospitalized prisoner with unrecognized SARS-CoV-2 infection was admitted to Moroto Prison quarantine. He had become infected while sharing a hospital ward with a subsequently-diagnosed COVID-19 patient. A sample taken from the hospitalized prisoner on August 20 tested positive on September 3. Mass reactive testing at the prison on September 6, 14, and 15 revealed infection among 202/692 prisoners and 8/90 staff (overall attack rate=27%). One prison staff and one prisoner who cared for the sick prisoner while at the hospital re-entered the main prison without quarantining. Both tested positive on September 6. Food and cleaning service providers also regularly transited between quarantine and unrestricted prison areas. Using facemasks >50% of the time (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]=0.26; 95%CI: 0.13-0.54), or in combination with handwashing after touching surfaces (aRR=0.25; 95%CI: 0.14-0.46) were protective. Prisoners recently transferred from other facilities to Moroto Prison had an increased risk of infection (aRR=1.50; 95%CI: 1.02-2.22). COVID-19 was likely introduced into Moroto Prison quarantine by a prisoner with hospital-acquired infection and delayed test results, and/or by caretakers who were not quarantined after hospital exposures. The outbreak may have amplified via shared food/cleaning service providers who transited between quarantined and non-quarantined prisoners. Facemasks and handwashing were protective. Reduced test turnaround time for the hospitalized prisoner could have averted this outbreak. Testing incoming prisoners for SARS-CoV-2 before quarantine, providing unrestricted soap/water for handwashing, and universal facemask use in prisons could mitigate risk of future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisons , Male , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Soaps , Uganda/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks
11.
Am J Public Health ; 112(11): 1582-1583, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065252
12.
JAMA ; 328(12): 1183-1184, 2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058990

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint reports the disproportionate rate of firearm-related deaths in US Black communities; emphasizes the urgency of addressing this issue; and details the causes of these deaths in the context of community, law enforcement, and in custody.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Prisons , Public Health , Violence , Homicide , Humans , United States , Wounds, Gunshot
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(5): 1055-1059, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024901

ABSTRACT

During a COVID-19 outbreak in a prison in Zambia from December 14 to 19, 2021, a case-control study was done to measure vaccine effectiveness (VE) against infection and symptomatic infection, when the Omicron variant was the dominant circulating variant. Among 382 participants, 74.1% were fully vaccinated, and the median time since full vaccination was 54 days. There were no hospitalizations or deaths. COVID-19 VE against any SARS-CoV-2 infection was 64.8%, and VE against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was 72.9%. COVID-19 vaccination helped protect incarcerated persons against SARS-CoV-2 infection during an outbreak while Omicron was the dominant variant in Zambia. These findings provide important local evidence that might be used to increase COVID-19 vaccination in Zambia and other countries in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisons , Case-Control Studies , Zambia/epidemiology , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 808030, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022924

ABSTRACT

Background: Saliva molecular tests have shown a similar sensitivity and specificity compared to nasopharyngeal test for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affected Lombardy prisons, generating the need for extensive contact tracing activities and for detecting asymptomatic carriers. The availability of a less invasive test in a setting that hosts a high-risk and often hard-to-reach population, suggests its possible use in prisons. Methods: The study was carried out on a population of new incomers in Milan San Vittore pre-trial prison. All the new incomers were submitted to quarantine and to saliva test and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) for SARS-CoV-2 detection at the entry and at the end of quarantine before their admission in community (Protocol 1-February 2nd to March 5th, 2021). Starting from March 8th to July 30th, 2021, the screening protocol was adjusted to avoid biases in sample collection (Protocol II), and saliva testing was performed at entrance. Results: 12/1,120 enrolled subjects were excluded from the study. Among the 1,080 processed samples, 1 tested positive, 5 weakly positive, 1,069 negative, 3 were invalid, and 2 samples tested positive for the viral gene N2 only, with Ct value above 38. During Protocol I, 6/156 coupled saliva/NPS tests were discordant due to food ingestion prior saliva collection, prompting us to establishing Protocol II. Conclusions: Saliva molecular testing is feasible in prison setting, being less invasive and easier to use, and reliable. Acceptability was very high even in a complex context as that of newly incarcerated persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva
15.
Am J Public Health ; 112(11): 1543-1545, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022196

ABSTRACT

Although widespread vaccination in correctional facilities is crucial for preventing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in these institutions and their surrounding communities, there are little data on how to effectively perform vaccine outreach to people experiencing incarceration who remain unvaccinated. In this article, we describe lessons learned from a successful vaccine education initiative in California state prisons and describe opportunities for application to other correctional settings. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(11):1543-1545. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307042).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisons , COVID-19/prevention & control , California , Health Education , Humans , Vaccination Hesitancy
16.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0267070, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021681

ABSTRACT

Overcrowding, poor conditions, and high population turnover make prisons highly susceptible to COVID-19. Vaccination is key to controlling COVID-19, yet there is disagreement regarding whether people who live and work in prisons should be prioritised in national vaccination programmes. To help resolve this, we critically examine the extent, nature, and quality of extant literature regarding prioritisation of COVID-19 vaccinations for people who live and work in prisons. Using a scoping review as our methodological framework, we conducted a systematic literature search of 17 databases. From 2,307 potentially eligible articles, we removed duplicates and screened titles and abstracts to retain 45 articles for review and quality appraisal. Findings indicated that while most countries recognise that prisons are at risk of high levels of COVID-19 transmission, only a minority have explicitly prioritised people who live and work in prisons for COVID-19 vaccination. Even among those that have, prioritisation criteria vary considerably. This is set against a backdrop of political barriers, such as politicians questioning the moral deservingness of people in prison; policy barriers, such as the absence of a unified international framework of how vaccine prioritisation should proceed in prisons; logistical barriers regarding vaccine administration in prisons; and behavioural barriers including vaccine hesitancy. We outline five strategies to prioritise people who live and work in prisons in COVID-19 vaccination plans: (1) improving data collection on COVID-19 vaccination, (2) reducing the number of people imprisoned, (3) tackling vaccine populism through advocacy, (4) challenging arbitrary prioritisation processes via legal processes, and (5) conducting more empirical research on COVID-19 vaccination planning, delivery, and acceptability. Implementing these strategies would help to reduce the impact of COVID-19 on the prison population, prevent community transmission, improve vaccine uptake in prisons beyond the current pandemic, foster political accountability, and inform future decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Prisons , Vaccination
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e846-e848, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006981
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010031

ABSTRACT

The psychological health and work challenges of nurses working in prisons during the COVID-19 pandemic are understudied. We evaluated the work and wellbeing characteristics of a California prison nurse group, with a comparison to those of a community nurse group. From May to November 2020, an online survey measured psychosocial and organizational work factors, sleep habits, psychological characteristics, COVID-19 impacts, and pre-pandemic recall among 62 prison nurses and 47 community nurses. Prison nurses had significantly longer work hours (54.73 ± 14.52, p < 0.0001), higher pandemic-related work demands, and less sleep hours (5.36 ± 1.30, p < 0.0001) than community nurses. Community nurses had significantly higher pandemic-related fear levels (work infection: p = 0.0115, general: p = 0.0025) and lower perceived personal protective equipment (PPE) supply (p = 0.0103). Between pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, both groups had significantly increased night shift assignments and decreased sleep hours, but the prison group had increased work hours. Although not statistically significant, both groups had high occupational stress and prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Our results indicate that prison nurses experienced work and wellbeing challenges during the pandemic. Future research and practice ought to address nurses' workload, PPE, and psychological resources in correctional facilities and healthcare organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Occupational Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prisons
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(9): 3559-3570, 2022 Sep.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002365

ABSTRACT

To analyze the news coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazilian prisons and its visibility, 213 articles broadcast between March and December 2020 were examined, found in the search service of the digital streaming video platform Globoplay. Most aired in March, April and July, with the theme almost disappearing in subsequent months. The reports, on numbers of deaths or infections, prevention measures and house arrest or freedom for groups at risk of COVID-19 were mainly published in local telejournals. Health agencies were barely heard. Of the 19 news items presented nationally, 12 address "famous prisoners" and the legibility of house arrest or freedom for groups at risk of COVID-19 unfavorable outcome. The health guidelines and the guarantee of the right to health of persons deprived of liberty were limited to the difficulties in implementing protection measures in prisons and to sustaining the need for restrictive measures to move inside prisons and in exchanges with the outside, to limit the circulation of the virus. In general, the form and visibility given to the topic do not contribute to broadening the viewers' perception of the sanitary conditions in prisons and the fact that health is a right for all, without any distinction.


Para analisar a cobertura telejornalística da pandemia de COVID-19 nas prisões brasileiras e sua visibilidade, foram examinadas 213 matérias veiculadas entre março e dezembro de 2020, encontradas no serviço de buscas da plataforma digital de vídeos por streaming Globoplay. A maior parte foi ao ar em março, abril e julho, com importante redução nos meses subsequentes. As reportagens, sobre números de mortes ou infectados, medidas de prevenção e prisão domiciliar ou liberdade para grupos de risco da COVID-19, foram divulgadas principalmente nos jornais locais. Os órgãos de saúde quase não foram ouvidos. Das 19 notícias apresentadas nacionalmente, 12 abordam os "presos famosos" e a legitimidade da prisão domiciliar ou a liberdade para grupos de risco da COVID-19. As pautas sanitárias e de garantia do direito à saúde das pessoas privadas de liberdade ficaram limitadas às dificuldades para a efetivação nos presídios das medidas de proteção e a sustentar a necessidade de medidas restritivas à movimentação no interior das prisões e nos intercâmbios com o exterior para limitar a circulação do vírus. Em geral, a forma e a visibilidade dadas ao tema não contribuem para ampliar a percepção dos telespectadores sobre as condições sanitárias das prisões e o fato de que a saúde é um direito de todos, sem qualquer distinção.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prisons
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(8): 1191-1201, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974335

ABSTRACT

The number of older adults (age fifty-five or older) incarcerated in US prisons reached an all-time high just as COVID-19 entered correctional facilities in 2020. However, little is known about COVID-19's impact on incarcerated older adults. We compared COVID-19 outcomes between older and younger adults in California state prisons from March 1, 2020, to October 9, 2021. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) revealed an increasing risk for adverse COVID-19 outcomes among older age groups (ages 55-64, 65-74, and 75 or older) compared with younger adults, including for documented infection (aOR, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.4, respectively) and hospitalization with COVID-19 (aOR, 4.6, 8.7, and 15.1, respectively). Moreover, although accounting for 17.3 percent of the California state prison population, older adults represented 85.8 percent of this population's COVID-19-related deaths. Yet a smaller percentage of older adults than younger adults were released from prison during the pandemic. The differential rates of morbidity and mortality experienced by incarcerated older adults should be considered in future pandemic response strategies regarding prisons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prisons
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