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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477961

ABSTRACT

Chronic diseases and viral infections have threatened human life over the ages and constitute the main reason for increasing death globally. The rising burden of these diseases extends to negatively affecting the economy and trading globally, as well as daily life, which requires inexpensive, novel, and safe therapeutics. Therefore, scientists have paid close attention to probiotics as safe remedies to combat these morbidities owing to their health benefits and biotherapeutic effects. Probiotics have been broadly adopted as functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements to improve human health and prevent some morbidity. Intriguingly, recent research indicates that probiotics are a promising solution for treating and prophylactic against certain dangerous diseases. Probiotics could also be associated with their essential role in animating the immune system to fight COVID-19 infection. This comprehensive review concentrates on the newest literature on probiotics and their metabolism in treating life-threatening diseases, including immune disorders, pathogens, inflammatory and allergic diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, and COVID-19 infection. The recent information in this report will particularly furnish a platform for emerging novel probiotics-based therapeutics as cheap and safe, encouraging researchers and stakeholders to develop innovative treatments based on probiotics to prevent and treat chronic and viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/therapy , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/therapy
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403613

ABSTRACT

The importance of a healthy microbiome cannot be overemphasized. Disturbances in its composition can lead to a variety of symptoms that can extend to other organs. Likewise, acute or chronic conditions in other organs can affect the composition and physiology of the gut microbiome. Here, we discuss interorgan communication along the gut-lung axis, as well as interactions between lung and coronary heart diseases and between cardiovascular disease and the gut microbiome. This triangle of organs, which also affects the clinical outcome of COVID-19 infections, is connected by means of numerous receptors and effectors, including immune cells and immune-modulating factors such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and trimethlamine-N-oxide (TMAO). The gut microbiome plays an important role in each of these, thus affecting the health of the lungs and the heart, and this interplay occurs in both directions. The gut microbiome can be influenced by the oral uptake of probiotics. With an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for interorgan communication, we can start to define what requirements an 'ideal' probiotic should have and its role in this triangle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Lung Diseases , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coronary Disease/microbiology , Coronary Disease/pathology , Humans , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Lung Diseases/pathology
3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374476

ABSTRACT

The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The cumulative number of cases reported globally is now nearly 197 million and the number of cumulative deaths is 4.2 million (26 July to 1 August 2021). Currently we are focusing primarily on keeping a safe distance from others, washing our hands, and wearing masks, and the question of the effects of diet and diet-dependent risk factors remains outside the center of attention. Nevertheless, numerous studies indicate that diet can play an important role in the course of COVID-19. In this paper, based on select scientific reports, we discuss the structure and replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2, risk factors, dietary standards for sick patients, and the roles of the microbiome and dietary components supporting the immune system in preventing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Feeding Behavior , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Nutritional Support/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication/immunology
4.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 13(6): 1499-1507, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356064

ABSTRACT

We are currently experiencing the realities of the most severe pandemic within living memory, with major impacts on the health and economic well-being of our planet. The scientific community has demonstrated an unprecedented mobilization capability, with the rapid development of vaccines and drugs targeting the protection of human life and palliative measures for infected individuals. However, are we adequately prepared for ongoing defense against COVID-19 and its variants in the post-pandemic world? Moreover, are we equipped to provide a satisfactory quality of life for individuals who are recovering from COVID-19 disease? What are the possibilities for the acceleration of the recovery process? Here, we give special consideration to the potential and already-demonstrated role of probiotics and traditional medical approaches to the management of current and potential future encounters with our major virus adversaries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Quality of Life
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 186, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206455

ABSTRACT

Despite the adoption and use of different infection prevention and control measures, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic keeps surging on with globally increasing morbidities and mortalities. The lack of a specific therapeutic intervention against COVID-19 warrants the use of non-conventional potent alternatives. In recent times, probiotics have shown to mitigate numerous health challenges, including animal and human infectious diseases through competitive exclusion or antagonism of pathogens, modulation of host-microbiota, secretion of antimicrobial compounds and stimulation of immune responses. The presentation of COVID-19 as severe respiratory distress leading to gastrointestinal tract involvement could be mitigated through probiotics administration which beneficially modulates the microbiota and immune responses with an attendant reduction in morbidities, hence curtailing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Probiotics/pharmacology
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 295-301, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Probiotics can support the body's systems in fighting viral infections. This review is aimed to focus current knowledge about the use of probiotics as adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed an extensive research using the PubMed-LitCovid, Cochrane Library, Embase databases, and conducting manual searches on Google Scholar, Elsevier Connect, Web of Science about this issue. RESULTS: We have found several papers reporting data about the potential role of probiotics as well as contrasting experimental data about it. CONCLUSIONS: Most data show good results demonstrating that probiotics can play a significant role in fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection, also compared with their use in the past for various diseases. They seem effective in lowering inflammatory status, moreover in patients with chronic comorbidities such as cancer and diabetes, improving clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Treatment Outcome
7.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 217, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945212

ABSTRACT

All of humans and other mammalian species are colonized by some types of microorganisms such as bacteria, archaea, unicellular eukaryotes like fungi and protozoa, multicellular eukaryotes like helminths, and viruses, which in whole are called microbiota. These microorganisms have multiple different types of interaction with each other. A plethora of evidence suggests that they can regulate immune and digestive systems and also play roles in various diseases, such as mental, cardiovascular, metabolic and some skin diseases. In addition, they take-part in some current health problems like diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancers and infections. Viral infection is one of the most common and problematic health care issues, particularly in recent years that pandemics like SARS and COVID-19 caused a lot of financial and physical damage to the world. There are plenty of articles investigating the interaction between microbiota and infectious diseases. We focused on stimulatory to suppressive effects of microbiota on viral infections, hoping to find a solution to overcome this current pandemic. Then we reviewed mechanistically the effects of both microbiota and probiotics on most of the viruses. But unlike previous studies which concentrated on intestinal microbiota and infection, our focus is on respiratory system's microbiota and respiratory viral infection, bearing in mind that respiratory system is a proper entry site and residence for viruses, and whereby infection, can lead to asymptomatic, mild, self-limiting, severe or even fatal infection. Finally, we overgeneralize the effects of microbiota on COVID-19 infection. In addition, we reviewed the articles about effects of the microbiota on coronaviruses and suggest some new therapeutic measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Microbiota , Virus Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/microbiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Nervous System/metabolism , Probiotics/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/microbiology
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2210-2220, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893240

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of new therapeutic resources against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a priority in clinical research considering the minimal options currently available. To evaluate the adjuvant use of systemic oxygen-ozone administration in the early control of disease progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. PROBIOZOVID is an ongoing, interventional, randomized, prospective, and double-arm trial enrolling patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. From a total of 85 patients screened, 28 were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into ozone-autohemotherapy group (14) and control group (14). The procedure consisted in a daily double-treatment with systemic Oxygen-ozone administration for 7 days. All patients were treated with ad interim best available therapy. The primary outcome was delta in the number of patients requiring orotracheal-intubation despite treatment. Secondary outcome was the difference of mortality between the two groups. Moreover, hematological parameters were compared before and after treatment. No differences in the characteristics between groups were observed at baseline. As a preliminary report we have observed that one patient for each group needed intubation and was transferred to ITU. No deaths were observed at 7-14 days of follow up. Thirty-day mortality was 8.3% for ozone group and 10% for controls. Ozone therapy did not significantly influence inflammation markers, hematology profile, and lymphocyte subpopulations of patients treated. Ozone therapy had an impact on the need for the ventilatory support, although did not reach statistical significance. Finally, no adverse events related to the use of ozone-autohemotherapy were reported. Preliminary results, although not showing statistically significant benefits of ozone on COVID-19, did not report any toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Ozone/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/adverse effects , Ozone/adverse effects , Probiotics/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(7): 1252-1260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Probiotics can improve immune function leading to the prevention and management of viral infections like SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19 disease). METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science up to May 2020 to identify interventional & observational studies documenting the effects of probiotics on incidence, severity, duration, and other clinical manifestations of viral infections, especially SARS-CoV-2-induced. RESULTS: From a total of 91 records, 24 studies were obtained and classified into three domains based on the efficacy of probiotics on 1) shortening the period and severity of infections (n=9), 2) incidence (n=6), and 3) other clinical complications that may be followed by viral disorders (n=9). Identified probiotics have positive effects on the mentioned domains. CONCLUSION: Based on the evidence, some probiotic strains may be useful in SARS-CoV-2 infection; randomized trials are needed to show the facts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Probiotics/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic/methods
11.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620937170, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618981

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 1 is a 2019 novel coronavirus, which only in the European area has led to more than 300,000 cases with at least 21,000 deaths. This manuscript aims to speculate that the manipulation of the microbial patterns through the use of probiotics and dietary fibers consumption may contribute to reduce inflammation and strengthen the immune system response in COVID-19 infection. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Diet , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immune System/virology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 367-382, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-115820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Balanced nutrition which can help in maintaining immunity is essential for prevention and management of viral infections. While data regarding nutrition in coronavirus infection (COVID-19) are not available, in this review, we aimed to evaluate evidence from previous clinical trials that studied nutrition-based interventions for viral diseases (with special emphasis on respiratory infections), and summarise our observations. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was employed using keywords to search the literature in 3 key medical databases: PubMed®, Web of Science® and SciVerse Scopus®. Studies were considered eligible if they were controlled trials in humans, measuring immunological parameters, on viral and respiratory infections. Clinical trials on vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals and probiotics were included. RESULTS: A total of 640 records were identified initially and 22 studies were included from other sources. After excluding duplicates and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 43 studies were obtained (vitamins: 13; minerals: 8; nutraceuticals: 18 and probiotics: 4). Among vitamins, A and D showed a potential benefit, especially in deficient populations. Among trace elements, selenium and zinc have also shown favourable immune-modulatory effects in viral respiratory infections. Several nutraceuticals and probiotics may also have some role in enhancing immune functions. Micronutrients may be beneficial in nutritionally depleted elderly population. CONCLUSIONS: We summaries possible benefits of some vitamins, trace elements, nutraceuticals and probiotics in viral infections. Nutrition principles based on these data could be useful in possible prevention and management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity/physiology , Nutrition Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Probiotics/administration & dosage , PubMed , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Young Adult
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