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1.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742341

ABSTRACT

The mucosal immune system of the respiratory tract possesses an effective "defense barrier" against the invading pathogenic microorganisms; therefore, the lungs of healthy organisms are considered to be sterile for a long time according to the strong pathogens-eliminating ability. The emergence of next-generation sequencing technology has accelerated the studies about the microbial communities and immune regulating functions of lung microbiota during the past two decades. The acquisition and maturation of respiratory microbiota during childhood are mainly determined by the birth mode, diet structure, environmental exposure and antibiotic usage. However, the formation and development of lung microbiota in early life might affect the occurrence of respiratory diseases throughout the whole life cycle. The interplay and crosstalk between the gut and lung can be realized by the direct exchange of microbial species through the lymph circulation, moreover, the bioactive metabolites produced by the gut microbiota and lung microbiota can be changed via blood circulation. Complicated interactions among the lung microbiota, the respiratory viruses, and the host immune system can regulate the immune homeostasis and affect the inflammatory response in the lung. Probiotics, prebiotics, functional foods and fecal microbiota transplantation can all be used to maintain the microbial homeostasis of intestinal microbiota and lung microbiota. Therefore, various kinds of interventions on manipulating the symbiotic microbiota might be explored as novel effective strategies to prevent and control respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Probiotics , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Lung , Microbiota/physiology , Probiotics/therapeutic use
2.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725886

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide has led the World Health Organization to declare a COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no cure or treatment for this virus, it is emergingly urgent to find effective and validated methods to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection. In this context, alternatives related to nutritional therapy might help to control the infection. This narrative review proposes the importance and role of probiotics and diet as adjunct alternatives among the therapies available for the treatment of this new coronavirus. This review discusses the relationship between intestinal purine metabolism and the use of Lactobacillus gasseri and low-purine diets, particularly in individuals with hyperuricemia, as adjuvant nutritional therapies to improve the immune system and weaken viral replication, assisting in the treatment of COVID-19. These might be promising alternatives, in addition to many others that involve adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds from food.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diet/methods , Immunomodulation/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Humans , Lactobacillus gasseri/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Purines/immunology , Purines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/immunology
3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725884

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
5.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(6): 4097-4111, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642685

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic defines the global health tension of our time. There are several continuous efforts to find a definitive cure in this regard. According to some adverse effects and problems of customary SARS-CoV-2 disease therapies, bioactive compounds, for example probiotics-derived metabolites (postbiotics) have been accomplishing supreme importance by investigators for adjuvant cures in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Postbiotics inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity and stimulate the immune system. They also boost the SARS-CoV-2 disease treatment effectiveness and reduce its adverse effects in SARS-CoV-2 illness patients as a result of antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, postbiotics having unique features such as high safety, high shelf life and stability to the gastrointestinal tract can be utilized as hopeful instruments for both adjuvant and inhibition strategies in SARS-CoV-2 patients with no earnest unfavourable adverse effects. The concept of postbiotics and their biocompatible characteristics are comprehensively discussed in the present review while highlighting the bilateral relationship between postbiotic biometabolites and respiratory tract infection with a special look at the potential biological role in the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and reduction of related inflammatory pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Probiotics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Probiotics/metabolism , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrition ; 96: 111602, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627692

ABSTRACT

Probiotics and their food sources, prebiotics, are known to have qualities that help with gastrointestinal issues along with overall improvement in health and well-being. Pro- and prebiotics play a key role in neuroimmune processes. Their beneficial effects on health are linked to interactions of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system, and neurologic systems. The interaction between the microflora-gut-brain axis has a profound effect on brain function, thereby influencing the overall well-being of an individual. Nutritionists, researchers, regulatory bodies (World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization), pharmaceutical, and food manufacturers are currently engaged in enhancing the potential of nutrition in health maintenance and disease prevention. Nutrition has the potential to increase psychological well-being and could be used much as are psychiatric drugs. Probiotics and prebiotics have evolved as promising therapeutic techniques to treat several disease conditions associated with the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this review was to provide useful information about the use of probiotics and prebiotics in mitigation of various diseases such as COVID-19, congenital heart disease, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, hypertension, genitourinary tract infection, colon cancer, immune system defense, mineral absorption, allergic disorders, and atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Probiotics , Diarrhea , Humans , Immune System , Prebiotics , Probiotics/therapeutic use
7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(12): 12374-12380, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the incidence of diarrhea in severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and to observe the efficacy and prognosis of probiotic use in such patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the symptoms and incidence of diarrhea in 156 cases of COVID-19 confirmed by the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and the Xinyang Fifth People's Hospital, China. A total of 58 cases of severe and critical COVID-19 were identified and divided into the treatment group or the control group. The control group was given standard treatment according to the Protocols for Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19: Prevention, Control, Diagnosis and Management. Patients in the treatment group were administered oral probiotics as well as the standard treatment. The 2 groups were compared in terms of nutritional status (serum albumin), improvement of diarrhea symptoms, changes in inflammatory condition [procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP)], the time taken to register a negative result for respiratory tract pathogens on the nucleic acid test, and changes to white blood cell and lymphocyte cell counts. RESULTS: In this study cohort, diarrhea was detected in 15.38% (24/156) of COVID-19 patients. The incidence of diarrhea in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 was approximately 8.16% (8/98), and the incidence of diarrhea in severe and critically ill patients was approximately 27.59% (16/58). In patients with severe and critical COVID-19, probiotic treatment obviously shortened the duration of diarrhea. Furthermore, compared with the control group, patients treated with probiotics showed a significantly reduced time to achieving a negative nucleic acid test and the inflammation indexes including PCT and CRP were significantly reduced (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of diarrhea in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than that in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19. Probiotics may have a good supporting role in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and its early application is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Probiotics , Diarrhea , Humans , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 596166, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574497

ABSTRACT

Viral infections continue to cause considerable morbidity and mortality around the world. Recent rises in these infections are likely due to complex and multifactorial external drivers, including climate change, the increased mobility of people and goods and rapid demographic change to name but a few. In parallel with these external factors, we are gaining a better understanding of the internal factors associated with viral immunity. Increasingly the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome has been shown to be a significant player in the host immune system, acting as a key regulator of immunity and host defense mechanisms. An increasing body of evidence indicates that disruption of the homeostasis between the GI microbiome and the host immune system can adversely impact viral immunity. This review aims to shed light on our understanding of how host-microbiota interactions shape the immune system, including early life factors, antibiotic exposure, immunosenescence, diet and inflammatory diseases. We also discuss the evidence base for how host commensal organisms and microbiome therapeutics can impact the prevention and/or treatment of viral infections, such as viral gastroenteritis, viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus (HPV), viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), influenza and SARS CoV-2. The interplay between the gastrointestinal microbiome, invasive viruses and host physiology is complex and yet to be fully characterized, but increasingly the evidence shows that the microbiome can have an impact on viral disease outcomes. While the current evidence base is informative, further well designed human clinical trials will be needed to fully understand the array of immunological mechanisms underlying this intricate relationship.


Subject(s)
Dysbiosis/virology , Microbiota/immunology , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/microbiology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Dysbiosis/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology
10.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 68(3): 393-398, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547880

ABSTRACT

The time of COVID-19 pandemic focused the attention of scientist to recognise the complex medical symptoms of the disease, modes of infection and possible therapies. The organisms' response towards SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on many individual factors and the course of disease is described as unprecedented and complex. Numerous symptoms from the respiratory system, abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract, stroke, liver damage and coagulopathy, among others, are accompanied by negative side effects of the pandemic lifestyle, including immunity depletion, overall fitness impairment, skin condition worsening, psychological and psychiatric consequences. There is an urgent need to seek all possible routes for assuring favouring conditions to build and support the organisms' microbiological barriers and enhance immunity, which will also help during the ongoing vaccination action. Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and environmental Bacillus species are microorganisms typically found in food products or dietary supplements, but also applied on body surfaces or technological surfaces at home and in the industry. Since the contemporary definition of probiotics points to positive health effects, it is of highest importance to follow strict regulations and standards of product manufacturing, especially in the times of biohazard risks and rising public distrust of therapies. There is an urgent need to seek all possible routes for assuring the favouring conditions to build and support the organisms' microbiological barriers and enhance the immunity, that will serve also during the ongoing vaccination action. Probiotic LAB and environmental Bacillus species are microorganisms typically found in food products or dietary supplements, but also applied on body surface or technological surfaces in household and industry. Since the contemporary definition of probiotics points out the positive health effects, it is of highest importance to follow strict regulations and standards of product manufacturing, especially in the times of biohazard and rising public distrust of therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Probiotics/therapeutic use , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Dietary Supplements , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 59(1): 106471, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487080

ABSTRACT

The role of probiotics in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a probiotic regimen for VAP prophylaxis in mechanically ventilated multi-trauma patients, intubated immediately after the injurious insult. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study enrolling multi-trauma patients, patients expected to require mechanical ventilation for >10 days were assigned at random to receive prophylaxis with a probiotic formula (n=59) or placebo (n=53). The probiotic formula was a preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 [1.75 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu)], Lactobacillus plantarum (0.5 × 109 cfu), Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (1.75 × 109 cfu) and Saccharomyces boulardii (1.5 × 109 cfu) in sachets. Each patient received two sachets twice daily for 15 days: one through the nasogastric tube and one spread on the oropharynx. The incidence of VAP was the primary endpoint. The incidence of other infections and sepsis, and the duration of hospital stay were the secondary endpoints. Administration of probiotics reduced the incidence of VAP [11.9% vs 28.3%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.92; P=0.034] and sepsis [6.8% vs 24.5%, odds ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.74: P=0.016]. Furthermore, probiotic prophylaxis reduced the time of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the length of hospital stay. The prophylactic use of probiotics with a combination of enteral and topical application to the oropharynx had a positive effect on the incidence of VAP and sepsis, as well as on ICU and total hospital stay in patients receiving protracted mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bifidobacterium animalis/chemistry , Lactobacillus acidophilus/chemistry , Lactobacillus plantarum/chemistry , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Saccharomyces boulardii/chemistry , Adult , Female , Greece , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495800

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493512

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiome manipulation to alter the gut-lung axis may potentially protect humans against respiratory infections, and clinical trials of probiotics show promise in this regard in healthy adults and children. However, comparable studies are lacking in overweight/obese people, who have increased risks in particular of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This Addendum further analyses our recent placebo-controlled trial of probiotics in overweight/obese people (focused initially on weight loss) to investigate the impact of probiotics upon the occurrence of URTI symptoms. As well as undergoing loss of weight and improvement in certain metabolic parameters, study participants taking probiotics experienced a 27% reduction in URTI symptoms versus control, with those ≥45 years or BMI ≥30 kg/m2 experiencing greater reductions. This symptom reduction is apparent within 2 weeks of probiotic use. Gut microbiome diversity remained stable throughout the study in probiotic-treated participants. Our data provide support for further trials to assess the potential role of probiotics in preventing viral URTI (and possibly also COVID-19), particularly in overweight/obese people.


Subject(s)
Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480797

ABSTRACT

The intestinal barrier plays an extremely important role in maintaining the immune homeostasis of the gut and the entire body. It is made up of an intricate system of cells, mucus and intestinal microbiota. A complex system of proteins allows the selective permeability of elements that are safe and necessary for the proper nutrition of the body. Disturbances in the tightness of this barrier result in the penetration of toxins and other harmful antigens into the system. Such events lead to various digestive tract dysfunctions, systemic infections, food intolerances and autoimmune diseases. Pathogenic and probiotic bacteria, and the compounds they secrete, undoubtedly affect the properties of the intestinal barrier. The discovery of zonulin, a protein with tight junction regulatory activity in the epithelia, sheds new light on the understanding of the role of the gut barrier in promoting health, as well as the formation of diseases. Coincidentally, there is an increasing number of reports on treatment methods that target gut microbiota, which suggests that the prevention of gut-barrier defects may be a viable approach for improving the condition of COVID-19 patients. Various bacteria-intestinal barrier interactions are the subject of this review, aiming to show the current state of knowledge on this topic and its potential therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/therapy , Haptoglobins/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Mucus/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism
17.
Crit Rev Immunol ; 41(2): 1-19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468219

ABSTRACT

Elucidating the role of probiotic bacteria in health and disease perhaps constitutes one of the most exciting and fastest growing fields in medicine as we uncover the beneficial roles of these bacteria in many disease processes including cancer. We and others have reported previously that probiotic bacteria play a significant role in the activation of many cells including the cancer fighting natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are the key immune effectors which control tumor growth and metastasis due to their ability to mediate direct cytotoxicity and/or differentiation of cancer stem cells/undifferentiated tumors through secreted and membrane bound interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In this review, we present an overview of recent studies from our laboratory and those of the others on their beneficial effects on immune cell function in particular on NK cells. In addition, we also highlight the current understanding of the role of probiotics in enhancement of the effectiveness of cancer therapeutics. Moreover, we discuss the functional impairment of cancer patients' NK cells and the role of probiotics in reversal of such functional impairment. NK cell-based immuno-therapies in combination with well-selected strains of probiotic bacteria may probably represent one of the best adjunct therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat cancer in the future.


Subject(s)
Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Lymphocyte Activation , Neoplasms , Probiotics , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main nutritional consequences of COVID-19 include reduced food intake, hypercatabolism, and rapid muscle wasting. Some studies showed that malnutrition is a significant problem among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection, and the outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 is strongly associated with their nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to collect useful information about the possible elements of nutritional and probiotic therapy in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: A narrative review of the literature, including studies published up to 13 September 2021. RESULTS: Probiotics may support patients by inhibiting the ACE2 receptor, i.e., the passage of the virus into the cell, and may also be effective in suppressing the immune response caused by the proinflammatory cytokine cascade. In patients' diet, it is crucial to ensure an adequate intake of micronutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids (at 2-4 g/d), selenium (300-450 µg/d) and zinc (30-50 mg/d), and vitamins A (900-700 µg/d), E (135 mg/d), D (20,000-50,000 IU), C (1-2 g/d), B6, and B12. Moreover, the daily calorie intake should amount to ≥1500-2000 with 75-100 g of protein. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the treatment of gut dysbiosis involving an adequate intake of prebiotic dietary fiber and probiotics could turn out to be an immensely helpful instrument for immunomodulation, both in COVID-19 patients and prophylactically in individuals with no history of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diet/methods , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Biosci Rep ; 41(3)2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392910

ABSTRACT

Experimental experience suggests that microbial agents including probiotics and prebiotics (representative microbial agents) play a critical role in defending against respiratory virus infection. We aim to systematically examine these agents' effect on respiratory viral infection and encourage research into clinical applications. An electronic literature search was conducted from published data with a combination of a microbial agents search component containing synonyms for microbial agents-related terms and a customized search component for respiratory virus infection. Hazard ratio (HR), risk ratio (RR) and standard deviation (SD) were employed as effect estimates. In 45 preclinical studies, the mortality rates decreased in the respiratory viral infection models that included prebiotics or prebiotics as interventions (HR: 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-0.87; P=0.002). There was a significant decrease in viral load due to improved gut microbiota (SD: -1.22; 95% CI: -1.50 to -0.94; P<0.001). Concentrations of interferon (IFN)-α (SD: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.33-1.77; P=0.004), IFN-γ (SD: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.01-1.65; P=0.05) and interleukin (IL)-12 (SD: 2.42; 95% CI: 0.32-4.52; P=0.02), IL-1ß (SD: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.40; P=0.94) increased, whereas those of TNF-α (SD: -0.58; 95% CI: -1.59 to 0.43; P=0.26) and IL-6 (SD: -0.59; 95% CI: -1.24 to 0.07; P=0.08) decreased. Six clinical studies had lower symptom scores (SD: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.26; P=0.61) and less incidence of infection (RR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.64-1.01; P=0.06). Our research indicates that probiotics and prebiotics pose a defensive possibility on respiratory viral infection and may encourage the clinical application.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/microbiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Animals , Common Cold/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
20.
Br J Nutr ; 126(10): 1564-1570, 2021 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368881

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly progressing, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Various antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs and immunomodulators have been tried without substantial clinical benefits. The severe and critical cases of COVID-19 disease are characterised by gut microbiome dysbiosis, immune dysregulation, hyper-inflammation and hypercytokinaemia (cytokine storm). Therefore, the strategies which target these pathophysiological processes may be beneficial. Probiotics are one such strategy that exerts beneficial effects by manipulation of the gut microbiota, suppression of opportunistic pathogens in the gut, decreasing translocation of opportunistic organisms, activation of mucosal immunity and modulation of the innate and adaptive immune response. Probiotics are the potential candidates to be tested in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 due to several beneficial effects, including easy availability, easy to administer, safe and economical to use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Probiotics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use
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