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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 226: 103571, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is profoundly affecting lives around the globe. Previous studies on COVID-19 mainly focused on epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features of patients with confirmed infection. Little attention has been paid to the follow-up of recovered patients. As a vulnerable population to adverse events, the health status of the COVID-19 recovered pediatric patients is of great concern. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral problems among pediatric patients recovered from the COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. METHODS: A total of 122 children who were suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases and hospitalized for treatment were enrolled in the study between April 2020 and May 2020 in Wuhan, China. We collected related information about hospitalization and discharge of the children and emotional symptoms of their parents through electronic medical records and questionnaire. The behavioral problems of children were examined by applying the parent-reported the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RESULTS: The participant children were discharged from hospital after about two months. Among them, 76 (62%) were boys, and the mean age was 6.71 years old. The highest prevalence of behavioral problems among pediatric children with COVID-19 was for prosocial behavior (15%), followed by total difficulties (13%), emotional symptoms (11%), hyperactivity (10%), conduct problems (9%), and peer problems (1%). With regarding to their parents, 26% reported having symptoms of anxiety and 23% as having symptoms of depression. The scores of SDQ were higher in those children whose parents have emotional problems compared to parents without. CONCLUSION: Long-term follow up studies on the psychological and behavioral problems of COVID-19 recovered children and their parents are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Problem Behavior/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(4): e27900, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of effectiveness studies when digital parent training programs are implemented in real-world practice. The efficacy of the internet-based and telephone-assisted Finnish Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) parent training intervention on the disruptive behavior of 4-year-old children was studied in a randomized controlled trial setting in Southwest Finland between 2011 and 2013. After that, the intervention was implemented nationwide in child health clinics from 2015 onwards. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to compare the treatment characteristics and effectiveness of the SFSW parent training intervention between the families who received the intervention when it was implemented as a normal practice in child health clinics and the families who received the same intervention during the randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The implementation group comprised 600 families who were recruited in the SFSW intervention between January 2015 and May 2017 in real-world implementation. The RCT intervention group comprised 232 families who were recruited between October 2011 and November 2013. The same demographic and child and parent measures were collected from both study groups and were compared using linear mixed-effect models for repeated measurements. The child psychopathology and functioning level were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) version 1.5-5 for preschool children, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), and a modified version of the Barkley Home Situations Questionnaire. Parenting skills were measured using the 31-item Parenting Scale and the shorter 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The estimated child and parent outcomes were adjusted for CBCL externalizing scores at baseline, maternal education, duration of the behavior problems, and paternal age. The baseline measurements of each outcome were used as covariates. RESULTS: The implementation group was more likely to complete the intervention than the RCT intervention group (514/600, 85.7% vs 176/232, 75.9%, respectively; P<.001). There were no significant differences between the implementation and RCT intervention groups with regard to child measures, including CBCL externalizing score (-0.2, 95% CI -1.3 to 1.6; P=.83), total score (-0.7, 95% CI -3.0 to 4.5; P=.70), internalizing score (-0.3, 95% CI -1.0 to 1.6; P=.64), and ICU total score (-0.4, 95% Cl -1.9 to 1.2; P=.64). No significant difference was detected in the Parenting Scale total score (0.0, 95% Cl -0.1 to 0.1; P=.50), while DASS-21 total score differed nearly significantly (2.5, 95% Cl 0.0-5.1; P=.05), indicating better improvement in the implementation group. CONCLUSIONS: The internet-based and telephone-assisted SFSW parent training intervention was effectively implemented in real-world settings. These findings have implications for addressing the unmet needs of children with disruptive behavior problems. Our initiative could also provide a quick socially distanced solution for the considerable mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01750996; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01750996. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/1471-2458-13-985.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Behavior Disorders , Problem Behavior , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/psychology , Child Behavior Disorders/therapy , Child, Preschool , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Problem Behavior/psychology , Telephone
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 547634, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760270

ABSTRACT

The number of children dealing with behavioural problems is increasing. A major challenge in many health-supportive programmes is the recruitment and retention of these children. In the current study, Sport Mix Club (SMC), an approach to enhance socioemotional disorders of 4- to 12-year-old children through sport classes in municipality Vaals, the Netherlands, is used as an illustration. Where many studies faced difficulties getting and keeping children in their interventions, SMC overcame this challenge. Therefore, we decided to explore "What factors contribute to enhanced recruitment and retention procedures among children with behavioural problems in Sport Mix Club?" A qualitative case study design using the analysis of the administrative logbook of the SMC coach and trainees, individual interviews with the SMC coach, trainees (n = 2), school teachers (n = 3) and parents of participating children (n = 9), and four focus group interviews with children (n = 13) were carried out. During the recruitment and retention of SMC, the human psychological need of relatedness seemed to be of crucial value. The fact that the SMC coach: (1) made efforts to become a familiar face for children, parents and community partners beforehand; (2) showed enthusiasm; and (3) placed her focus on having fun as opposed to the children's problems, seemed to be decisive in the process of getting children to participate in SMC and retaining their participation.


Subject(s)
Problem Behavior , Sports , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Parents/psychology , Schools , Sports/psychology
4.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(5): 393-405, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748794

ABSTRACT

Importance: Currently, there is a lack of consensus in the literature on the association between screen time (eg, television, video games) and children's behavior problems. Objective: To assess the association between the duration of screen time and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems among children 12 years or younger. Data Sources: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published from January 1960 to May 2021. Reference lists were manually searched for additional studies. Study Selection: Included studies measured screen time (ie, duration) and externalizing or internalizing behavior problems in children 12 years or younger, were observational or experimental (with baseline data), were available in English, and had data that could be transformed into an effect size. Studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic were excluded. Of 25 196 nonduplicate articles identified and screened for inclusion, 595 met the selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Extracted variables were child age, sex, and socioeconomic status; informants and measurement type for screen time and behavior problems; study publication year; and study design and quality. Data were extracted by 2 independent coders and were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the association of screen time duration with externalizing (eg, aggression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and internalizing (eg, depression, anxiety) behaviors or diagnoses. Results: Of the 595 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 87 studies met all inclusion criteria, comprising 98 independent samples and 159 425 participants (mean [SD] age, 6.07 [2.89] years; 83 246 [51.30%] male). Increased duration of screen time had a small but significant correlation with more externalizing problems (90 samples; r, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.10-0.12) and internalizing problems (43 samples; r, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.05-0.08) in children. Several methodological moderators explained between-study heterogeneity. There was evidence of significant between study heterogeneity (I2 = 87.80). Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review and meta-analysis found small but significant correlations between screen time and children's behavior problems. Methodological differences across studies likely contributed to the mixed findings in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Anxiety , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Screen Time
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715312

ABSTRACT

Functional analyses (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) are the most commonly used behavioral assessment and treatment approaches via telehealth for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who display challenging behavior. The FA + FCT telehealth model has been shown to maintain treatment effectiveness (i.e., child behavioral outcomes and parent acceptability), as well as demonstrate treatment efficiency (i.e., cost savings). However, the majority of these studies have been conducted in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes obtained with the telehealth FA + FCT model that included global applications. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results of the 199 participants who enrolled in the telehealth project across all project sites. The results showed that behavioral outcomes and parent acceptability maintained at similar levels to previous studies across all sites. Additionally, very few differences were found across project sites in relation to drop-out rates, visit cancellations, and technology issues. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the FA + FCT telehealth model for addressing the challenging behavior needs of children with ASD globally and highlight areas in need of additional evaluation (e.g., drop-outs, cancellations) to determine the conditions under which telehealth could be best used.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Problem Behavior , Telemedicine , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Behavior Therapy/methods , Child , Humans , Telemedicine/methods
7.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(12): 1522-1532, 2021 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The infection protection measures adopted as part of the COVID-19 pandemic led to profound restrictions and changes in the social, (pre-) school, family, and leisure areas. The objective of the current study was to examine the mental burden of children and adolescents and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify possible factors that influence the mental burden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The examinations were carried out between autumn 2020 and spring 2021 in a clinical sample (n = 280 patients aged 4-17 years) and a community sample (n = 1958 children and adolescents aged 4-19 years recruited via schools and preschools). Ratings of parents as well as children and adolescents via questionnaires were assessed. RESULTS: Mental burden due to the corona pandemic was assessed as slightly to moderately increased across both rating perspectives and both samples. Overall, around 60 to 70% of the parents, children, and adolescents describe an increase in mental burden; in contrast, up to 12% of parents as well as children and adolescents describe relief. When comparing both samples, a slightly higher burden on children and adolescents can only be seen in the self-assessment of the clinical sample. None of the socio-demographic factors analyzed influences the mental burden statistically significant. However, low to moderate correlations between the subjectively experienced deterioration in the family and social situation and an increased level of stress is found. DISCUSSION: Targeted interventions for exposed subgroups should be offered during a pandemic. Universal interventions are not indicated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 128-136, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the risk profiles attributable to psychosocial and behavioural problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To this end, we created a risk-prediction nomogram model. METHODS: A national multicentre study was conducted through an online questionnaire involving 12,186 children (6-11 years old) and adolescents (12-16 years old). Respondents' psychosocial and behavioural functioning were assessed using the Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data were analysed using STATA software and R-language. RESULTS: The positive detection rate of psychological problems within Wuhan was greater than that outside Wuhan for schizoid (P = 0.005), and depression (P = 0.030) in children, and for somatic complaints (P = 0.048), immaturity (P = 0.023), and delinquent behaviour (P = 0.046) in adolescents. After graded multivariable adjustment, seven factors associated with psychological problems in children and adolescents outside Wuhan were parent-child conflict (odds ratio (OR): 4.94, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.27-5.72), sleep problems (OR: 4.05, 95% CI: 3.77-4.36), online study time (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.37-0.47), physical activity time (OR: 0.510, 95% CI: 0.44-0.59), number of close friends (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.44-0.6), time spent playing videogames (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.90-2.69) and eating disorders (OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35-3.11) (all P < 0.001). Contrastingly, within Wuhan, only the first four factors, namely, parent-child conflict (5.95, 2.82-12.57), sleep problems (4.47, 3.06-6.54), online study time (0.37, 0.22-0.64), and physical activity time (0.42, 0.22-0.80) were identified (all P < 0.01). Accordingly, nomogram models were created with significant attributes and had decent prediction performance with C-indexes over 80%. LIMITATION: A cross-sectional study and self-reported measures. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the four significant risk factors within and outside Wuhan, the three additional factors outside Wuhan deserve special attention. The prediction nomogram models constructed in this study have important clinical and public health implications for psychosocial and behavioural assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nomograms , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253473, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280632

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 dramatically changes human social life, restrictive lockdown periods to slow the spread of the virus have been suggested to particularly affect the psychological well-being of children and their families. To capture lockdown-related effects on a large scale, the present study used an online questionnaire completed by parents of 3-10-year-olds during the most restrictive lockdown period in Germany thus far (N = 2,672). Parents reported their stress level, their child's well-being, and their child's problem behaviors among others. Results showed that most parents and children experienced lockdown-related stress. Concerning children, not being able to meet with friends and family members outside the household emerged as the primary challenge. Older children (7-10 years) evidenced more emotional symptoms as well as less conduct problems and hyperactivity than younger children (3-6 years). Children's own and their parents' stress level, the degree to which children missed other children, and children's age all showed to be negatively related to children's general life satisfaction. Single parenthood and being an only child were associated with higher levels of child problems. Taken together, these findings shed light on the psychological well-being of children and their families during governmental lockdown measures, as well as on relations between children's coping and demographic background. They have implications for possible avenues for interventions, inter alia by encouraging policies that facilitate the maintenance of social relationships and focus particularly on children from single parent families, on only children as well as on families in challenging housing situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Parents/psychology , Problem Behavior , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Family Characteristics , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Problem Behavior/psychology , Quality of Life , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 342, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258580

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools. In this national cross-sectional study, a total of 11072 students from China were naturally divided into two groups based on their schooling status: reopened schools (RS) and home schooling (HS) group. The psychosocial and behavioral functioning were measured by Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and compared in these two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the independent predictors associated with the psychosocial and behavioral problems. Our results showed that the students in the RS group had more adverse behaviors than that of HS group. The RS group had the higher rates of parent-offspring conflict, prolonged homework time, increased sedentary time and sleep problems (all p < 0.001). When separate analyses were conducted in boys and girls, the RS group had the higher scores for (1) overall behavioral problems (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01), internalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02) and externalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004) behaviors in the 6-11 age group; (2) externalizing (p = 0.049 and p = 0.006) behaviors in the 12-16 age group. Multivariable regression showed parent-offspring conflict and increased sedentary time were the most common risk factors, while physical activity and number of close friends were protective factors for behavior problems in RS students (p < 0.01 or 0.05). The present study revealed that students' psychosocial and behavioral problems increased in the early stage of schools reopened unexpectedly. These findings suggest that close attention must be paid and holistic strategies employed in the school reopening process of post-COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
14.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(4): 486-495, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065814

ABSTRACT

Objective: Internalizing and externalizing problems are prevalent in disaster-exposed children but few studies have investigated these problems in relation to parental factors. This study examined how parental worry and family-based disaster education related to children's internalizing and externalizing problems during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Method: Parents reported parental worry, family-based disaster education and their children's (5-8-year-old young elementary schoolchildren [n = 245] and 245 9-13-year-old early adolescents [n = 245]) internalizing and externalizing problems. Results: Data analysis showed that (a) across ages, parental worry related to children's internalizing and externalizing problems significantly and positively; (b) the significant and negative relationships between family-based disaster education and internalizing and externalizing problems were only supported in young elementary schoolchildren; and (c) high level of parent worry attenuated the negative link between family-based disaster education and young elementary schoolchildren's internalizing problems. Conclusion: This study expands our knowledge about relationships between parental worry and children's disaster-related well-being, and highlights the importance of adapting family-based disaster education to different ages. Data suggest that parents of young elementary schoolchildren and early adolescents both should avoid showing excessive worry in front of their children during the pandemic to help reduce their children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Effective family-based disaster education can mitigate young elementary schoolchildren's emotional distress and behavioral problems, the effect of which may be maximized if parents can avoid being overly worried. Parents of early adolescents should support their children in acquiring pandemic-related information independently and encourage them to seek support outside the family. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Problem Behavior/psychology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Disasters , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology
15.
Epilepsia Open ; 6(1): 216-224, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001847

ABSTRACT

We explored the impact of coronavirus virus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on patients with Dravet syndrome (DS) and their family. With European patient advocacy groups (PAGs), we developed an online survey in 10 languages to question health status, behavior, personal protection, and health services before and after lockdown. Approximately 538 European PAG members received electronic invitations. Survey ran from April 14, to May 17, 2020, with 219 answers; median age 9 year 10 months. Protection against infection was highly used prior to COVID-19, but 88% added facemask-use according to pandemic recommendations. Only one patient was tested positive for COVID-19. Most had stable epilepsy during lockdown, and few families (4%) needed emergency care during lockdown. However, behavior disorder worsened in over one-third of patients, regardless of epilepsy changes. Half of appointments scheduled prior to lockdown were postponed; 12 patients (11%) had appointments fulfilled; and 39 (36%) had remote consultations. Responders welcomed remote consultations. Half of responders were unsatisfied with psychological remote support as only few (21 families) received this support. None of the five of patient in clinical trials stopped investigational treatment. Prior adoption of protective measures against general infection might have contributed to avoiding COVID-19 infections. Protocols for the favored remote contact ought to now be prepared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Epilepsies, Myoclonic/physiopathology , Health Behavior , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Masks , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(1)2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, psychological problems like anxiety, depression, irritability, mood swings, inattention and sleep disturbance are fairly common among quarantined children in several studies. A systematic review of these publications to provide an accurate burden of these psychiatric/behavioral problems is needed for planning mitigating measures by the health authorities. METHODS: Different electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, medRxiv and bioRxiv) were searched for articles describing psychological/behavioral complications in children/adolescents with/without pre-existing behavioral abnormalities and their caregivers related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Only original articles with/without comparator arms and a minimum sample size of 50 were included in the analysis. The pooled estimate of various psychological/behavioral problems was calculated using a random-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen studies describing 22 996 children/adolescents fulfilled the eligibility criteria from a total of 219 records. Overall, 34.5%, 41.7%, 42.3% and 30.8% of children were found to be suffering from anxiety, depression, irritability and inattention. Although the behavior/psychological state of a total of 79.4% of children was affected negatively by the pandemic and quarantine, at least 22.5% of children had a significant fear of COVID-19, and 35.2% and 21.3% of children had boredom and sleep disturbance. Similarly, 52.3% and 27.4% of caregivers developed anxiety and depression, respectively, while being in isolation with children. CONCLUSION: Anxiety, depression, irritability, boredom, inattention and fear of COVID-19 are predominant new-onset psychological problems in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children with pre-existing behavioral problems like autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a high probability of worsening of their behavioral symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Problem Behavior
17.
Res Dev Disabil ; 109: 103840, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989160

ABSTRACT

Research on the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted negative effects on the general population and particularly on parents. However, little is known about families of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorder (NDD). The present study investigated parental stress, coparenting, and child adjustment in Italian families with children with NDD (N = 82) and typical developing children (TD, N = 82) during lockdown, using an online survey. Results of quantitative analyses showed a significant increase in parental stress and child externalizing behaviors, but not of coparenting. Parental stress is predicted by externalizing behaviors, and coparenting acted as a moderator in the relationship between the change in the amount of time spent with the children before and during lockdown and parental stress. In children with NDD, the decrease in therapeutic/rehabilitation support predicted higher externalizing behaviors. Qualitative analysis showed that beyond the difficulties and worries arising during lockdown, most of the parents appreciated the opportunity of spending more time with their children and strengthening the parent-child relationship. In conclusion, our results point out the importance of ensuring continuity of care for children with NDD (e.g. telehealth) during home confinement and of providing psychological support for parents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Parents/psychology , Problem Behavior/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Needs Assessment , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods
19.
J Reprod Immunol ; 143: 103250, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939094

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread rapidly across the world. The vast majority of patients with COVID-19 manifest mild to moderate symptoms but may progress to severe cases or even mortalities. Young adults of reproductive age are the most affected population by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there is no consensus yet if pregnancy contributes to the severity of COVID-19. Initial studies of pregnant women have found that COVID-19 significantly increases the risk of preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and low birth weight, which have been associated with non-communicable diseases in offspring. Besides, maternal viral infections with or without vertical transmission have been allied with neurological and behavioral disorders of the offspring. In this review, obstetrical outcomes of women with COVID-19 and possible risks for their offspring are discussed by reviewing maternal immune responses to COVID-19 based on the current evidence. Structural and systemic follow-up of offspring who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in-utero is suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Child of Impaired Parents , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Problem Behavior , Risk
20.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 412-416, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To prevent spreading of the COVID-19 infection, many countries have implemented a nationwide school closure. We aimed to assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in school-aged children during home confinement. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based survey involving 1264 children (grades 2-6) and their parents from two primary schools between February 25 and March 8, 2020, in Hubei province, China. Behavioral problems were evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RESULTS: The prevalence of prosocial behaviors among children was 10.3%, followed by total difficulty (8.2%), conduct problems (7.0%), peer problems (6.6%), hyperactivity-inattention (6.3%) and emotional problems (4.7%). Compared with children who did not exercise, children with psychical activity had a lower hyperactivity-inattention risk (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.44 for 1-2 days/week; OR: 0.56 for more than 2 days/week) and less prosocial behaviors problems (OR: 0.65 for 1-2 days/week; OR: 0.55 for more than 2 days/week). Children of parents with anxious symptoms were associated with increased risks of emotional symptoms and total difficulty (OR: 5.64 and 3.78, respectively). LIMITATIONS: We adopted self-report questionnaires and did not collect baseline information before COVID-19 outbreak. The potential self-selection bias inherent in the study should be noted. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of behavioral problems among school-aged children varied from 4.7% to 10.3% in home quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak. Taking physical exercise may be an efficient measure to reduce behavioral problems for school-aged children in home confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Problem Behavior/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , China/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Parents , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires
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