Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1338: 209-216, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597781

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, modern lifestyle along with the ever-growing technological and scientific advancement, especially in developed countries, has led to a significant increase of the middle age and elderly population. As a consequence, a substantial rise in neurodegenerative diseases has been reported, such as mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other types of dementia. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of mathematical problem-solving on cognitive enhancement of adults. Moreover, the possible applicability of mathematical problem-solving as part of a treatment in cases of adults suffering from different levels of cognitive decline due to neurodegenerative diseases has been taken into consideration. For the needs of this study, a qualitative research was conducted in a sample of 16 participants, in order to confirm the effect of the mathematical problem-solving process on their cognition and its reinforcement, as stated by the participants. The results of this research, as interpreted, indicate a positive effect of mathematical problem-solving on adult cognition and on cognitive processes in general. Nonetheless, there are certain limitations to this research, deriving from its nature, while others derive from the measures enforced during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Therefore, this chapter suggests that a more thorough quantitative research should be conducted in order to specifically measure the magnitude, as well as the time span of the impact of mathematical problem-solving on adult cognitive enhancement. Moreover, it is proposed that future studies should concentrate on the usefulness of mathematical problem-solving as a component in both invasive and noninvasive cognitive treatments used to cure or alleviate the aforementioned cognitive impairments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Mathematics , Middle Aged , Problem Solving , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 75(2): 96-98, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504160

ABSTRACT

Throughout his 45-year career, Professor Albert Katz (Department of Psychology, Western University) has tackled challeng ing aspects of human communication in a way that creatively merges the theoretical insights and empirical rigor of cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, and cognitive neuroscience. In this personal reflection, Professor Katz writes a short biographical piece on the life journey that led to his research programs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Cognitive Neuroscience , Psycholinguistics , Humans , Problem Solving , Psychology , Universities
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447420

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to lockdowns in countries across the world, changing the lives of billions of people. The United Kingdom's first national lockdown, for example, restricted people's ability to socialize and work. The current study examined how changes to socializing and working during this lockdown impacted ongoing thought patterns in daily life. We compared the prevalence of thought patterns between two independent real-world, experience-sampling cohorts, collected before and during lockdown. In both samples, young (18 to 35 y) and older (55+ y) participants completed experience-sampling measures five times daily for 7 d. Dimension reduction was applied to these data to identify common "patterns of thought." Linear mixed modeling compared the prevalence of each thought pattern 1) before and during lockdown, 2) in different age groups, and 3) across different social and activity contexts. During lockdown, when people were alone, social thinking was reduced, but on the rare occasions when social interactions were possible, we observed a greater increase in social thinking than prelockdown. Furthermore, lockdown was associated with a reduction in future-directed problem solving, but this thought pattern was reinstated when individuals engaged in work. Therefore, our study suggests that the lockdown led to significant changes in ongoing thought patterns in daily life and that these changes were associated with changes to our daily routine that occurred during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Thinking , Adolescent , Adult , Affect , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Problem Solving , Social Cognition , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 49(6): 882-887, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384127

ABSTRACT

Problem solving, multiple-choice question-based educational tools have been used for decades in molecular cell biology courses at the University of Pécs Medical School, Pécs, Hungary. A set of these tests was published in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education between 2002 and 2015. Such tests using an experimental approach help students to understand how living cells function. Besides being tools of education, they can be used for examination purposes as well to assess higher levels of intellectual skills (interpretation and problem solving) acquired by the students. The test presented in this paper is based on parts of an original publication in which the authors described seminal observations on the function of a viral protein in the infection process of SARS-CoV-2. The test is aimed at helping the students to understand the methods used in the experiments, to analyze the data and to draw conclusions from them regarding certain aspects of the mechanism of coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical/methods , Problem Solving , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hungary , Molecular Biology/education , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students
5.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 8924293, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356985

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the acceleration of industrialization, urbanization, and aging process, the number of patients with chronic diseases in the world is increasing year by year. In China, the number of chronic diseases has increased tenfold in 10 years. The percentage of the disease burden in the whole society accounts for 79.4%. Chronic diseases have become the top killer for Chinese people's health. However, for chronic diseases, prevention is more important than treatment. It is the best way to keep healthy. Therefore, health intervention is the key to prevent chronic diseases. Especially now, with the spread of COVID-19 pandemic, reducing the times of hospital check-ups and treatments for chronic patients is practically significant for releasing the stress on medical staffs and decreasing the rate of transmission and infection of COVID-19. In this paper, case-based reasoning (CBR) technology is used to assist personalized intervention for chronic diseases, and the key technologies of personalized intervention for chronic diseases based on case-based reasoning are proposed. The case organization, case retrieval, and case retention techniques of CBR technology in chronic disease personalized intervention are designed, and the calculation of interclass dispersion is added to the distribution of feature words, which is used to describe the distribution of feature attributes in different categories of cases. It provides an effective method for the establishment of personalized intervention model for chronic disease.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Precision Medicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Problem Solving , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS Med ; 18(6): e1003621, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, 235 million people are impacted by humanitarian emergencies worldwide, presenting increased risk of experiencing a mental disorder. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a brief group psychological treatment delivered by trained facilitators without prior professional mental health training in a disaster-prone setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) from November 25, 2018 through September 30, 2019. Participants in both arms were assessed at baseline, midline (7 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 1 week after treatment in the experimental arm), and endline (20 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 3 months posttreatment). The intervention was Group Problem Management Plus (PM+), a psychological treatment of 5 weekly sessions, which was compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) consisting of a family psychoeducation meeting with a referral option to primary care providers trained in mental healthcare. The setting was 72 wards (geographic unit of clustering) in eastern Nepal, with 1 PM+ group per ward in the treatment arm. Wards were eligible if they were in disaster-prone regions and residents spoke Nepali. Wards were assigned to study arms based on covariate constrained randomization. Eligible participants were adult women and men 18 years of age and older who met screening criteria for psychological distress and functional impairment. Outcomes were measured at the participant level, with assessors blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was psychological distress assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, "heart-mind" problems, social support, somatic symptoms, and functional impairment. The hypothesized mediator was skill use aligned with the treatment's mechanisms of action. A total of 324 participants were enrolled in the control arm (36 wards) and 319 in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). The overall sample (N = 611) had a median age of 45 years (range 18-91 years), 82% of participants were female, 50% had recently experienced a natural disaster, and 31% had a chronic physical illness. Endline assessments were completed by 302 participants in the control arm (36 wards) and 303 participants in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). At the midline assessment (immediately after Group PM+ in the experimental arm), mean GHQ-12 total score was 2.7 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 1.7, 3.7, p < 0.001), with standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.4 (95% CI: -0.5, -0.2). At 3 months posttreatment (primary endpoint), mean GHQ-12 total score was 1.4 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 0.3, 2.5, p = 0.014), with SMD of -0.2 (95% CI: -0.4, 0.0). Among the secondary outcomes, Group PM+ was associated with endline with a larger proportion attaining more than 50% reduction in depression symptoms (29.9% of Group PM+ arm versus 17.3% of control arm, risk ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.002). Fewer participants in the Group PM+ arm continued to have "heart-mind" problems at endline (58.8%) compared to the control arm (69.4%), risk ratio = 0.8 (95% CI, 0.7, 1.0, p = 0.042). Group PM+ was not associated with lower PTSD symptoms or functional impairment. Use of psychosocial skills at midline was estimated to explain 31% of the PM+ effect on endline GHQ-12 scores. Adverse events in the control arm included 1 suicide death and 1 reportable incidence of domestic violence; in the Group PM+ arm, there was 1 death due to physical illness. Study limitations include lack of power to evaluate gender-specific effects, lack of long-term outcomes (e.g., 12 months posttreatment), and lack of cost-effectiveness information. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that a 5-session group psychological treatment delivered by nonspecialists modestly reduced psychological distress and depression symptoms in a setting prone to humanitarian emergencies. Benefits were partly explained by the degree of psychosocial skill use in daily life. To improve the treatment benefit, future implementation should focus on approaches to enhance skill use by PM+ participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03747055.


Subject(s)
Depression/therapy , Mental Health , Natural Disasters , Problem Solving , Psychotherapy, Brief , Psychotherapy, Group , Relief Work , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(5): 657-673, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258552

ABSTRACT

New labor market entrants face significant hurdles when searching for a job, with these stressors likely amplified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we consider how COVID-induced job search anxiety-feeling anxious about one's job search due to issues imposed by the pandemic-has the potential to affect adaptive, goal-directed efforts, and maladaptive, goal-avoidant reactions. We theorize that this anxiety can prompt job seekers to engage in problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination, with these experiences relating to whether job seekers engage in various forms of search-related efforts the following week. In particular, we consider whether job seekers are engaging in dream job search effort (i.e., effort toward pursuing one's dream job), as well as focused (i.e., effort toward a selection of carefully screened jobs), exploratory (i.e., effort toward a wide swath of jobs in a broad manner), and haphazard (i.e., effort toward applying for any job without a clear plan) job search effort. Further, we consider how stable beliefs relevant to the pandemic (i.e., belief in conspiracy theories; belief in COVID-19 being a public health crisis) affect the aforementioned relationships. Using a weekly study of 162 new labor market entrants, results indicated that COVID-induced job search anxiety positively related to problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination; problem-solving pondering promoted dream, focused, and exploratory job search effort the following week, whereas affect-focused rumination hindered dream job search effort. Finally, the detrimental effects of COVID-induced job search anxiety via affect-focused rumination were amplified for those who held higher levels of conspiracy theory beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Job Application , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Problem Solving , Psychological Tests , Rumination, Cognitive , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Br J Nurs ; 30(1): 83, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234925

ABSTRACT

Sam Foster, Chief Nurse, Oxford University Hospitals, suggests that there is no single best approach to problem-solving during the pandemic, and the best leaders will adapt to each problem by mixing and matching.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leadership , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Problem Solving , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/nursing , England/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology
10.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 52(5): 211-213, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211960

ABSTRACT

Advocating for holistic leaders' development, holistic leadership is defined and contrasted with other developmental approaches. A model that frames four dimensions of development is presented. These dimensions include self-awareness and values identification, relational capacity, problem solving and action orientation, and other orientation. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(5):211-213.].


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing , Leadership , Teaching , Humans , Problem Solving , Teaching/organization & administration , Teaching/standards , Teaching/trends
11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206199

ABSTRACT

In recent times, many alarm bells have begun to sound: the metaphorical presentation of the COVID-19 emergency as a war might be dangerous, because it could affect the way people conceptualize the pandemic and react to it, leading citizens to endorse authoritarianism and limitations to civil liberties. The idea that conceptual metaphors actually influence reasoning has been corroborated by Thibodeau and Boroditsky, who showed that, when crime is metaphorically presented as a beast, readers become more enforcement-oriented than when crime is metaphorically framed as a virus. Recently, Steen, Reijnierse and Burgers replied that this metaphorical framing effect does not seem to occur and suggested that the question should be rephrased about the conditions under which metaphors do or do not influence reasoning. In this paper, we investigate whether presenting the COVID-19 pandemic as a war affects people's reasoning about the pandemic. Data collected suggest that the metaphorical framing effect does not occur by default. Rather, socio-political individual variables such as speakers' political orientation and source of information favor the acceptance of metaphor congruent entailments: right-wing participants and participants relying on independent sources of information are those more conditioned by the COVID-19 war metaphor, thus more inclined to prefer bellicose options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Social Behavior , Thinking/physiology , Adult , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Female , Humans , Italy , Language , Male , Metaphor , Pandemics/prevention & control , Problem Solving , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
J Gen Psychol ; 148(3): 327-359, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057748

ABSTRACT

In the earliest months of 2020, the COVID-19 emergency reached a pandemic status of international concern. In this situation, people tended to think more about current difficulties and their negative consequences due to the fear of infection and changed daily life during quarantine. The aim of this study was to explore the severity of worry in relation to individual characteristics and emotions during COVID-19 outbreak in the Italian people. Socio-demographic questions and standardized self-report questionnaires were administered online. Results highlighted a moderate level of worry, anxiety and distress. People with higher perceptions of COVID-19 severity exhibited higher levels of worry in contrast to those who perceived a greater control over the possibility of infection. Multiple regression analysis indicated that coping styles, emotion regulation strategies and personality traits significantly contributed to explain the variance in worry scores. Findings supported that cognitive reappraisal, emotion-focused coping and extraversion were protective factors for worry, while expressive suppression, dysfunctional and problem-focused coping, and neuroticism were related to high worry. However, neuroticism and dysfunctional coping were particularly important predictors of worry. This paper also considers possible psychological interventions that might be implemented in order to deal with mental health issues emanating from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Individuality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emotional Regulation , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Internal-External Control , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroticism , Problem Solving , Quarantine/psychology , Young Adult
15.
J Gen Psychol ; 148(3): 272-304, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039677

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created major upheavals in the lives of people worldwide. The virus has mostly affected elderly populations, but there may be corollary effects on young adults' psychosocial adjustment due to educational, economic, and occupational disruptions. Using latent class analysis, we examined unique typologies of coping in response to the pandemic among young adults. We used an expanded set of indicators including traditional measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping as well as measures of resilience and coping flexibility. We also examined whether class membership could be predicted by demographics, stress appraisal, and psychosocial characteristics including catastrophic thinking and impulsivity. The sample of 1,391 young adults (ages 18-35) was recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and snowball methods from late-April to early-May 2020. Six classes were identified: (1) Resilient Flexible Problem-Focused Copers, (2) Resilient Inflexible Problem-Focused Copers, (3) Non-Resilient Flexible Problem-Focused Venters, (4) Non-Resilient Flexible Problem-Focused Copers, (5) Non-Resilient Flexible Non-Copers, and (6) Non-Resilient Inflexible Non-Copers. Using Class 1 as the reference class, we found perceived centrality and uncontrollability of the pandemic as well as catastrophic thinking and impulsivity were significant predictors of class membership. The mean levels of stress appraisal and psychosocial characteristics varied significantly between the classes, reinforcing the structural validity of these classes. The findings suggest the importance of training young adults to develop resilience and flexibility as well as specific coping skills that can help offset the psychological effects of dramatic lifestyle changes that may result from pandemics or other health crises in the future.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Catastrophization/psychology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Male , Problem Solving , Quality of Life/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
16.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 26(5): 1341-1343, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774855
19.
Econ Hum Biol ; 40: 100963, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957037

ABSTRACT

Given the unprecedented level and duration of mitigation policies during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, it is not surprising that the public and the media have raised important questions about the potential for negative mental health consequences of the measures. To answer them, natural variability in policy implementation across US states and over time was analyzed to determine if mitigation policies correlated with Google searches for terms associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Findings indicated that restaurant/bar limits and stay-at-home orders correlated with immediate increases in searches for isolation and worry but the effects tapered off two to four weeks after their respective peaks. Moreover, the policies correlated with a reduction in searches for antidepressants and suicide, thus revealing no evidence of increases in severe symptomatology. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Humans , Problem Solving , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(20): 10860-10866, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Social distancing, as experienced by the Italian population during the COVID-19 outbreak, generated the long-term activation of stress-response in individuals. This has been a crucial opportunity to study the coping strategies that people put in place to adapt their lives and habits to such a unique condition. For this reason, we have investigated both emotion-focused and problem-oriented coping strategies among the Italian population by relating them to other structural factors, such as social, economic and cultural conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: More than 140,000 online interviews were collected in Italy from March 22 to April 2, 2020. This large dataset was used to carry out multivariate statistical data analysis with the aim of creating behavioral profiles, starting from coping parameters and other information. This technique has produced an association, showing a good level of statistical significance, between coping strategies and reactions to social distancing, due to the health emergency, during the data collection phase. RESULTS: Two coping indicators - problem-oriented and focused on positive emotions coping strategies - were selected as objective variables in a "decision tree" modelling. The results have shown a link between individual factors (i.e., atmosphere at home) and educational and social factors (i.e., compliance with restrictions during the health emergency). CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of social interaction had quite a significant impact on people's behavior; furthermore, coping strategies have played a crucial role in facing this stressor. For both the selected coping indicators, the best predictor was the atmosphere perceived at home. Moreover, the respondents' previous experiences have played a relevant role in the acceptance of new rules imposed by the government. This information can be useful in planning future social policies, both at national and international level, during such peculiar times.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distance , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Italy , Male , Pandemics , Problem Solving , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...