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1.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): 539-544, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1862366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe and discuss interventions and strategies carried out at Faculdade Pernambucana de Saúde (FPS) during the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate impairment in learning and preserve students, tutors, and staff's health. Experience report: the teaching methodology used by FPS is problem-based learning, which greatly facilitated the non-discontinuity of theoretical activities carried out in-person in tutorial sessions involving a tutor and 10 to 12 students. This format was transferred to Webex Meetings rooms and held remotely. Practical laboratory activities were suspended and resumed when allowed in July. The teaching outpatient activities (third and fourth year) were suspended and resumed in August. Two years of internship were interrupted for 30 days (fifth year) and for 15 days (sixth year). External activities of practices in primary care were also suspended and resumed gradually. All assessments and activities that required face-to-face meetings, integrations, scientific initiation program orientations, collegiate meetings, meetings of the self-assessment committee were and are being carried out remotely. Conclusions: we believe that we were able to mitigate impairment in students' learning without compromising the conclusion of the school year that was facilitated by Problem Based Learning method.


Resumo Objetivo: descrever e discutir intervenções e estratégias realizadas pela Faculdade Pernambucana de Saúde (FPS) durante a pandemia de COVID-19 para atenuar prejuízos no aprendizado e preservar a saúde de estudantes, docentes e funcionários. Relato de experiência: a metodologia de ensino usada pela FPS é a aprendizagem baseada em problemas, que facilitou a não descontinuidade das atividades teóricas realizadas presencialmente em sessões tutoriais que envolvem um docente e dez a 12 estudantes, que foram transferidas para salas de Webex Meetings de forma remota. As atividades de laboratórios práticas foram suspensas e retomadas quando permitido no mês de julho. As atividades de ambulatório de ensino (terceiro e quarto ano) foram suspensas e retomadas em agosto. Os dois anos de internato sofreram interrupção de 30 dias (quinto ano) e 15 dias (sexto ano). As atividades externas de práticas em atenção primária também foram suspensas e retomadas gradativamente. Todas as avaliações e atividades que necessitavam reuniões presenciais: integrações, orientações de programa de iniciação científica, reuniões colegiadas, reuniões da comissão própria de autoavaliação foram e estão sendo realizadas de forma remota. Conclusões: acreditamos que conseguimos minimizar os prejuízos no aprendizado dos estudantes sem comprometimento de conclusão do ano letivo que foi facilitado pela metodologia de aprendizagem baseada em problemas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Medical , Students , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Faculty/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Learning , Social Isolation , Brazil/epidemiology , Quarantine , Teacher Training
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 361, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the advancement of information technology, teachers have become able to overcome the limitations of time and room capacity by carrying out teaching activities online. This practice, however, also presents new challenges. The present study explores how to fully capitalize on the advantages of online and offline teaching and improve the quality and impact of the teaching delivered. This article presents an analysis of the planning, implementation, evaluation, and reflection process of reforming the Fujian Medical University (FJMU) medical ethics course. METHODS: After early attempts using the Small Private Online Course (SPOC) and flipped classroom formats, this paper focuses on the comprehensive active implementation of blended teaching practice. In terms of teaching practice, this research makes targeted improvements to overcome the known shortcomings of SPOCs and flipped classrooms, including the significant preparatory workload and lacking enthusiasm for classroom participation, by redesigning the course and evaluation method and changing the role of the teacher in blended teaching. Subsequently, the study used a stratified sampling method to select 20 students enrolled in the clinical medicine course at Fujian Medical University (FJMU). Their course experience was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Interview content related to evaluating teaching effect was extracted and encoded for subsequent qualitative analysis. RESULTS: A qualitative analysis of the student evaluation of blended teaching as implemented on the medical ethics course showed that the main factors influencing student engagement are the method of assigning tasks and that of testing learning outcomes. Student participation in class is influenced by the richness of the curriculum resources available and the role played by the teacher. CONCLUSION: This research presents a discussion of blended teaching and suggests improvements that can be made to address low student engagement and poor classroom participation. This round of blended teaching was shown to improve learning autonomy and classroom participation and to support students in the development of their clinical abilities and higher-order thinking skills. These findings provide a reference for the implementation of online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curriculum , Ethics, Medical , Humans , Learning , Pandemics , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Teaching
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 312, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused significant confusion around the world, and dental education was no exception. Therefore, in line with the demands of the times, this study sought to determine the applicability of online active learning to dental education. METHODS: This study was conducted in the second semester of 2020 at a school of dentistry in a selective university in Korea. A total of 114 dental students were recruited. Participants were assigned to four different groups (lecture and discussion [LD], lecture and discussion with instructor's worksheet [LW], self-study and discussion [SSD], and self-study and discussion with instructor's worksheet [SW]) using the random breakout room function in the Zoom video conference application. Their final test scores were then analyzed using analysis of variance and the online active learning results were compared with the offline learning results. RESULTS: The scores were highest for the transfer type items in the SSD group, followed by the SW group and the two lecture groups, which had no significant differences. These scores and pattern differences between the groups were similar for all items. The results suggested that studying by oneself rather than simply listening to lectures enhanced the effects of the discussions and led to higher learning outcomes. In addition, the effect of the instructor's intervention in the middle of the discussion varied depending on the pre-learning activities of discussion. As with previous offline experiments, self-study followed by group discussion had higher learning outcomes for both the verbatim and transfer type items. CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with the Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP) framework and other active learning theories, the findings clearly indicated that online active learning was applicable to dental students, and when self-study precedes discussion, the learning is richer and the learning outcomes are better.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Republic of Korea , Students, Dental
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 838106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776042

ABSTRACT

In the spring semester of 2020, online flipped classroom was used to replace offline face-to-face teaching of the physiology course at Xiangya School of Medicine. In order to analyze the preferences and utilization of different teaching resources by students, registered questionnaire was applied to investigate the preference divergence of the students on the duration of different teaching videos used in the online flipped classroom model. One hundred forty-seven students of clinical medicine in grade 2018 of Xiangya School of Medicine were selected as the research objects. Three formal surveys were conducted in total. The results showed that there were significant divergences in preference of students for different durations in the first two surveys. 56.43 and 50.00% of the students preferred 15 min mini-video, whereas 43.57 and 50.00% preferred 45 min complete video. Meanwhile, students showed a significant preference for mini-video in active learning before class, with 65.00 and 59.29% watched only mini-video, 17.14 and 25.71% watched only complete videos, and 17.86 and 15.00% watched both mini and complete videos. Although most students preferred to watch mini-video in active learning before class, there was a significant proportion of students who watched complete video before class. The results suggested that the individualization of student in the online flipped classroom is prominent. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the selection of videos with different durations at different time points (before, in and after class) was significantly associated with the characteristics of the videos themselves. Therefore, the construction of online teaching resources and the application of teaching methods should consider the requirements of different student groups and provide a variety of online curriculum resources.


Subject(s)
Audiovisual Aids , Curriculum , Education, Distance , China , Education, Medical , Humans , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teaching Materials
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0259954, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753180

ABSTRACT

The advent of coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19, continues to trigger several important disruptions/innovations in practically every sector around the world. Additionally, the impacts are predominant in certain educational systems and in creating opportunities. Previous studies had addressed possible effective methods in handling distant learning and student interactions. This qualitative study explored lecturers' information literacy experience during online classes as a result of the pandemic. Semi-structured interview techniques were applied among participants, made up of 15 lecturers in the Humanities Faculty, Diponegoro University, Indonesia, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the data obtained. The results showed the focus of lecturers' information literacy experience was primarily on student interactions and knowledge of various online learning platforms. However, information repackaging was a significant initial consideration during virtual classes, after identifying salient student characteristics. In summary, the present study have contributed to the theoretical understanding of information literacy and may be of benefit to the teaching faculties for enhancing teaching and learning activities, as well as providing student support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Humanities/education , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Information Literacy , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research
6.
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1655-1659, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672283

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to limit medical students' full reintegration into clinical learning environments, thus exacerbating an ongoing challenge in identifying a robust number of clinical educational activities at excellent clinical sites for all students. Because medical students across the United States were removed from direct patient care activities in mid-March 2020 due to COVID-19, medical centers have prioritized and implemented changes to the process of patient care. As some barriers are being lifted in the face of a highly contagious and deadly infection, the use of telehealth (delivery of health services remotely via telephone, video, and secure messaging), although not new, is rapidly expanding into all aspects of patient care. Health care providers have been encouraged to conduct many interactions at a physical distance. Telehealth largely replaced face-to-face visits for nonemergency care in an attempt to slow viral transmission while enabling physicians to continue to deliver patient education, manage acute and chronic illness, and nurture caring doctor-patient relationships. Health care providers, many of whom were initially reluctant to embrace telehealth technology and logistics, are becoming nimbler and more aware of the many positive aspects of telehealth. The authors suggest that integrating medical students into telehealth activities would help maintain and improve patients' health, extend the capabilities of health care teams and systems during and after the pandemic, and increase medical students' opportunities for experiential learning and professional identity formation. The authors expand on these 3 goals, suggest several concrete student telehealth activities, propose a curricular strategy, and outline opportunities to overcome key barriers to full alignment of telehealth and undergraduate medical education.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Telemedicine , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1706-1710, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528193

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: In March 2020, medical students at the University of Washington School of Medicine were removed from clinical settings in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As subinternships are required for graduation and an important way to prepare for internship, a virtual subinternship was created to include practical elements of in-person learning and to address limited teaching faculty from COVID-19 inpatient surges. APPROACH: A virtual, interactive subinternship was developed with case-based teaching sessions, communication and critical literature evaluation skill building, professional development, and creation of independent learning plans. Near-peer teachers (NPTs) were selected from graduating senior medical students who matched into internal medicine. In addition to teaching topics from the Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine curriculum, NPTs engaged in course development, recruited teaching faculty, gathered feedback, and facilitated small groups. Participating students completed pre- and postcourse surveys. OUTCOMES: The 10 students (100%) enrolled in the course who completed both surveys indicated significant improvement in mean scores across 4 domains: evaluating medical literature (3.1/5 to 4.5/5; +1.4, P < .001); developing individual learning plans (3.6/5 to 4.7/5; +1.1, P = .001); perceived ability to efficiently evaluate patients with common internal medicine concerns (3.7/5 to 4.6/5; +0.9, P = .004); and formulating initial diagnostic and therapeutic plans (3.6/5 to 4.6/5; +1.0, P < .001). Themes extracted from open-ended responses included initial skepticism of an online format, the course exceeding expectations, and feeling prepared for internship. NEXT STEPS: Although a virtual subinternship lacks direct patient care, students reported improvement in all 4 domains studied. Future courses would benefit from greater use of simulation and role-playing scenarios for practical skills. The experience with NPTs was encouraging, aiding in the success of the subinternship. The role of NPTs should be cultivated to fill gaps in content delivery and enhance the development of students as educators.


Subject(s)
Internal Medicine/education , Internship and Residency/methods , Peer Group , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Students, Medical/psychology , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Humans , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403320

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Previous studies have rarely attempted to test the confounding factors that may affect learning outcomes of the flipped classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess how flipped classrooms affect the acquisition of knowledge in clinical dental education based on multilevel factor analysis. METHOD: The authors conducted a 3-year (2017, 2018, and 2019) randomized controlled trial in a series of introductory prosthodontics courses in dental education. A total of 137 participants were randomly assigned to flipped classroom (n = 70, 51%) or lecture (n = 67, 49%) formats. The flipped group was instructed to self-learn knowledge-based content through online preparation materials, including videos and text, while the lecture group was given text only. Both groups were provided with the same study content and opportunities for different styles of learning. The session attendance rate and number of times the materials were accessed were monitored. Individual and team readiness assurance tests (IRAT/TRAT) were conducted to evaluate knowledge acquisition. A multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted on both instructional styles (flipped vs. lecture) as an intervention factor, and confounding factors that could affect the outcomes were implemented. RESULTS: The average number of online accesses was 2.5 times per session in the flipped group and 1.2 in the lecture group, with a significant difference (p < .05). The average IRAT score was significantly higher in the flipped than in the lecture group (effect size [ES] 0.58, p < .001). The number of online accesses was significantly and positively correlated with IRAT scores (0.6 [0.4, 0.8]). The instructional style was significantly and positively correlated with TRAT scores (coefficient [95% confidence interval]: 4.6 [2.0, 7.3]), but it was not correlated with IRAT (4.3 [-0.45, 9.0]). CONCLUSIONS: The flipped classroom was more effective than the lecture format regarding knowledge acquisition; however, the decisive factor was not the instructional style but the number of individual learning occasions. The employment of the flipped classroom was the decisive factor for team-based learning outcomes.


Subject(s)
Education, Dental/methods , Curriculum , Humans , Problem-Based Learning/methods
9.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1290, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398153
10.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 68, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325927

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced a new look (or modernization) for both the obligations and approaches to achieve best-practices in global health learning. These best-practices have moved beyond traditional, face-to-face (F2F), classroom-based didactics to the use of innovative online, asynchronous and synchronous instructional design and the information and communication technology (ICT) tools to support it. But moving to this higher level of online in-service and pre-service training, key obligations (e.g., stopping neocolonialization, cultural humility, reversing brain drain, gender equity) must guide the modernization of instructional design and the supporting ICT. To positively impact global health training, educators must meet the needs of learners where they are. Purpose: We describe a set of multi-communication methods, e-Learning principles, strategies, and ICT approaches for educators to pivot content delivery from traditional, F2F classroom didactics into the modern era. These best-practices in both the obligations and approaches utilize thoughtful, modern strategies of instructional design and ICT. Approach: We harnessed our collective experiences in global health training to present thoughtful insights on the guiding principles, strategies, and ICT environment central to develop learning curricula that meet trainee needs and how they can be actualized. Specifically, we describe five strategies: 1. Individualized learning; 2. Provide experiential learning; 3. Mentor … Mentor … Mentor; 4. Reinforce learning through assessment; and 5. Information and communication technology and tools to support learning. Discussion: We offer a vision, set of guiding principles, and five strategies for successful curricula delivery in the modern era so that global health training can be made available to a wider audience more efficiently and effectively.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Global Health/education , Learning , Mentoring/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Educational Measurement/methods , Humans , International Cooperation
11.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 61, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325924

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The changing global landscape of disease and public health crises, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, call for a new generation of global health leaders. As global health leadership programs evolve, many have incorporated experiential learning and mentoring (ELM) components into their structure. However, there has been incomplete consideration on how ELM activities are deployed, what challenges they face and how programs adapt to meet those challenges. This paper builds on the co-authors' experiences as trainees, trainers, organizers and evaluators of six global health leadership programs to reflect on lessons learned regarding ELM. We also consider ethics, technology, gender, age and framing that influence how ELM activities are developed and implemented. Findings: Despite the diverse origins and funding of these programs, all six are focused on training participants from low- and middle-income countries drawing on a diversity of professions. Each program uses mixed didactic approaches, practice-based placements, competency and skills-driven curricula, and mentorship via various modalities. Main metrics for success include development of trainee networks, acquisition of skills and formation of relationships; programs that included research training had specific research metrics as well. Common challenges the programs face include ensuring clarity of expectations of all participants and mentors; maintaining connection among trainees; meeting the needs of trainee cohorts with different skill sets and starting points; and ensuring trainee cohorts capture age, gender and other forms of diversity. Conclusions: ELM activities for global health leadership are proving even more critical now as the importance of effective individual leaders in responding to crises becomes evident. Future efforts for ELM in global health leadership should emphasize local adaptation and sustainability. Practice-based learning and established mentoring relationships provide the building blocks for competent leaders to navigate complex dynamics with the flexibility and conscientiousness needed to improve the health of global populations. Key Takeaways: Experiential learning and mentorship activities within global health leadership programs provide the hands-on practice and support that the next generation of global health leaders need to address the health challenges of our times.Six global health leadership programs with experiential learning and mentorship components are showcased to highlight differences and similarities in their approaches and capture a broad picture of achievements that can help inform future programs.Emphasis on inter-professional training, mixed-learning approaches and mentorship modalities were common across programs. Both individual capacity building and development of trainees' professional networks were seen as critical, reflecting the value of inter-personal connections for long-term leadership success.During program design, future programs should recognize the "frame" within which the program will be incorporated and intentionally address diversity-in all its forms-during recruitment as well as consider North-South ethics, leadership roles, hierarchies and transition plans.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Global Health/education , Leadership , Mentoring/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Clinical Competence , Developing Countries , Education, Medical, Graduate/organization & administration , Humans , International Cooperation , Mentoring/organization & administration , Problem-Based Learning/organization & administration , Program Development/methods
12.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): 539-544, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1319544

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe and discuss interventions and strategies carried out at Faculdade Pernambucana de Saúde (FPS) during the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate impairment in learning and preserve students, tutors, and staff's health. Experience report: the teaching methodology used by FPS is problem-based learning, which greatly facilitated the non-discontinuity of theoretical activities carried out in-person in tutorial sessions involving a tutor and 10 to 12 students. This format was transferred to Webex Meetings rooms and held remotely. Practical laboratory activities were suspended and resumed when allowed in July. The teaching outpatient activities (third and fourth year) were suspended and resumed in August. Two years of internship were interrupted for 30 days (fifth year) and for 15 days (sixth year). External activities of practices in primary care were also suspended and resumed gradually. All assessments and activities that required face-to-face meetings, integrations, scientific initiation program orientations, collegiate meetings, meetings of the self-assessment committee were and are being carried out remotely. Conclusions: we believe that we were able to mitigate impairment in students' learning without compromising the conclusion of the school year that was facilitated by Problem Based Learning method.


Resumo Objetivo: descrever e discutir intervenções e estratégias realizadas pela Faculdade Pernambucana de Saúde (FPS) durante a pandemia de COVID-19 para atenuar prejuízos no aprendizado e preservar a saúde de estudantes, docentes e funcionários. Relato de experiência: a metodologia de ensino usada pela FPS é a aprendizagem baseada em problemas, que facilitou a não descontinuidade das atividades teóricas realizadas presencialmente em sessões tutoriais que envolvem um docente e dez a 12 estudantes, que foram transferidas para salas de Webex Meetings de forma remota. As atividades de laboratórios práticas foram suspensas e retomadas quando permitido no mês de julho. As atividades de ambulatório de ensino (terceiro e quarto ano) foram suspensas e retomadas em agosto. Os dois anos de internato sofreram interrupção de 30 dias (quinto ano) e 15 dias (sexto ano). As atividades externas de práticas em atenção primária também foram suspensas e retomadas gradativamente. Todas as avaliações e atividades que necessitavam reuniões presenciais: integrações, orientações de programa de iniciação científica, reuniões colegiadas, reuniões da comissão própria de autoavaliação foram e estão sendo realizadas de forma remota. Conclusões: acreditamos que conseguimos minimizar os prejuízos no aprendizado dos estudantes sem comprometimento de conclusão do ano letivo que foi facilitado pela metodologia de aprendizagem baseada em problemas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Medical , Students , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Faculty/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Learning , Social Isolation , Brazil/epidemiology , Quarantine , Teacher Training
13.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253884, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304459

ABSTRACT

During clinical reasoning case conferences, a learner-centered approach using teleconferencing can create a psychologically safe environment and help learners speak up. This study aims to measure the psychological safety of students who are supposed to self-explain their clinical reasoning to conference participants. This crossover study compared the effects of two clinical reasoning case conference methods on medical students' psychological safety. The study population comprised 4th-5th year medical students participating in a two-week general medicine clinical clerkship rotation, from September 2019 to February 2020. They participated in both a learner-centered approach teleconference and a traditional, live-style conference. Teleconferences were conducted in a separate room, with only a group of students and one facilitator. Participants in group 1 received a learner-centered teleconference in the first week and a traditional, live-style conference in the second week. Participants assigned to group 2 received a traditional, live-style conference in the first week and a learner-centered approach teleconference in the second week. After each conference, Edmondson's Psychological Safety Scale was used to assess the students' psychological safety. We also counted the number of students who self-explained their clinical reasoning processes during each conference. Of the 38 students, 34 completed the study. Six out of the seven psychological safety items were significantly higher in the learner-centered approach teleconferences (p<0.01). Twenty-nine (85.3%) students performed self-explanation in the teleconference compared to ten (29.4%) in the live conference (p<0.01). A learner-centered approach teleconference could improve psychological safety in novice learners and increase the frequency of their self-explanation, helping educators better assess their understanding. Based on these results, a learner-centered teleconference approach has the potential to be a method for teaching clinical reasoning to medical students.


Subject(s)
Clinical Reasoning , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Students, Medical/psychology , Telecommunications , Adult , Clinical Clerkship/methods , Clinical Clerkship/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Over Studies , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Problem-Based Learning/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
Chest ; 160(4): 1424-1432, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275206

ABSTRACT

Escape Rooms are gaining prominence as education modalities; the use of principles of game design have been shown to augment knowledge acquisition in a fun, team-based learning experience ("edutainment"). In this report, we outline some of the medical literature and then provide our step-by-step approach and lessons learned when building what was, to our knowledge, the first continuing medical education Escape Room at a national scientific meeting. We then comment on how this innovative educational offering was reimagined the following year for remote (virtual) learning because of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical/methods , Motivation/physiology , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Congresses as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1690-1695, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226570

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: Value-added medical education (VAME) has been difficult to implement due to student and educator constraints. The COVID-19 pandemic caused mass transitions to online learning, removed students from clinical settings, and underscored students' desires for meaningful VAME opportunities. The authors introduced the Stanford Frontline COVID-19 Consult Service (SFCS), through which off-service medical and physician assistant (PA) students provided assistance to clinicians in the form of rapid research regarding COVID-19 clinical questions. APPROACH: The SFCS, a student-derived VAME initiative, was implemented from March to May 2020 by Stanford University medical students, PA students, and faculty. SFCS aligned with not only the interests of clinicians and students but also national accreditation standards. Students attended weekly editorial meetings, didactic sessions on literature reviews and information management, and they underwent rigorous training on the peer review process. After 2 months, the authors expanded the service to local community clinicians. OUTCOMES: The SFCS enrolled 16 students, was supported by 13 faculty members, and produced 87 peer-reviewed evidence syntheses. Of the 16 SFCS students, 13 (81%) completed evaluations; of 128 Stanford Primary Care and Population Health clinicians, 48 (38%) completed evaluations. Overall student satisfaction with the SFCS was 4.9/5 (standard deviation [SD] 0.3). Self-assessed achievement of SFCS learning objectives exceeded 90% for all objectives. Overall faculty satisfaction with the SFCS was 4.4/5 (SD 0.8). Most faculty (40/46 [87%]) planned to use the database to answer future COVID-19 questions. NEXT STEPS: The SFCS is a novel, student-initiated VAME curriculum focused on increasing students' meaningful contributions to patient care. The authors will track SFCS students throughout their clerkships to gauge clerkship performance/preparedness, and they will develop training for integrating VAME into preclerkship curricula at other institutions. Given its adaptive, student-driven design, the VAME framework used to develop the SFCS empowers students to create their own personalized, experiential learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Referral and Consultation , Students, Medical/psychology , Curriculum , Humans , Implementation Science , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1650-1654, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226569

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused substantial disruptions in medical education. The University of British Columbia (UBC) MD Undergraduate Program (MDUP) is the sixth-largest medical school in North America. MDUP students and faculty developed a joint response to these disruptions to address the curriculum and public health challenges that the pandemic posed. After clinical activities were suspended in March 2020, third- and fourth-year MDUP students formed a COVID-19 Medical Student Response Team (MSRT) to support frontline physicians, public health agencies, and community members affected by the pandemic. A nimble organizational structure was developed across 4 UBC campuses to ensure a rapid response to meet physician and community needs. Support from the faculty ensured the activities were safe for the public, patients, and students and facilitated the provision of curricular credit for volunteer activities meeting academic criteria. As of June 19, 2020, more than 700 medical students had signed up to participate in 68 projects. The majority of students participated in projects supporting the health care system, including performing contact tracing, staffing public COVID-19 call centers, distributing personal protective equipment, and creating educational multimedia products. Many initiatives have been integrated into the MDUP curriculum as scholarly activities or paraclinical electives for which academic credit is awarded. This was made possible by the inherent flexibility of the MDUP curriculum and a strong existing partnership between students and faculty. Through this process, medical students were able to develop fundamental leadership, advocacy, communication, and collaboration skills, essential competencies for graduating physicians. In developing a transparent, accountable, and inclusive organization, students were able to effectively meet community needs during a crisis and create a sustainable and democratic structure capable of responding to future emergencies. Open dialogue between the MSRT and the faculty allowed for collaborative problem solving and the opportunity to transform disruption into academic innovation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/organization & administration , Problem-Based Learning/organization & administration , Universities/organization & administration , British Columbia , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Intersectoral Collaboration , Problem-Based Learning/methods , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 59-65, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222266

ABSTRACT

Public health and global health practitioners need to develop global health diplomacy (GHD) skills to efficiently work within complex global health scenarios, such as the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Problem-based learning was used as a framework to create a scenario-based activity designed to develop GHD-related skills. The application and effectiveness of this scenario-based activity to develop GHD-related skills were assessed. A mixed-methods approach involving a self-administered survey and one focus group discussion was used. The survey collected baseline participant characteristics as well as understanding and improvements in GHD-related skills using a 5-point Likert scale. The focus group was audio-recorded and thematically analyzed using both inductive and deductive codes. Data integration was achieved by connecting and weaving. Method and investigator triangulation techniques were used. Participants self-reported significantly better postscenario-based activity responses when asked about their understanding of diplomacy, negotiation, communication, and how to address public health emergencies (P < 0.01, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Most participants either agreed or strongly agreed that their GHD-related skills improved with participation in the scenario-based activity (diplomacy = 55.6%; negotiation = 66.5%; communication = 72.2%; addressing public health emergencies = 72.1%). Overall, qualitative data were consistent with results obtained using quantitative methods. The scenario-based activity was effective for improving the self-reported understanding of GHD-related skills. The scenario-based activity was also effective for developing the selected GHD-related skills (as self-reported). This scenario-based activity is likely to reduce cognitive load and avoid participant overload, thereby facilitating learning. Further research is required to elucidate its long-term impact on skills development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Computer Simulation , Global Health , Learning/classification , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Young Adult
19.
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1671-1679, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216686

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many medical schools suspended clinical clerkships and implemented newly adapted curricula to facilitate continued educational progress. While the implementation of these new curricula has been described, an understanding of the impact on student learning outcomes is lacking. In 2020, the authors followed Kern's 6-step approach to curricular development to create and evaluate a novel COVID-19 curriculum for medical students at the University of California San Francisco School of Medicine and evaluate its learning outcomes. The primary goal of the curriculum was to provide third- and fourth-year medical students an opportunity for workplace learning in the absence of clinical clerkships, specifically for students to develop clerkship-level milestones in the competency domains of practice-based learning and improvement, professionalism, and systems-based practice. The curriculum was designed to match students with faculty-mentored projects occurring primarily in virtual formats. A total of 126 students enrolled in the curriculum and completed a survey about their learning outcomes (100% response rate). Of 35 possible clerkship-level milestones, there were 12 milestones for which over half of students reported development in competency domains including practice-based learning and improvement, professionalism, and interpersonal and communication skills. Thematic analysis of students' qualitative survey responses demonstrated 2 central motivations for participating in the curriculum: identity as physicians-in-training and patient engagement. Six central learning areas were developed during the curriculum: interprofessional teamwork, community resources, technology in medicine, skill-building, quality improvement, and specialty-specific learning. This analysis demonstrates that students can develop competencies and achieve rich workplace learning through project-based experiential learning, even in virtual clinical workplaces. Furthermore, knowledge of community resources, technology in medicine, and quality improvement was developed through the curriculum more readily than in traditional clerkships. These could be considered as integral learning objectives in future curricular design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Clerkship/methods , Curriculum , Education, Medical/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Clinical Competence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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