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1.
Trials ; 24(1): 364, 2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242568

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The BATCH trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial to compare procalcitonin-guided management of severe bacterial infection in children with current management. PRECISE is a mechanistic sub-study embedded into the BATCH trial. This paper describes the statistical analysis plan for the BATCH trial and PRECISE sub-study. METHODS: The BATCH trial will assess the effectiveness of an additional procalcitonin test in children (aged 72 h to 18 years) hospitalised with suspected or confirmed bacterial infection to guide antimicrobial prescribing decisions. Participants will be enrolled in the trial from randomisation until day 28 follow-up. The co-primary outcomes are duration of intravenous antibiotic use and a composite safety outcome. Target sample size is 1942 patients, based on detecting a 1-day reduction in intravenous antibiotic use (90% power, two-sided) and on a non-inferiority margin of 5% risk difference in the composite safety outcome (90% power, one-sided), while allowing for up to 10% loss to follow-up. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics will be summarised overall, by trial arm, and by whether patients were recruited before or after the pause in recruitment due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the primary analysis, duration of intravenous antibiotic use will be tested for superiority using Cox regression, and the composite safety outcome will be tested for non-inferiority using logistic regression. The intervention will be judged successful if it reduces the duration of intravenous antibiotic use without compromising safety. Secondary analyses will include sensitivity analyses, pre-specified subgroup analyses, and analysis of secondary outcomes. Two sub-studies, including PRECISE, involve additional pre-specified subgroup analyses. All analyses will be adjusted for the balancing factors used in the randomisation, namely centre and patient age. CONCLUSION: We describe the statistical analysis plan for the BATCH trial and PRECISE sub-study, including definitions of clinical outcomes, reporting guidelines, statistical principles, and analysis methods. The trial uses a design with co-primary superiority and non-inferiority endpoints. The analysis plan has been written prior to the completion of follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: BATCH: ISRCTN11369832, registered 20 September 2017, doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN11369832. PRECISE: ISRCTN14945050, registered 17 December 2020, doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN14945050.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Procalcitonin , Pandemics , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biomarkers , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28787, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325434

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During COVID-19 pandemic, artificial neural network (ANN) systems have been providing aid for clinical decisions. However, to achieve optimal results, these models should link multiple clinical data points to simple models. This study aimed to model the in-hospital mortality and mechanical ventilation risk using a two step approach combining clinical variables and ANN-analyzed lung inflammation data. METHODS: A data set of 4317 COVID-19 hospitalized patients, including 266 patients requiring mechanical ventilation, was analyzed. Demographic and clinical data (including the length of hospital stay and mortality) and chest computed tomography (CT) data were collected. Lung involvement was analyzed using a trained ANN. The combined data were then analyzed using unadjusted and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Overall in-hospital mortality associated with ANN-assigned percentage of the lung involvement (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-7.43, p < 0.001 for the patients with >50% of lung tissue affected by COVID-19 pneumonia), age category (HR: 5.34, 95% CI: 3.32-8.59 for cases >80 years, p < 0.001), procalcitonin (HR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.59-2.76, p < 0.001, C-reactive protein level (CRP) (HR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.25-3.56, p = 0.004), glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (HR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.37-2.42, p < 0.001) and troponin (HR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.69-2.72, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the risk of mechanical ventilation is also associated with ANN-based percentage of lung inflammation (HR: 13.2, 95% CI: 8.65-20.4, p < 0.001 for patients with >50% involvement), age, procalcitonin (HR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.14-3.2, p = 0.14, eGFR (HR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.2-2.74, p = 0.004) and clinical variables, including diabetes (HR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.91-3.27, p < 0.001), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (HR: 3.16, 95% CI: 2.38-4.2, p < 0.001) and chronic pulmonary disease (HR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.44-3.7, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ANN-based lung tissue involvement is the strongest predictor of unfavorable outcomes in COVID-19 and represents a valuable support tool for clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Respiration, Artificial , Hospital Mortality , Pandemics , Procalcitonin , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Neural Networks, Computer , Retrospective Studies
3.
Virol J ; 20(1): 92, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of procalcitonin (PCT)-a promising marker for coinfections-to predict coinfections in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang were searched to identify eligible studies (up to August 30, 2021). Articles that reported the predictive value of PCT for coinfections in patients with COVID-19 were included. Individual and pooled sensitivities and specificities were reported, and I2 was used to test heterogeneity. This study was prospectively registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (registration number: CRD42021283344). RESULTS: Five studies involving a total of 2775 patients reported the predictive value of PCT for coinfections in patients with COVID-19. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of PCT in predicting coinfections in the pooled studies were 0.60 (95% CI 0.35-0.81, I2 = 88.85), 0.71 (95% CI 0.58-0.81, I2 = 87.82), and 0.72(95% CI 0.68-0.76) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although PCT has limited predictive value for coinfections in patients with COVID-19, lower PCT levels seem to indicate a decreased probability of having a coinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Procalcitonin , China , Databases, Factual
4.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2023: 8545431, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292706

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increased rate of intensive care unit (ICU) stays. Intermediate care units (IMCUs) are a useful resource for the management of patients with severe COVID-19 that do not require ICU admission. In this research, we aimed to determine survival outcomes and parameters predicting mortality in patients who have been admitted to IMCU. Materials and Methods: Patients who were admitted to IMCU between April 2019 and January 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. Sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and blood parameters on admission were compared between the patients who died in IMCU and the others. Blood parameters at discharge were compared between survived and deceased individuals. Survival analysis was performed via Kaplan-Meier analysis. Blood parameters predicting mortality were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: A total of 140 patients were included within the scope of this study. The median age was 72.5 years, and 77 (55%) of them were male and 63 (45%) of them were female. A total of 37 (26.4%) patients deceased in IMCU, and 40 patients (28.5%) were transferred to ICU. Higher platelet count (HR 3.454; 95% CI 1.383-8.625; p=0.008), procalcitonin levels (HR 3.083; 95% CI 1.158-8.206; p=0.024), and lower oxygen saturation (HR 4.121; 95% CI 2.018-8.414; p < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of mortality in IMCU. At discharge from IMCU, higher procalcitonin levels (HR 2.809; 95% CI 1.216-6.487; p=0.016), lower platelet count (HR 2.269; 95% CI 1.012-5.085; p=0.047), and noninvasive mechanic ventilation requirement (HR 2.363; 95% CI 1.201-4.651; p=0.013) were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Median OS was found as 41 days. The overall survival rate was found 40% while the IMCU survival rate was 73.6%. Conclusions: IMCU seems to have a positive effect on survival in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Close monitoring of these parameters and early intervention may improve survival rates and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Intermediate Care Facilities
5.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284520, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297165

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) has claimed over 6.8 million lives since first being reported in late 2019. The virus that causes COVID-19 disease is highly contagious and spreads rapidly. To date, there are no approved prognostic tools that could predict why some patients develop severe or fatal disease outcomes. Early COVID-19 studies found an association between procalcitonin (PCT) and hospitalization or duration of mechanical ventilation and death but were limited by the cohort sizes. Therefore, this study was designed to confirm the associations of PCT with COVID-19 disease severity outcomes in a large cohort. For this retrospective data analysis study, 27,154 COVID-19-positive US veterans with post-infection PCT laboratory test data and their disease severity outcomes were accessed using the VA electronic healthcare data. Cox regression models were used to test the association between serum PCT levels and disease outcomes while controlling for demographics and relevant confounding variables. The models demonstrated increasing disease severity (ventilation and death) with increasing PCT levels. For PCT serum levels above 0.20 ng/ml, the unadjusted risk increased nearly 2.3-fold for mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio, HR, 2.26, 95%CI: 2.11-2.42) and in-hospital death (HR, 2.28, 95%CI: 2.16-2.41). Even when adjusted for demographics, diabetes, pneumonia, antibiotic use, white blood cell count, and serum C-reactive protein levels, the risks remained relatively high for mechanical ventilation (HR, 1.80, 95%CI: 1.67-1.94) and death (HR, 1.76, 95%CI: 1.66-1.87). These data suggest that higher PCT levels have independent associations with ventilation and in-hospital death in veterans with COVID-19 disease, validating previous findings. The data suggested that serum PCT level may be a promising prognostic tool for COVID-19 severity assessment and should be further evaluated in a prospective clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , Procalcitonin , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Prospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Patient Acuity
6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 47(1-2): 34-46, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: because of different human behaviours, SARS-CoV-2 spread may be lower in spring/summer. On the contrary, it is not clearly known whether the clinical course/severity of hospitalized patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 can be different in the various seasons.. OBJECTIVES: to understand whether there were differences in severity of COVID-19 in patients who had contracted the infection in winter versus those infected in spring/summer. DESIGN: observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: from the administrative database of the SARS-CoV-2 surveillance system and that of hospital discharge, a cohort of patients (8,221, 653 of which were hospitalized) who tested positive to the RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 between 01.12.2020 and 31.07.2021 in the Grosseto province (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) was selected and analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: hospitalization rate and length, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) use, Intensive Care Unite (ICU) admissions, intra-hospital mortality and PaO2/FiO2 values were measured and compared between subjects infected in winter and those who developed COVID-19 in spring/summer. Viral load (cycle threshold, Ct), vitamin D, serum ferritin, IL-6, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and C-reactive protein measured in the two periods were also compared. RESULTS: in the considered months, the hospitalization rate among 8,221 patients with COVID-19 was 8%: 370 (8.5%) individuals were hospitalized in winter and 283 (7,3%; p=0.31) in spring/summer; 62 (16.8%), 88 (23.8%), and 63 (17%) in winter and 28 (9.9%), 40 (14.1%), and 36 (12.7%) in spring/summer were admitted in ICU (p=0.01), used CPAP/NIV (p=0.002) and died (p=0.13), respectively. Hospitalization days were 14.5±11.6 in winter and 10.3±8.84 in spring/summer (p=0.001), while minimum PaO2/FiO2, measured during hospital stays was 123.2±38.6 in spring/summer and 112.6±40.8 in winter (p=0.054). Multivariate analysis (adjusted for all confounding factors) also confirmed reduced risks of having ICU admissions (0.53; 95%CI 0.32;0.88; p=0.01) and of using CPAP/NIV (0.48; 95%CI 0.32;0.75; p=0.001) in spring/summer when compared to winter. Hospitalization days and minimum PaO2/FiO2 were also lower in spring/summer (ß= -3.9; 95%CI -5.5;-2.2; p=0.001) and winter (ß= -17; 95%CI -0.93;35; p=0.06), respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio of mortality in winter, obtained with a Cox model, was higher of about 38% compared to spring/summer. No Ct values (viral load) differences were found either in winter (19.45±6.18) or spring/summer (20.3±6.7; p=0.343). IL-6, ferritin, procalcitonin, D-dimer were similar. Conversely, CRP was lower whereas vitamin D was higher in the warmer seasons. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 may be less severe during spring/summer in hospitalized patients. This does not seem to be influenced by different SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the different periods considered. C-reactive protein was found to be lower whereas vitamin D higher in the warmer months. It can be hypothesized that higher levels of vitamin D in spring/summer, compared to winter, may be associated to a positive modulation of COVID-19 induced inflammation with a possible disease severity reduction during spring/summer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , C-Reactive Protein , Seasons , Interleukin-6 , Procalcitonin , Italy/epidemiology , Vitamin D , Ferritins
7.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(10): 902-905, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248197

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected children differently from adults worldwide. Data on the clinical presentation of the infection in children are limited. We present a detailed account of pediatric inpatients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus at our institution during widespread local transmission, aiming to understand disease presentation and outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of children, ages 0 to 18 years, with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on nasopharyngeal specimens admitted to our hospital over a 4-week period. We present clinical data from 22 patients and highlight the variability of the presentation. In our study, most children presented without respiratory illness or symptoms suggestive of COVID-19; many were identified only because of universal testing. Because children may have variable signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection, targeted testing may miss some cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Neoplasms/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , United States
8.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Online) ; 16: 1-5, 2022'.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2285525

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze the association of inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers with mortality in geriatric patients with COVID-19. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 206 patients aged 60 years or older who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at an intensive care unit. The analyzed variables were age, sex, length of hospital stay, and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, ferritin, and d-dimer). We constructed a receiver operating characteristic curve and analyzed the area under the curve to evaluate the accuracy of biomarkers associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19. Results: Mean age was 72 (± 8) years. There were 101 deaths (49% of the total sample), which were significantly more frequent (p = 0.006) in the older age groups and were distributed as follows: 37.50% (60 ­ 69 years old); 50% (70 ­ 79 years old); 67.50% (80 ­ 89 years old); and 75% (over 90 years old). Mortality was associated with increased serum levels of procalcitonin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and d-dimer, and decreased fibrinogen levels. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio occupied the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve 0.859) in this group. Conclusions: In this study, inflammatory biomarkers neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and d-dimer were associated with mortality in older patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at an intensive care unit, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio presented the best accuracy.


Objetivos: Analisar associação de biomarcadores inflamatórios e da coagulação com mortalidade em pacientes geriátricos com COVID-19. Metodologia: Estudo do tipo coorte retrospectiva de 206 pacientes com 60 anos de idade ou mais internados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) com COVID-19. As variáveis analisadas foram idade, sexo, tempo de permanência hospitalar e biomarcadores inflamatórios, sendo esses proteína C reativa (PCR), relação neutrófilo-linfócitos (RNL), procalcitonina, fibrinogênio, ferritina e D-dímero. Empregou-se a curva ROC, com análise da área sob a curva (ACR), para avaliar a acurácia dos biomarcadores associados à mortalidade nos pacientes com COVID-19. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 72 (± 8) anos. Ocorreram 101 óbitos (49,02% da amostra total), significativamente mais frequente (p = 0,006) nas faixas etárias mais elevadas, distribuídos por faixa etária: 37,50% (60 ­ 69 anos); 50% (70 ­ 79 anos); 67,50% (80 ­ 89 anos); e 75% (nos maiores de 90 anos). A mortalidade foi associada a aumento dos níveis séricos dos biomarcadores procalcitonina, relação neutrófiloslinfócitos (RNL), proteína C reativa (PCR) e D-dímero, bem como diminuição dos níveis de fibrinogênio. A RNL ocupou a maior área sob a curva ROC (ACR 0,859) nesse grupo. Conclusões: Neste estudo, os biomarcadores inflamatórios RNL, procalcitonina, PCR e D-dímero foram associados com mortalidade em pacientes idosos portadores de COVID-19 internados em UTI, e a RNL foi a que apresentou a melhor acurácia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Cohort Studies , Ferritins/blood , Procalcitonin/blood
9.
Indian J Med Res ; 156(4&5): 669-673, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256283

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: There are limited data from India on the post-COVID multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical profile of patients with MIS-A admitted to a tertiary care centre in southern India. Methods: This single-centre retrospective study was conducted from November 2020 to July 2021, and included patients aged >18 yr admitted to the hospital as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Nine patients (5 male, mean age 40±13 yr) met the criteria for MIS-A. Five patients had proven COVID-19 infection or contact history 36.8±11.8 days back. All patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody, negative for COVID-19 PCR, and had negative blood, urine and sputum cultures. All patients had fever and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and five patients had left ventricular dysfunction. All patients had neutrophilic leucocytosis at presentation and elevated biomarkers such as C-reactive protein serum procalcitonin, D-dimer and ferritin. The majority of the patients (7/9 i.e. 77.78%) were treated with intravenous hydrocortisone (50-100 mg q6h-q8h). Six patients recovered completely whereas three patients expired. Interpretation & conclusions: Fever and GI symptoms were the most common presentation of MIS-A. Elevated serum procalcitonin may not be useful in differentiating bacterial sepsis from MIS-A. Most patients responded to corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Retrospective Studies , Procalcitonin , Fever , India/epidemiology
10.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 44(1): 89-95, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260739

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The coronavirus pandemic was associated with a high mortality rate in the Republic of North Macedonia. Finding early markers of the disease's severity may predict outcomes and guide the treatment of the disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of inflammatory markers in predicting the outcome of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. Methods: The study included 104 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients who underwent hospital treatment at the Institute of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis in Skopje, North Macedonia, between November 2020 and May 2021. Inflammatory markers were assessed in all patients and correlated with the disease severity and outcome in terms of survival or death. Results: IL-6 and LDH at admission were significantly elevated in patients with a severe or critical form of the disease and among non-survivors. In addition, IL-6 showed 87.9% of sensitivity and 61.8% of specificity for distinguishing non-survivors from survivors with a cut-off value of 21.7 pg/ml in the receiver operator curve (ROC). Procalcitonin was significantly increased in non-survivors. Parallel to the increase of disease severity, the values of CRP and LDH increased significantly during hospitalization. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that a significant association exists between the highly increased levels of CRP, LDH, IL-6 and procalcitonin and the severity of the disease and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Their measurements and follow-up during the course of the disease could be used as predictors for prognosis and outcome but also as a subject for targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Procalcitonin , Interleukin-6 , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Biomarkers
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272604

ABSTRACT

Bacterial and viral sepsis induce alterations of all hematological parameters and procalcitonin is used as a biomarker of infection and disease severity. Our aim was to study the hematological patterns associated with pulmonary sepsis triggered by bacteria and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-type-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to identify the discriminants between them. We performed a retrospective, observational study including 124 patients with bacterial sepsis and 138 patients with viral sepsis. Discriminative ability of hematological parameters and procalcitonin between sepsis types was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Sensitivity (Sn%), specificity (Sp%), positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for the identified cut-off values. Patients with bacterial sepsis were older than patients with viral sepsis (p < 0.001), with no differences regarding gender. Subsequently to ROC analysis, procalcitonin had excellent discriminative ability for bacterial sepsis diagnosis with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92 (cut-off value of >1.49 ng/mL; Sn = 76.6%, Sp = 94.2%), followed by RDW% with an AUC = 0.87 (cut-off value >14.8%; Sn = 80.7%, Sp = 85.5%). Leukocytes, monocytes and neutrophils had good discriminative ability with AUCs between 0.76-0.78 (p < 0.001), while other hematological parameters had fair or no discriminative ability. Lastly, procalcitonin value was strongly correlated with disease severity in both types of sepsis (p < 0.001). Procalcitonin and RDW% had the best discriminative ability between bacterial and viral sepsis, followed by leukocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. Procalcitonin is a marker of disease severity regardless of sepsis type.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Sepsis , Humans , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/microbiology , Biomarkers , Bacteria , ROC Curve
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 66: 146-151, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249573

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory infections make up a sizable percentage of emergency department (ED) visits and many result in antibiotics being prescribed. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been found to reduce antibiotic use in both outpatient and critical care settings, yet remains underused in the ED. This study aimed to evaluate whether point of care molecular influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) testing, PCT, and a pharmacist driven educational intervention in aggregate optimizes antibiotic and antiviral prescribing in the ED setting. METHODS: A randomized trial of the Cobas Liat Flu/RSV Assay, procalcitonin, and the use of pharmacist-led education in patients 0-50 years of age being seen in the ED for Influenza Like Illness (ILI) or acute respiratory illness. The study enrolled 200 ED patients between March 2018 and April 2022. RESULTS: There was little difference in antibiotic or antiviral prescribing between the intervention and control groups in this study (39%-32% = 7.0%, 95% CI: -6.2, 20.2, P = 0.30). However, a post-hoc analysis of the use of procalcitonin showed results were used as indicated in the ED (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: PCT can be used in both adult and pediatric populations to help guide the decision of whether to treat with antibiotics in the ED setting. Pharmacist guided education may not be a driving factor.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Pharmacists , Procalcitonin , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
13.
Wiad Lek ; 76(1): 65-70, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The purpose of this study is to find out the association between procalcitonin and hepcidin in patients with COVID-19, in addition to their role as diagnostic markers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A total of 75 patients infected with coronavirus were included in the current study, their age is ranging between 20 to 78 years. Those patients was hospitalized in Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital in Najaf, in Iraq. This study also included 50 healthy subjects which are volunteers and considered as a (control group). Biomarker (procalcitonin and hepcidin) measurements were achieved by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) in the Elecsys immunoassay system. RESULTS: Results: The present study showed a significant increase the serum cencentration of hepcidin and procalcitonin in patients with COVID-19 as compared tohealthy subjects. There was a highly significant increasing(p < 0.01) in hepcidin and PCT level in patients with severe infection comparing to other catgaries.The current study also revealed that the sensitivity values of the markers were: 0.88%, 0.85 for procalcitonin and hepcidin respectively, which indicate high diagnostic power. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Serum levels of hepcidin and procalcitonin are increased as inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients with relatively high sensitivity. It seems that these imflammatory markers obviously elevate in the severe cases COVID-19dusease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepcidins , Procalcitonin , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Hepcidins/blood , Iraq , Procalcitonin/blood
14.
Saudi Med J ; 44(3): 268-276, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the maternal and fetal clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women during the whole period of the pandemic in a single province in the southeast of Turkey. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who were screened from the medical registration system and found to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus during pregnancy. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of all the patients were obtained and compared between groups classified as severe-critical and mild-moderate disease severity. RESULTS: The mean age of all the cases was 29.0±5.3 years in the mild-moderate cases, and 30.1±5.5 years in the severe-critical cases. The rates of 3rd trimester, cesarean and premature birth, high body mass index (BMI), symptoms of cough and dyspnea, the presence of comorbidities, and hypothyroidism were significantly higher in the severe-critical cases than in the mild-moderate group. In the univariate analyses, BMI, dyspnea, cough, maternal complication rate, the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, the values of white blood cells, procalcitonin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were detected as significant risk factors. In the multivariate analysis, only procalcitonin was a significant factor. CONCLUSION: In the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, obesity and hypothyroidism were found to be risk factors for severe-critical cases of COVID-19 infection, and the clinical course was more severe with a higher rate of mortality in the recent period of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypothyroidism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology , Cough , Procalcitonin , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Pregnancy Outcome
16.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 232, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Decrease in histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) was reported as a cause of dysregulation of the coagulation-fibrinolysis and immune systems, leading to multi-organ failure, and it may be a biomarker for sepsis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, preeclampsia, and coronavirus disease 2019. However, the usefulness of HRG in perioperative management remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of HRG as a biomarker for predicting postoperative complications. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, observational study of 150 adult patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit after surgery. Postoperative complications were defined as those having a grade II or higher in the Clavien-Dindo classification, occurring within 7 days after surgery. The primary outcome was HRG levels in the patients with and without postoperative complications. The secondary outcome was the ability of HRG, white blood cell, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and presepsin to predict postoperative complications. Data are presented as number and median (interquartile range). RESULTS: The incidence of postoperative complications was 40%. The HRG levels on postoperative day 1 were significantly lower in patients who developed postoperative complications (n = 60; 21.50 [18.12-25.74] µg/mL) than in those who did not develop postoperative complications (n = 90; 25.46 [21.05-31.63] µg/mL). The Harrell C-index scores for postoperative complications were HRG, 0.65; white blood cell, 0.50; C-reactive protein, 0.59; procalcitonin, 0.73; and presepsin, 0.73. HRG was independent predictor of postoperative complications when adjusted for age, the presence of preoperative cardiovascular comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification, operative time, and the volume of intraoperative bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The HRG levels on postoperative day 1 could predict postoperative complications. Hence, HRG may be a useful biomarker for predicting postoperative complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Procalcitonin , Adult , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Peptide Fragments , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Proteins
17.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 46(5): 101901, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268837

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a self-limiting disease. However, 20-30% of patients will develop into severe AP (SAP), and infectious pancreatic necrosis in the late course of SAP is the leading cause of death for such patients. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and systematic report of the currently published risk factors for complicated infectious pancreatic necrosis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis by meta-analysis of published retrospective case-control studies. METHODS: Five electronic database systems were selected to search for articles on risk factors of infectious pancreatic necrosis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. According to the heterogeneity among studies, the standardized mean difference (SMD), odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated by applying a random-effects model or fixed-effects model, respectively. RESULTS: As of 2nd Jun, 2021, a total of 1408 articles were searched, but only 21 articles were finally included in this meta-analysis. The results found that patients with severe acute pancreatitis complicated by infected pancreatic necrosis had higher APACHE II scores and higher levels of lipase (LPS), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) compared to patients with severe acute pancreatitis alone. The differences were statistically significant (APACHE II: SMD = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.55, 1.18; LPS: SMD = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.13, 1.92; CRP: SMD = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.79; PCT: SMD = 1.82, 95%CI: 1.36, 2.28). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with patients with severe acute pancreatitis alone, high levels of LPS, CRP, PCT and high APACHE II score were risk factors for infectious pancreatic necrosis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.


Subject(s)
Calcitonin , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Acute Disease , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/complications , Procalcitonin , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 22(6): 1005-1015, 2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264457

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic and has spread around the globe, unsparingly affecting vulnerable populations. Effective prevention measures for pregnant women, who are particularly affected, include early identification of those patients at risk of developing in-hospital complications, and the continuous improvement of maternal-fetal treatment strategies to ensure the efficient use of health resources. The objective of our retrospective study was to determine which patient biomarkers on hospital admission correlate with disease severity as measured by disease course classification, the need for oxygen supplementation and higher demand for oxygen, the need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and length of hospital stay. Analysis of 52 PCR SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women revealed that the median date of hospital admission was the 30th gestational week, with dyspnoea, cough, and fever as the leading symptoms. The presence of diabetes and hypertension predisposed pregnant women to the severe course of illness. Lung involvement shown by CT scans on admission correlated with the greater clinical severity. The main laboratory predictors of disease progression were lymphocytopenia, hypocalcemia, low total cholesterol, low total protein levels, and high serum levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, interleukin-6, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, and troponin I. Further research with a larger cohort of pregnant women is needed to determine the utility of these results for everyday practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , C-Reactive Protein , Retrospective Studies , Procalcitonin , Troponin I , Interleukin-6 , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Ferritins , Oxygen , Glucose , Cholesterol
19.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(4): 1725-1733, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological parameters in children with COVID-19 and determine the effects of inflammatory biomarkers on the assessment of hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective single-center study was performed on 633 children with COVID-19 between March 2020 and January 2021. The study population was separated into two groups: inpatients (n = 83) and outpatients (n = 550). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify risk factors for hospitalization. RESULTS: Lymphopenia (n = 228, 36%) was found mainly to be a hematological abnormality in all cases. Compared with outpatients, inpatients had significantly higher white blood cell (WBC) (p = 0.005), lymphocyte (p < 0.001), and platelet counts (p = 0.036), and significantly higher red cell distribution width (p = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.003), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.001), and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio values (p = 0.004). On the other hand, they had significantly lower values of hemoglobin (p < 0.001), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.024), platelet lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.001), derivated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.037), and mean platelet volume to lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that WBC, CRP, and procalcitonin cutoff values were the best discriminated between inpatients and outpatients. The results for the areas under the curve of WBC, CRP, and procalcitonin used to assess patients' hospitalization were 0.595 (95% CI 0.519-0.670, p = 0.005), 0.599 (95% CI 0.527-0.672, p = 0.003), and 0.599 (95% CI 0.525-0.673, p = 0.004), respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that high WBC and procalcitonin levels can be used as independent predictors of hospitalization in children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Child , Humans , Procalcitonin , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
20.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 1(1): 9-13, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235109

ABSTRACT

This research aimed to evaluate the clinical features and computed tomography (CT) scans associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). A total of 351 COVID-19 patients (100 AKI, 251 non-AKI) hospitalized at Imam Hossein Teaching Hospital affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were included. To investigate the factors associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients developing AKI, COX univariate and multivariate regression models were applied after controlling other confounding variables. C-reactive protein CRP, lactate, and procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients (P < .05). In addition, AKI patients had higher frequencies of lymphopenia and leukocytosis (P < .05). The troponin levels and WBC were the most significant factors for predicting mortality in patients with AKI. Our findings showed that AKI per se is much more important than any other prognostic factor affecting non-AKI patients. However, AKI patients with higher CRP, PCT, and lactate levels had a poor prognosis.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.7241.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Prognosis , Procalcitonin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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