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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17584, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077094

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients with severe complications present comorbidities like cardiovascular-disease, hypertension and type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM), sharing metabolic alterations like insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia. Our objective was to evaluate the association among different components of the lipid-lipoprotein profile, such as remnant lipoprotein (RLP)-cholesterol, in patients with COVID-19, and to analyze their associations with the severity of the disease and death. We studied 193 patients (68 (29-96) years; 49.7% male) hospitalized for COVID-19 and 200 controls (46 (18-79) years; 52.5% male). Lipoprotein profile, glucose and procalcitonin were assessed. Patients presented higher glucose, TG, TG/HDL-cholesterol and RLP-cholesterol levels, but lower total, LDL, HDL and no-HDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.001). When a binary logistic regression was performed, age, non-HDL-cholesterol, and RLP-cholesterol were associated with death (p = 0.005). As the COVID-19 condition worsened, according to procalcitonin tertiles, a decrease in all the cholesterol fractions (p < 0.03) was observed with no differences in TG, while levels of RLP-cholesterol and TG/HDL-cholesterol increased (p < 0.001). Lower levels of all the cholesterol fractions were related with the presence and severity of COVID-19, except for RLP-cholesterol levels and TG/HDL-cholesterol index. These alterations indicate a lipid metabolic disorder, characteristic of IR states in COVID-19 patients. RLP-cholesterol levels predicted severity and death in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholesterol , Female , Humans , Male , Cholesterol/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Glucose , Lipoproteins/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over
2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(10): 1801-1807, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Patients affected by obesity and Coronavirus disease 2019, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), appear to have a higher risk for intensive care (ICU) admission. A state of low-grade chronic inflammation in obesity has been suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether obesity is associated with differences in new inflammatory biomarkers mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), C-terminal proendothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 105 critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were divided in patients with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 42) and patients without obesity (BMI < 30 kg/m2, n = 63) and studied in a retrospective observational cohort study. MR-proADM, CT-proET-1 concentrations, and conventional markers of white blood count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) were collected during the first 7 days. RESULTS: BMI was 33.5 (32-36.1) and 26.2 (24.7-27.8) kg/m2 in the group with and without obesity. There were no significant differences in concentrations MR-proADM, CT-proET-1, WBC, CRP, and PCT at baseline and the next 6 days between patients with and without obesity. Only MR-proADM changed significantly over time (p = 0.039). Also, BMI did not correlate with inflammatory biomarkers (MR-proADM rho = 0.150, p = 0.125, CT-proET-1 rho = 0.179, p = 0.067, WBC rho = -0.044, p = 0.654, CRP rho = 0.057, p = 0.564, PCT rho = 0.022, p = 0.842). Finally, no significant differences in time on a ventilator, ICU length of stay, and 28-day mortality between patients with or without obesity were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, obesity was not associated with differences in MR-proADM, and CT-proET-1, or impaired outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register, NL8460.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , COVID-19 , Endothelin-1 , Obesity , Peptide Fragments , Protein Precursors , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenomedullin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Endothelin-1/blood , Humans , Obesity/complications , Patient Admission , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Retrospective Studies
3.
BMJ ; 374: n2132, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether point-of care procalcitonin and lung ultrasonography can safely reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment in patients with lower respiratory tract infections in primary care. DESIGN: Three group, pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial from September 2018 to March 2020. SETTING: 60 Swiss general practices. PARTICIPANTS: One general practitioner per practice was included. General practitioners screen all patients with acute cough; patients with clinical pneumonia were included. INTERVENTIONS: Randomisation in a 1:1:1 of general practitioners to either antibiotics guided by sequential procalcitonin and lung ultrasonography point-of-care tests (UltraPro; n=152), procalcitonin guided antibiotics (n=195), or usual care (n=122). MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome was proportion of patients in each group prescribed an antibiotic by day 28. Secondary outcomes included duration of restricted activities due to lower respiratory tract infection within 14 days. RESULTS: 60 general practitioners included 469 patients (median age 53 years (interquartile range 38-66); 278 (59%) were female). Probability of antibiotic prescription at day 28 was lower in the procalcitonin group than in the usual care group (0.40 v 0.70, cluster corrected difference -0.26 (95% confidence interval -0.41 to -0.10)). No significant difference was seen between UltraPro and procalcitonin groups (0.41 v 0.40, -0.03 (-0.17 to 0.12)). The median number of days with restricted activities by day 14 was 4 days in the procalcitonin group and 3 days in the usual care group (difference 1 day (95% confidence interval -0.23 to 2.32); hazard ratio 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97)), which did not prove non-inferiority. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with usual care, point-of-care procalcitonin led to a 26% absolute reduction in the probability of 28 day antibiotic prescription without affecting patients' safety. Point-of-care lung ultrasonography did not further reduce antibiotic prescription, although a potential added value cannot be excluded, owing to the wide confidence intervals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03191071.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Point-of-Care Testing , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Ultrasonography/methods , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Female , General Practice , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care/methods
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for the development of severe COVID-19 disease and death have been widely reported across several studies. Knowledge about the determinants of severe disease and mortality in the Indian context can guide early clinical management. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case control study across nine sites in India to identify the determinants of severe and critical COVID-19 disease. FINDINGS: We identified age above 60 years, duration before admission >5 days, chronic kidney disease, leucocytosis, prothrombin time > 14 sec, serum ferritin >250 ng/mL, d-dimer >0.5 ng/mL, pro-calcitonin >0.15 µg/L, fibrin degradation products >5 µg/mL, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase >150 U/L, interleukin-6 >25 pg/mL, NLR ≥3, and deranged liver function, renal function and serum electrolytes as significant factors associated with severe COVID-19 disease. INTERPRETATION: We have identified a set of parameters that can help in characterising severe COVID-19 cases in India. These parameters are part of routinely available investigations within Indian hospital settings, both public and private. Study findings have the potential to inform clinical management protocols and identify patients at high risk of severe outcomes at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23390, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial symptoms of patients with COVID-19 are very much like those of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); it is difficult to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP with clinical symptoms and imaging examination. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to construct an effective model for the early identification of COVID-19 that would also distinguish it from CAP. METHODS: The clinical laboratory indicators (CLIs) of 61 COVID-19 patients and 60 CAP patients were analyzed retrospectively. Random combinations of various CLIs (ie, CLI combinations) were utilized to establish COVID-19 versus CAP classifiers with machine learning algorithms, including random forest classifier (RFC), logistic regression classifier, and gradient boosting classifier (GBC). The performance of the classifiers was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and recall rate in COVID-19 prediction using the test data set. RESULTS: The classifiers that were constructed with three algorithms from 43 CLI combinations showed high performance (recall rate >0.9 and AUROC >0.85) in COVID-19 prediction for the test data set. Among the high-performance classifiers, several CLIs showed a high usage rate; these included procalcitonin (PCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), uric acid, albumin, albumin to globulin ratio (AGR), neutrophil count, red blood cell (RBC) count, monocyte count, basophil count, and white blood cell (WBC) count. They also had high feature importance except for basophil count. The feature combination (FC) of PCT, AGR, uric acid, WBC count, neutrophil count, basophil count, RBC count, and MCHC was the representative one among the nine FCs used to construct the classifiers with an AUROC equal to 1.0 when using the RFC or GBC algorithms. Replacing any CLI in these FCs would lead to a significant reduction in the performance of the classifiers that were built with them. CONCLUSIONS: The classifiers constructed with only a few specific CLIs could efficiently distinguish COVID-19 from CAP, which could help clinicians perform early isolation and centralized management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Pneumonia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261432, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571995

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the ongoing pandemic with multitude of manifestations and association of ABO blood group in South-East Asian population needs to be explored. METHODS: It was a retrospective study of patients with COVID-19. Blood group A, B, O, and AB were identified in every participant, irrespective of their RH type and allotted groups 1, 2,3, and 4, respectively. Correlation between blood group and lab parameters was presented as histogram distributed among the four groups. Multivariate regression and logistic regression were used for inferential statistics. RESULTS: The cohort included 1067 patients: 521 (48.8%) participants had blood group O as the prevalent blood type. Overall, 10.6% COVID-19-related mortality was observed at our center. Mortality was 13.9% in blood group A, 9.5% in group B, 10% in group C, and 10.2% in AB blood group (p = 0.412). IL-6 was elevated in blood group A (median [IQR]: 23.6 [17.5,43.8]), Procalcitonin in blood group B (median [IQR]: 0.54 [0.3,0.7]), D-dimers and CRP in group AB (median [IQR]: 21.5 [9,34]; 24 [9,49], respectively). Regarding severity of COVID-19 disease, no statistical difference was seen between the blood groups. Alteration of the acute phase reactants was not positively associated with any specific blood type. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this investigation did not show significant association of blood groups with severity and of COVID-19 disease and COVID-19-associated mortality.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Patient Acuity , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 47(2): 243-247, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511340

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Procalcitonin (PCT) levels rise in systemic inflammation, especially if bacterial in origin. COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, presents with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Elevated procalcitonin in COVID-19 is considered as a marker for severity of disease. There is no study available that indicates whether elevated PCT in COVID-19 is associated with inflammation or superimposed bacterial infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between PCT levels and superadded bacterial infection, and the effect of discontinuation of antibiotic in the low PCT (<0.25 ng/ml) group on patients' outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia at a single tertiary care centre. We collected information on demographics, co-morbidities, PCT level, antibiotic use, culture results for bacterial infection, hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Continuous variables were summarized with the sample median, interquartile range, mean and range. Categorical variables were summarized with number and percentage of patients. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We studied a total of 147 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. 101 (69%) patients had a low PCT level (< 0.25 ng/ml). Bacterial culture results were negative for all patients, except 1 who had a markedly elevated PCT level (141.ng/ml). In patients with low PCT, 42% received no antibiotics, 59% received antibiotics initially, 32 (57%) patients antibiotic discontinued early (within 24 hours) and their culture remained negative for bacterial infections during hospitalizations. LOS was shorter (6 days in low PCT group compared to 9 days) in high PCT group. LOS was 1 day shorter (5 days vs 6 days) in no antibiotic group compared to antibiotic group. Our study examines the association between PCT level and superadded bacterial infection in COVID-19 pneumonia. Our results demonstrate that most patients admitted with COVID-19 have a low PCT (<0.25 ng/ml), which suggests no superadded bacterial infection and supports the previously published literature regarding low PCT in viral pneumonia. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin level remains low in the absence of bacterial infection. Early de-escalation/discontinuation of antibiotics is safe without adverse outcomes in COVID-19 pneumonia. Early de-escalation/discontinuation of antibiotics is associated with lower LOS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Procalcitonin/blood , Withholding Treatment , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 727320, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497068

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that has caused a worldwide pandemic. The majority of medullary thyroid cancers present as a thyroid nodule. At the time of diagnosis, cervical lymph nodes and distant metastases are frequently detected. Case Report: Here, we present a case of a 46-year-old man with coronavirus disease (COVID) pneumonia, who had persistently high serum procalcitonin levels despite normal C-reactive protein levels. The attending infectologist happened to be a colleague who spent some time, as part of her internal medicine rotation, in the Endocrine Ward and recalled that medullary thyroid cancer might be the cause. This led to the timely workup and treatment of the medullary cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/blood , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Endocrinology/methods , Procalcitonin/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , C-Reactive Protein/biosynthesis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/complications , Humans , Incidental Findings , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Thyroid Nodule
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5889-5903, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports a sex disparity in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients, with men exhibiting higher mortality rates compared to women. We aimed to test the correlation between serum levels of sex hormones [total testosterone, estradiol (E2), estradiol to testosterone (E2/T) ratio, progesterone), prolactin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and markers of inflammation, coagulation and sepsis at admission in hospitalized men with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an exploratory retrospective study including symptomatic men with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who were consecutively admitted to our Institution between April 1 and May 31, 2020. RESULTS: Patients were divided into survivors (n=20) and non-survivors (n=39). As compared to survivors, non-survivors showed significantly higher median neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) values, D-dimer and procalcitonin (PCT) levels, along with significantly lower median 25(OH)D levels and total testosterone levels. Non-survivors exhibited significantly higher median values of E2/T ratio (a marker of aromatase activity). Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that total testosterone levels were significantly and inversely correlated with NLR, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6, D-dimer and PCT. Conversely, E2/T ratio values were significantly and positively correlated with the aforementioned markers and with white blood cell (WBC) count. In a multivariate analysis performed by a logistic regression model after adjusting for major confounders (age, body mass index, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and malignancy), total testosterone levels were significantly and inversely associated with risk of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Low total testosterone levels and elevated E2/T ratio values at admission are associated with hyperinflammatory state in hospitalized men with COVID-19. Low total testosterone levels at admission represent an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in such patients. Therefore, total testosterone and E2/T ratio may serve as prognostic markers of disease severity in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Estradiol/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Testosterone/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Vitamin D/blood
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 308, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether procalcitonin (PCT) or C-reactive protein (CRP) combined with certain clinical characteristics can better distinguish viral from bacterial infections remains unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of PCT or CRP combined with clinical characteristics to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections in hospitalized non-intensive care unit (ICU) adults with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial previously conducted among LRTI patients. The ability of PCT, CRP and PCT or CRP combined with clinical symptoms to discriminate between viral and bacterial infection were assessed by portraying receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves among patients with only a viral or a typical bacterial infection. RESULTS: In total, 209 infected patients (viral 69%, bacterial 31%) were included in the study. When using CRP or PCT to discriminate between viral and bacterial LRTI, the optimal cut-off points were 22 mg/L and 0.18 ng/mL, respectively. When the optimal cut-off for CRP (≤ 22 mg/L) or PCT (≤ 0.18 ng/mL) combined with rhinorrhea was used to discriminate viral from bacterial LRTI, the AUCs were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.74-0.86), which was statistically significantly better than when CRP or PCT used alone (p < 0.001). When CRP ≤ 22 mg/L, PCT ≤ 0.18 ng/mL and rhinorrhea were combined, the AUC was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.80-0.91), which was statistically significantly higher than when CRP (≤ 22 mg/L) or PCT (≤ 0.18 ng/mL) was combined with rhinorrhea (p = 0.011 and p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Either CRP ≤ 22 mg/L or PCT ≤ 0.18 ng/mL combined with rhinorrhea could help distinguish viral from bacterial infections in hospitalized non-ICU adults with LRTI. When rhinorrhea was combined together, discrimination ability was further improved.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Rhinorrhea/complications , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Aged , Area Under Curve , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Virus Diseases/blood
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19675, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450292

ABSTRACT

Kidney function is affected in COVID-19, while kidney itself modulates the immune response. Here, hypothesize if COVID-19 urine biomarkers level can assess immune activation vs. clinical trajectory. Considering the kidney's critical role in modulating the immune response, we sought to analyze activation markers in patients with pre-existing dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional study of 68 patients. Blood and urine were collected within 48 h of hospital admission (H1), followed by 96 h (H2), seven days (H3), and up to 25 days (H4) from admission. Serum level ferritin, procalcitonin, IL-6 assessed immune activation overall, while the response to viral burden was gauged with serum level of spike protein and αspike IgM and IgG. 39 markers correlated highly between urine and blood. Age and race, and to a lesser extend gender, differentiated several urine markers. The burden of pre-existing conditions correlated with urine DCN, CAIX and PTN, but inversely with IL-5 or MCP-4. Higher urinary IL-12 and lower CAIX, CCL23, IL-15, IL-18, MCP-1, MCP-3, MUC-16, PD-L1, TNFRS12A, and TNFRS21 signified non-survivors. APACHE correlated with urine TNFRS12, PGF, CAIX, DCN, CXCL6, and EGF. Admission urine LAG-3 and IL-2 predicted death. Pre-existing kidney disease had a unique pattern of urinary inflammatory markers. Acute kidney injury was associated, and to a certain degree, predicted by IFNg, TWEAK, MMP7, and MUC-16. Remdesavir had a more profound effect on the urine biomarkers than steroids. Urinary biomarkers correlated with clinical status, kidney function, markers of the immune system activation, and probability of demise in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Biomarkers/urine , COVID-19/immunology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/urine , Biomarkers/blood , CA-125 Antigen/urine , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines, CC/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interleukin-12/urine , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Membrane Proteins/urine , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21903-21913, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436455

ABSTRACT

The mortality rate of young female COVID-19 patients is reported to be lower than that of young males but no significant difference in mortality was found between female and male COVID-19 patients aged over 65 years, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics and outcomes of severely ill pre- and post-menopausal COVID-19 patients and compared with age-matched males. Of the 459 patients included, 141 aged ≤55, among whom 19 died (16 males vs. 3 females, p<0.005). While for patients >55 years (n=318), 115 died (47 females vs. 68 males, p=0.149). In patients ≤55 years old, the levels of NLR, median LDH, median c-reactive protein and procalcitonin were significantly higher while the median lymphocyte count and LCR were lower in male than in female (all p<0.0001). In patients over 55, these biochemical parameters were far away from related normal/reference values in the vast majority of these patients in both genders which were in contrast to that seen in the young group. It is concluded that the mortality of severely ill pre-menopausal but not post-menopausal COVID-19 female patients is lower than age-matched male. Our findings support the notion that estrogen plays a beneficial role in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Estrogens/metabolism , Menopause , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14186, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434143

ABSTRACT

Infections cause varying degrees of haemostatic dysfunction which can be detected by clot waveform analysis (CWA), a global haemostatic marker. CWA has been shown to predict poor outcomes in severe infections with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The effect of less severe bacterial and viral infections on CWA has not been established. We hypothesized that different infections influence CWA distinctively. Patients admitted with bacterial infections, dengue and upper respiratory tract viral infections were recruited if they had an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured on admission. APTT-based CWA was performed on Sysmex CS2100i automated analyser using Dade Actin FSL reagent. CWA parameters [(maximum velocity (min1), maximum acceleration (min2) and maximum deceleration (max2)] were compared against control patients. Infected patients (n = 101) had longer aPTT than controls (n = 112) (34.37 ± 7.72 s vs 27.80 ± 1.59 s, p < 0.001), with the mean (± SD) aPTT longest in dengue infection (n = 36) (37.99 ± 7.93 s), followed by bacterial infection (n = 52) (33.96 ± 7.33 s) and respiratory viral infection (n = 13) (29.98 ± 3.92 s). Compared to controls (min1; min2; max2) (5.53 ± 1.16%/s; 0.89 ± 0.19%/s2; 0.74 ± 0.16%/s2), bacterial infection has higher CWA results (6.92 ± 1.60%/s; 1.04 ± 0.28%/s2; 0.82 ± 0.24%/s2, all p < 0.05); dengue infection has significantly lower CWA values (3.93 ± 1.32%/s; 0.57 ± 0.17%/s2; 0.43 ± 0.14%/s2, all p < 0.001) whilst respiratory virus infection has similar results (6.19 ± 1.32%/s; 0.95 ± 0.21%/s2; 0.73 ± 0.18%/s2, all p > 0.05). CWA parameters demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein levels (min1: r = 0.54, min2: r = 0.44, max2: r = 0.34; all p < 0.01). Different infections affect CWA distinctively. CWA could provide information on the haemostatic milieu triggered by infection and further studies are needed to better define its application in this area.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/blood , Hemostasis , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Virus Diseases/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dengue/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood
14.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(5): 553-561, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in Spain in February 2020, with 216% intensive care unit (ICU) capacity expanded in Vitoria by March 18th, 2020. METHODS: We identified patients from the two public hospitals in Vitoria who were admitted to ICU with confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2. Data reported here were available in April 6th, 2020. Mortality was assessed in those who completed 15-days of ICU stay. RESULTS: We identified 48 patients (27 males) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of patients was 63 [51-75] years. Symptoms began a median of 7 [5-12] days before ICU admission. The most common comorbidities identified were obesity (48%), arterial hypertension (44%) and chronic lung disease (37%). All patients were admitted by hypoxemic respiratory failure and none received non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Forty-five (94%) underwent intubation, 3 (6%) high flow nasal therapy (HFNT), 1 (2%) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22 (46%) required prone position. After 15 days, 14/45 (31%) intubated patients died (13% within one week), 10/45 (22%) were extubated, and 21/45 (47%) underwent mechanical ventilation. Six patients had documented super-infection. Procalcitonin plasma above 0.5µg/L was associated with 16% vs. 19% (p=0.78) risk of death after 7 days. CONCLUSION: This early experience with SARS-CoV-2 in Spain suggests that a strategy of right oxygenation avoiding non-invasive mechanical ventilation was life-saving. Seven-day mortality in SARS-CoV-2 requiring intubation was lower than 15%, with 80% of patients still requiring mechanical ventilation. After 15 days of ICU admission, half of patients remained intubated, whereas one third died.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9987931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367496

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory failure is the leading cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients, characterized by a generalized disbalance of inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between immune-inflammatory index and mortality in PSI IV-V patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of COVID-19 patients from Feb. to Apr. 2020 in the Zhongfa Xincheng Branch of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. Patients who presented high severity of COVID-19-related pneumonia were enrolled for further analysis according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) tool. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were identified at initial research. The survival analysis revealed that mortality of the PSI IV-V cohort was significantly higher than the PSI I-III group (p = 0.0003). The overall mortality in PSI IV-V patients was 32.1% (9/28). The fatal cases of the PSI IV-V group had a higher level of procalcitonin (p = 0.022) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.033) compared with the survivors. Procalcitonin was the most sensitive predictor of mortality for the severe COVID-19 population with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78, higher than the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (0.75) and total lymphocyte (0.68) and neutrophil (0.67) counts. CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may potentially be effective predictors for mortality in PSI IV-V patients with COVID-19. Increased procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were associated with greater risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
16.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 80(7): 541-545, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-896893

ABSTRACT

To determine the analytical performance of Novel VITROS BRAHMS Procalcitonin Immunoassay on VITROS 3600 and correlation with BRAHMS PCT sensitive KRYPTOR reference method. Analytical performances including imprecision studies, linearity, limit of detection (LoD) and determination of hemolysis index were performed for VITROS BRAHMS PCT assay. Imprecision was assessed on plasma pool and internal control with 2 levels. The method comparison was performed using 162 plasma obtained from clinical departments. The total imprecision was acceptable and all CV were <5%. The LoD was in accordance with manufacturer's claims. The equation of linearity in the lower range was found to be y = 1.0014x - 0.0091, with r2 = 1. No interference to hemoglobin up to 11 g/L was observed. Correlation studies showed a good correlation between PCT measurements using VITROS BRAHMS PCT assay against KRYPTOR system including for values lower than 2 µg/L. The novel VITROS BRAHMS PCT assay from OrthoClinical Diagnostics shows analytical performances acceptable for clinical use. In addition, the concordance with KRYPTOR method was fine at all clinical cut-offs.


Subject(s)
Immunoassay/methods , Procalcitonin/blood , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Limit of Detection , Regression Analysis
17.
Emerg Med J ; 38(9): 685-691, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend maximal efforts to obtain blood and sputum cultures in patients with COVID-19, as bacterial coinfection is associated with worse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of bacteriological tests, including blood and sputum cultures, and the association of multiple biomarkers and the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) with clinical and microbiological outcomes in patients with COVID-19 presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This is a substudy of a large observational cohort study (PredictED study). The PredictED included adult patients from whom a blood culture was drawn at the ED of Haga Teaching Hospital, The Netherlands. For this substudy, all patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR in March and April 2020 were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of bacterial coinfection. We used logistic regression analysis for associations of procalcitonin, C reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lymphocyte count and PSI score with a severe disease course, defined as intensive care unit admission and/or 30-day mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) quantified the discriminatory performance. RESULTS: We included 142 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. On presentation, the median duration of symptoms was 8 days. 41 (29%) patients had a severe disease course and 24 (17%) died within 30 days. The incidence of bacterial coinfection was 2/142 (1.4%). None of the blood cultures showed pathogen growth while 6.3% was contaminated. The AUCs for predicting severe disease were 0.76 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.84), 0.70 (0.61 to 0.79), 0.62 (0.51 to 0.74), 0.62 (0.51 to 0.72) and 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) for procalcitonin, CRP, ferritin, lymphocyte count and PSI score, respectively. CONCLUSION: Blood cultures appear to have limited value while procalcitonin and the PSI appear to be promising tools in helping physicians identify patients at risk for severe disease course in COVID-19 at presentation to the ED.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteriological Techniques/statistics & numerical data , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 5593806, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305519

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of procalcitonin (PCT) elevation on hospital admission for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and its association with mortality in oldest old patients (age > 75 years). METHODS: The clinical records of 1074 patients with chest high-resolution computed-tomography (HRCT) positive for interstitial pneumonia and symptoms compatible for COVID-19, hospitalized in medical wards during the first pandemic wave in a single academic center in Northern Italy, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had serum PCT testing performed within six hours from admission. Information on COVID-19-related symptoms, comorbidities, drugs, autonomy in daily activities, respiratory exchanges, other routine lab tests, and outcomes were collected. Clinical characteristics were compared across different admission PCT levels and ages. The association of admission PCT with mortality was tested separately in participants aged > 75 and ≤75 years old by stepwise multivariate Cox regression model with forward selection. RESULTS: With increasing classes of PCT levels (<0.05, 0.05-0.49, 0.5-1.99, and ≥2 ng/ml), there was a significant trend (P < 0.0001) towards older age, male gender, wider extension of lung involvement on HRCT, worse respiratory exchanges, and several other laboratory abnormalities. Each incremental PCT class was associated with increased risk of hospital death at multivariate models in subjects older than 75 (hazard ratio for PCT ≥ 2 vs. <0.05 ng/ml: 30.629, 95% confidence interval 4.176-224.645, P = 0.001), but not in subjects aged 75 or younger. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted for COVID-19, PCT elevation was associated with several clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics of disease severity. However, PCT elevation was strongly associated with hospital mortality only in oldest old subjects (age > 75).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Procalcitonin/blood , Procalcitonin/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Electrocardiography , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Patient Admission , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14094, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303786

ABSTRACT

We aimed to provide a laboratory basis for differential diagnosis of COVID-19 and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). Clinical data were collected from 32 COVID-19 patients (2019-nCoV group), 31 SFTS patients (SFTS group) and 30 healthy controls (control group). For each group of hospitalized patients, a retrospective analysis was performed on specific indices, including cytokines, T-lymphocyte subsets, routine blood parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the indices revealed the differences among groups. Compared with the 2019-nCoV group, the SFTS group had a significantly and greatly decreased counts of WBC, absolute lymphocyte, PLT and absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte (P < 0.05); the IL-6, TNF-α, D-D and PCT levels of the SFTS group were higher than those of the 2019-nCoV group (P < 0.05). Compared with those of the SFTS group, the CRP and FIB levels of the 2019-nCoV group were greatly increased (P < 0.05). The ROC curves showed that area under the curves (AUCs) for FIB, PLT and TNF-α were greater than 0.85, demonstrating high diagnostic value. At the initial stage of SARS-CoV-2 or SFTS virus infection, PLT, FIB and TNF-α have definitive clinical value for the early and differential diagnosis of these two infections.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Phlebovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/diagnosis , Area Under Curve , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Procalcitonin/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/virology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
20.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(2): 115344, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303485

ABSTRACT

Ventilator associated pneumonia(VAP) is a severe complication that can lead to high mortality when not early identified or when therapy is delayed. The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin(PCT) as a biomarker for VAP development. In total, 73 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. PCT levels greater than 0.975ng/mL were more related to VAP. No association was found for C-reactive protein (CRP). The results show that procalcitonin may be a pertinent biomarker for VAP diagnosis and can be a helpful tool for antibiotic withdrawal.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/diagnosis , Procalcitonin/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/complications , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2
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