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1.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(6): 325-331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19, particularly the association of renal replacement therapy to mortality. DESIGN: A single-center prospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: ICU of a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Consecutive adults with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. INTERVENTION: Renal replacement therapy. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Demographic data, medical history, illness severity, type of oxygen therapy, laboratory data and use of renal replacement therapy to generate a logistic regression model describing independent risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Of the total of 166 patients, 51% were mechanically ventilated and 26% required renal replacement therapy. The overall hospital mortality rate was 36%, versus 56% for those requiring renal replacement therapy, and 68% for those with both mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. The logistic regression model identified four independent risk factors for mortality: age (adjusted OR 2.8 [95% CI 1.8-4.4] for every 10-year increase), mechanical ventilation (4.2 [1.7-10.6]), need for continuous venovenous hemofiltration (2.3 [1.3-4.0]) and C-reactive protein (1.1 [1.0-1.2] for every 10mg/L increase). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy was associated to a high mortality rate similar to that associated to the need for mechanical ventilation, while multiorgan failure necessitating both techniques implied an extremely high mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
2.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(5): 381-390, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a substantial reduction in gastrointestinal endoscopies, creating a backlog of procedures. We aimed to quantify this backlog nationally for England and assess how various interventions might mitigate the backlog. METHODS: We did a national analysis of data for colonoscopies, flexible sigmoidoscopies, and gastroscopies from National Health Service (NHS) trusts in NHS England's Monthly Diagnostic Waiting Times and Activity dataset. Trusts were excluded if monthly data were incomplete. To estimate the potential backlog, we used linear logistic regression to project the cumulative deficit between actual procedures performed and expected procedures, based on historical pre-pandemic trends. We then made further estimations of the change to the backlog under three scenarios: recovery to a set level of capacity, ranging from 90% to 130%; further disruption to activity (eg, second pandemic wave); or introduction of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) triaging. FINDINGS: We included data from Jan 1, 2018, to Oct 31, 2020, from 125 NHS trusts. 10 476 endoscopy procedures were done in April, 2020, representing 9·5% of those done in April, 2019 (n=110 584), before recovering to 105 716 by October, 2020 (84·5% of those done in October, 2019 [n=125 072]). Recovering to 100% capacity on the current trajectory would lead to a projected backlog of 162 735 (95% CI 143 775-181 695) colonoscopies, 119 025 (107 398-130 651) flexible sigmoidoscopies, and 194 087 (172 564-215 611) gastroscopies in January, 2021, attributable to the pandemic. Increasing capacity to 130% would still take up to June, 2022, to eliminate the backlog. A further 2-month interruption would add an extra 15·4%, a 4-month interruption would add an extra 43·8%, and a 6-month interruption would add an extra 82·5% to the potential backlog. FIT triaging of cases that are found to have greater than 10 µg haemoglobin per g would reduce colonoscopy referrals to around 75% of usual levels, with the backlog cleared in early 2022. INTERPRETATION: Our work highlights the impact of the pandemic on endoscopy services nationally. Even with mitigation measures, it could take much longer than a year to eliminate the pandemic-related backlog. Urgent action is required by key stakeholders (ie, individual NHS trusts, Clinical Commissioning Groups, British Society of Gastroenterology, and NHS England) to tackle the backlog and prevent delays to patient management. FUNDING: Wellcome/EPSRC Centre for Interventional and Surgical Sciences (WEISS) at University College London, National Institute for Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, and DATA-CAN, Health Data Research UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capacity Building , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Triage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capacity Building/methods , Capacity Building/organization & administration , Change Management , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Endoscopy, Digestive System/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Humans , Immunochemistry , Infection Control , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine/organization & administration , State Medicine/trends , Triage/methods , Triage/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
3.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(3): 270.e1-270.e6, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108498

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly worldwide, but the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains unknown. To understand this better, an 18-item online survey was disseminated by the Worldwide Network for Blood & Marrow Transplantation with questions exploring SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithms, mobilization, and cryopreservation strategies and COVID-19 infections in allogeneic related and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) donors. The aim of this survey was to assess the impact of the outbreak on policies relating to HPC mobilization, collection, and processing with respect to changes in daily routine. A total of 91 individual responses from distinct centers in 6 continents were available for analysis. In these centers, the majority (72%) of allogeneic related and autologous donors are routinely tested for SARS-CoV-2 before HPC collection, and 80% of centers implement cryopreservation of allogeneic HPC grafts before commencing conditioning regimens in patients. Five related and 14 autologous donors who tested positive for COVID-19 did not experience any unexpected adverse events or reactions during growth factor administration (eg, hyperinflammatory syndrome). These data are limited by the small number of survey respondents but nonetheless suggest that centers are following the recommendations of appropriate scientific organizations and provide some preliminary data to suggest areas of further study.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Allografts , Bone Marrow Transplantation/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cryopreservation/methods , Donor Selection/standards , Global Health , Health Care Surveys , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization/statistics & numerical data , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Tissue Preservation/methods , Transplantation, Autologous , Unrelated Donors/statistics & numerical data
4.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 344-352, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to describe the course of Italian organized cancer screening programmes during the COVID-19 emergency; to provide estimates of the diagnosis of malignant or pre-malignant lesions that will face a diagnostic delay due to the slowing down of screening activities. DESIGN: quantitative survey of aggregated data for each Region and overall for Italy relating to screening tests carried out in the period January-May 2020 compared to those of the same period of 2019; estimate of diagnostic delays starting from the calculation of the average detection rate of the last 3 years available (specific by Region). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Italian mass screening programmes. Data on the tests carried out in the target population of the breast (women 50-69 years old), cervix (women 25-64 years old), and colorectal (women and men 50-69 years old) cancer screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the cumulative delay (in absolute numbers and as a percentage) in the period January-May 2020 compared to the same period of 2019, by Region; the difference of screening tests (in absolute number and in percentage) performed in May 2020 compared to May 2019; the estimate of the fewer lesions diagnosed in 2020 compared with 2019 with relative 95% confidence intervals (95%CI); the 'standard months' of delay (proportion of fewer tests carried out from January to May 2020 for the corresponding number of months). RESULTS: 20 Regions out of 21 participated. In the period January-May 2020, the fewer screening tests performed in comparison with the same period of 2019 were: 472,389 (equal to 53.8%) with an average delay of standard months of 2.7 for mammography screening; 585,287 (equal to 54.9%) with an average delay of standard months of 2.7 for colorectal screening; 371,273 (equal to 55.3%) with an average delay of 2.8 standard months for cervical screening. The estimated number of undiagnosed lesions is 2,201 (95%CI 2,173-2,220) breast cancers; 645 (95%CI 632-661) colorectal carcinomas; 3,890 (95%CI 3,855-3,924) advanced colorectal adenomas and 1,497 (95%CI 1,413-1,586) CIN2 or more serious lesions. CONCLUSIONS: mass screenings need to be restarted as quickly as possible. In order to make up for the delay that is accumulating, it is necessary to provide for wider delivery times, greater resources, and new organizational approaches. It will also be essential to develop communication strategies suitable for promoting participation during this emergency.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Delayed Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
5.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 532, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are at higher risk of developing worse outcomes if they contract COVID-19. In our renal service we reduced HD frequency from thrice to twice-weekly in selected patients with the primary aim of reducing COVID 19 exposure and transmission between HD patients. METHODS: Dialysis unit nephrologists identified 166 suitable patients (38.4% of our HD population) to temporarily convert to twice-weekly haemodialysis immediately prior to the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in our area. Changes in pre-dialysis weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and biochemistry were recorded weekly throughout the 4-week project. Hyperkalaemic patients (serum potassium > 6.0 mmol/L) were treated with a potassium binder, sodium bicarbonate and received responsive dietary advice. RESULTS: There were 12 deaths (5 due to COVID-19) in the HD population, 6 of which were in the twice weekly HD group; no deaths were definitively associated with change of dialysis protocol. A further 19 patients were either hospitalised and/or developed COVID-19 and thus transferred back to thrice weekly dialysis as per protocol. 113 (68.1%) were still receiving twice-weekly HD by the end of the 4-week project. Indications for transfer back to thrice weekly were; fluid overload (19), persistent hyperkalaemia (4), patient request (4) and compliance (1). There were statistically significant increases in SBP and pre-dialysis potassium during the project. CONCLUSIONS: Short term conversion of a large but selected HD population to twice-weekly dialysis sessions was possible and safe. This approach could help mitigate COVID-19 transmission amongst dialysis patients in centres with similar organisational pressures.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperkalemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium/blood , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
6.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(5): 696-709.e1, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676627

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, New York encountered shortages in continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) capacity for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury stage 3 requiring dialysis. To inform planning for current and future crises, we estimated CKRT demand and capacity during the initial wave of the US COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: We developed mathematical models to project nationwide and statewide CKRT demand and capacity. Data sources included the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation model, the Harvard Global Health Institute model, and published literature. SETTING & POPULATION: US patients hospitalized during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (February 6, 2020, to August 4, 2020). INTERVENTION: CKRT. OUTCOMES: CKRT demand and capacity at peak resource use; number of states projected to encounter CKRT shortages. MODEL, PERSPECTIVE, & TIMEFRAME: Health sector perspective with a 6-month time horizon. RESULTS: Under base-case model assumptions, there was a nationwide CKRT capacity of 7,032 machines, an estimated shortage of 1,088 (95% uncertainty interval, 910-1,568) machines, and shortages in 6 states at peak resource use. In sensitivity analyses, varying assumptions around: (1) the number of pre-COVID-19 surplus CKRT machines available and (2) the incidence of acute kidney injury stage 3 requiring dialysis requiring CKRT among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 resulted in projected shortages in 3 to 8 states (933-1,282 machines) and 4 to 8 states (945-1,723 machines), respectively. In the best- and worst-case scenarios, there were shortages in 3 and 26 states (614 and 4,540 machines). LIMITATIONS: Parameter estimates are influenced by assumptions made in the absence of published data for CKRT capacity and by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation model's limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Several US states are projected to encounter CKRT shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings, although based on limited data for CKRT demand and capacity, suggest there being value during health care crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic in establishing an inpatient kidney replacement therapy national registry and maintaining a national stockpile of CKRT equipment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Civil Defense , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Strategic Stockpile/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Civil Defense/methods , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634563

ABSTRACT

The aim of this case series is to describe and evaluate our experience of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to treat type 1 respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19. CPAP was delivered in negative pressure rooms in the newly repurposed infectious disease unit. We report a cohort of 24 patients with type 1 respiratory failure and COVID-19 admitted to the Royal Liverpool Hospital between 1 April and 30 April 2020. Overall, our results were positive; we were able to safely administer CPAP outside the walls of a critical care or high dependency unit environment and over half of patients (58%) avoided mechanical ventilation and a total of 19 out of 24 (79%) have survived and been discharged from our care.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Care Units , Respiratory Insufficiency , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Pathways/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen Consumption , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Care Units/methods , Respiratory Care Units/organization & administration , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1695-1699, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-539511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Coronavirus is an ongoing pandemic challenging health systems worldwide. The aim of this report was to evaluate the effectiveness of lockdown in different countries, highlighting the performance of Greek society and authorities. METHODS: We analyzed publicly available data from the "Worldometer". We evaluated the efficacy of lockdown at one month after implementation. Delta Days (DD) referred to the difference in the days of reaching 1 case/million people to the adoption of lockdown. RESULTS: Higher healthcare expenditure as % of the national GDP was not correlated with better 30-day mortality outcomes. DD index was significantly correlated to the incidence of COVID-19 per million people at 30 days (p-value=0.001). The correlation between DD and 30-day mortality was not statistically significant (p-value=0.087). CONCLUSION: Early lockdown was proven to be the appropriate policy to limit the spread of COVID-19. Greece was a success story in preventing spread despite limited resources.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Policy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Greece/epidemiology , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/economics , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Program Evaluation , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Resource Allocation
11.
Stroke ; 51(7): 1991-1995, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to analyze how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected acute stroke care in a Comprehensive Stroke Center. METHODS: On February 28, 2020, contingency plans were implemented at Hospital Clinic of Barcelona to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Among them, the decision to refrain from reallocating the Stroke Team and Stroke Unit to the care of patients with COVID-19. From March 1 to March 31, 2020, we measured the number of emergency calls to the Emergency Medical System in Catalonia (7.5 million inhabitants), and the Stroke Codes dispatched to Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. We recorded all stroke admissions, and the adequacy of acute care measures, including the number of thrombectomies, workflow metrics, angiographic results, and clinical outcomes. Data were compared with March 2019 using parametric or nonparametric methods as appropriate. RESULTS: At Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, 1232 patients with COVID-19 were admitted in March 2020, demanding 60% of the hospital bed capacity. Relative to March 2019, the Emergency Medical System had a 330% mean increment in the number of calls (158 005 versus 679 569), but fewer Stroke Code activations (517 versus 426). Stroke admissions (108 versus 83) and the number of thrombectomies (21 versus 16) declined at Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, particularly after lockdown of the population. Younger age was found in stroke admissions during the pandemic (median [interquartile range] 69 [64-73] versus 75 [73-80] years, P=0.009). In-hospital, there were no differences in workflow metrics, angiographic results, complications, or outcomes at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic reduced by a quarter the stroke admissions and thrombectomies performed at a Comprehensive Stroke Center but did not affect the quality of care metrics. During the lockdown, there was an overload of emergency calls but fewer Stroke Code activations, particularly in elderly patients. Hospital contingency plans, patient transport systems, and population-targeted alerts must act concertedly to better protect the chain of stroke care in times of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitals, Special/organization & administration , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stroke/therapy , Acute Disease , Age Distribution , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Special/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Neuroimaging/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
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