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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261479, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613353

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Australian National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce is producing living, evidence-based, national guidelines for treatment of people with COVID-19 which are updated each week. To continually improve the process and outputs of the Taskforce, and inform future living guideline development, we undertook a concurrent process evaluation examining Taskforce activities and experience of team members and stakeholders during the first 5 months of the project. METHODS: The mixed-methods process evaluation consisted of activity and progress audits, an online survey of all Taskforce participants; and semi-structured interviews with key contributors. Data were collected through five, prospective 4-weekly timepoints (beginning first week of May 2020) and three, fortnightly retrospective timepoints (March 23, April 6 and 20). We collected and analysed quantitative and qualitative data. RESULTS: An updated version of the guidelines was successfully published every week during the process evaluation. The Taskforce formed in March 2020, with a nominal start date of March 23. The first version of the guideline was published two weeks later and included 10 recommendations. By August 24, in the final round of the process evaluation, the team of 11 staff, working with seven guideline panels and over 200 health decision-makers, had developed 66 recommendations addressing 58 topics. The Taskforce website had received over 200,000 page views. Satisfaction with the work of the Taskforce remained very high (>90% extremely or somewhat satisfied) throughout. Several key strengths, challenges and methods questions for the work of the Taskforce were identified. CONCLUSIONS: In just over 5 months of activity, the National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce published 20 weekly updates to the evidence-based national treatment guidelines for COVID-19. This process evaluation identified several factors that enabled this achievement (e.g. an extant skill base in evidence review and convening), along with challenges that needed to be overcome (e.g. managing workloads, structure and governance) and methods questions (pace of updating, and thresholds for inclusion of evidence) which may be useful considerations for other living guidelines projects. An impact evaluation is also being conducted separately to examine awareness, acceptance and use of the guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Process Assessment, Health Care/methods , Australia , Health Policy/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stakeholder Participation
2.
Chest ; 160(5): 1714-1728, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented adjustments to ICU organization and care processes globally. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Did hospital emergency responses to the COVID-19 pandemic differ depending on hospital setting? Which strategies worked well to mitigate strain as perceived by intensivists? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Between August and November 2020, we carried out semistructured interviews of intensivists from tertiary and community hospitals across six regions in the United States that experienced early or large surges of COVID-19 patients, or both. We identified themes of hospital emergency responses using the four S framework of acute surge planning: space, staff, stuff, system. RESULTS: Thirty-three intensivists from seven tertiary and six community hospitals participated. Clinicians across both settings believed that canceling elective surgeries was helpful to increase ICU capabilities and that hospitals should establish clearly defined thresholds at which surgeries are limited during future surge events. ICU staff was the most limited resource; staff shortages were improved by the use of tiered staffing models, just-in-time training for non-ICU clinicians, designated treatment teams, and deployment of trainees. Personal protective equipment (PPE) shortages and reuse were widespread, causing substantial distress among clinicians; hands-on PPE training was helpful to reduce clinicians' anxiety. Transparency and involvement of frontline clinicians as stakeholders were important components of effective emergency responses and helped to maintain trust among staff. INTERPRETATION: We identified several strategies potentially to mitigate strain as perceived by intensivists working in both tertiary and community hospital settings. Our study also demonstrated the importance of trust and transparency between frontline staff and hospital leadership as key components of effective emergency responses during public health crises.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Workforce , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Physicians , Arizona , California , Critical Care Nursing , Elective Surgical Procedures , Equipment Reuse , Female , Hospitals, Community/organization & administration , Humans , Internship and Residency , Leadership , Louisiana , Male , Michigan , New York , Nurses/supply & distribution , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Process Assessment, Health Care , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stakeholder Participation , Surge Capacity , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Washington
3.
Headache ; 61(5): 734-739, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the patient experience of telemedicine for headache care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. BACKGROUND: The use of telemedicine has rapidly expanded and evolved since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Telemedicine eliminates the physical and geographic barriers to health care, preserves personal protective equipment, and prevents the spread of COVID-19 by allowing encounters to happen in a socially distanced way. However, few studies have assessed the patient perspective of telemedicine for headache care. METHODS: The American Migraine Foundation (AMF) designed a standardized electronic questionnaire to assess the patient experience of telemedicine for headache care between March and September 2020 to help inform future quality improvement as part of its patient advocacy initiative. The date parameters were identified as the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease and the declaration of a national emergency in the United States. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to more than 100,000 members of the AMF community through social media platforms and the AMF email database. RESULTS: A total of 1172 patients responded to our electronic questionnaire, with 1098 complete responses. The majority, 1081/1153 (93.8%) patients, had a previous headache diagnosis prior to the telemedicine encounter. A total of 648/1127 (57.5%) patients reported that they had used telemedicine for headache care during the study period. Among those who participated in telehealth visits, 553/647 (85.5%) patients used it for follow-up visits; 94/647 (14.5%) patients used it for new patient visits. During the telemedicine encounters, 282/645 (43.7%) patients were evaluated by headache specialists, 222/645 (34.4%) patients by general neurologists, 198/645 (30.7%) patients by primary care providers, 73/645 (11.3%) patients by headache nurse practitioners, and 21/645 (3.2%) patients by headache nurses. Only 47/633 (7.4%) patients received a new headache diagnosis from telemedicine evaluation, whereas the other 586/633 (92.6%) patients did not have a change in their diagnoses. During these visits, a new treatment was prescribed for 358/636 (52.3%) patients, whereas 278/636 (43.7%) patients did not have changes made to their treatment plan. The number (%) of patients who rated the telemedicine headache care experience as "very good," "good," "fair," "poor," and "other" were 396/638 (62.1%), 132/638 (20.7%), 67/638 (10.5%), 23/638 (3.6%), and 20/638 (3.1%), respectively. Detailed reasons for "other" are listed in the manuscript. Most patients, 573/638 (89.8%), indicated that they would prefer to continue to use telemedicine for their headache care, 45/638 (7.1%) patients would not, and 20/638 (3.1%) patients were unsure. CONCLUSIONS: Our study evaluating the patient perspective demonstrated that telemedicine facilitated headache care for many patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in high patient satisfaction rates, and a desire to continue to use telemedicine for future headache care among those who completed the online survey.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Headache Disorders/therapy , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Process Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Foundations , Headache Disorders/diagnosis , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 24(6): 429-434, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185553

ABSTRACT

Background: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetically caused neurodevelopmental disorder associated with severe disability. We assessed the feasibility of a telehealth program supporting gross motor skills in RTT.Methods: Five girls with RTT were assessed and a home-based exercise program developed in response to functional goals. Families then participated in monthly Skype sessions for 6 months, guided by a physiotherapist to monitor progress and adjust the program as necessary. Goal Attainment Scaling was used to evaluate progress and a parental satisfaction questionnaire was administered.Results: Four goals were established for each participant and progress was greater than would be expected in 16 of 20 goals. Parents evaluated the program as feasible and useful for their daughters.Discussion: A telehealth model of home-based intervention supported individuals with RTT to achieve gross motor skills and was found to be feasible. This model is important at present times during COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Therapy , Motor Skills Disorders/rehabilitation , Physical Distancing , Rett Syndrome/rehabilitation , Telemedicine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child, Preschool , Exercise Therapy/methods , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Motor Skills Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Process Assessment, Health Care , Rett Syndrome/complications , Telemedicine/methods
6.
Psychol Psychother ; 94(3): 854-883, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096921

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread adoption of videoconferencing as a communication medium in mental health service delivery. This review considers the empirical literature to date on using videoconferencing to deliver psychological therapy to adults presenting with mental health problems. METHOD: Papers were identified via search of relevant databases. Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted and synthesized on uptake, feasibility, outcomes, and participant and therapist experiences. RESULTS: Videoconferencing has an established evidence base in the delivery of cognitive behavioural therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, with prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, and behavioural activation non-inferior to in-person delivery. There are large trials reporting efficacy for health anxiety and bulimia nervosa compared with treatment-as-usual. Initial studies show applicability of cognitive behavioural therapies for other anxiety and eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, but there has yet to be study of use in severe and complex mental health problems. Therapists may find it more difficult to judge non-verbal behaviour, and there may be initial discomfort while adapting to videoconferencing, but client ratings of the therapeutic alliance are similar to in-person therapy, and videoconferencing may have advantages such as being less confronting. There may be useful opportunities for videoconferencing in embedding therapy delivery within the client's own environment. CONCLUSIONS: Videoconferencing is an accessible and effective modality for therapy delivery. Future research needs to extend beyond testing whether videoconferencing can replicate in-person therapy delivery to consider unique therapeutic affordances of the videoconferencing modality. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Videoconferencing is an efficacious means of delivering behavioural and cognitive therapies to adults with mental health problems. Trial evidence has established it is no less efficacious than in-person therapy for prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, and behavioural activation. While therapists report nonverbal feedback being harder to judge, and clients can take time to adapt to videoconferencing, clients rate the therapeutic alliance and satisfaction similarly to therapy in-person. Videoconferencing provides opportunities to integrate therapeutic exercises within the person's day-to-day environment.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy/standards , Mental Disorders/therapy , Patient Satisfaction , Process Assessment, Health Care , Telemedicine/standards , Therapeutic Alliance , Videoconferencing/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
7.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 467-473, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Huizhou City utilized its experience with the SARS and MERS breakouts to establish a reperfusion treatment program for AIS patients. METHOD: This is a retrospective study on 8 certified stroke hospitals in Huizhou City from January 2020 to May 2020. We analyzed the number of AIS patients with reperfusion therapy, stroke type (anterior/posterior circulation stroke), modes of transport to hospital, NIHSS score, onset to door time (ODT), door to needle time (DNT), and door to puncture time (DPT). The analysis was compared with baseline data from the same time period in 2019. RESULT: In 2020, the number of AIS patients receiving reperfusion therapy decreased (315 vs. 377), NIHSS score increased [8 (4, 15) vs. 7 [ (1, 2)], P = 0.024], ODT increased [126 (67.5, 210.0) vs. 120.0 (64.0, 179.0), P = 0.032], and DNT decreased [40 (32.5, 55) vs. 48 (36, 59), P = 0.003]. DPT did not change. Seventy percent of AIS patients indicated self-visit as their main mode of transport to the hospital. In both periods, mild stroke patients were more likely to self-visit than utilize emergency systems [2019: 152 (57.6%) vs. 20 (45.6%), P = 0.034; 2020: 123 (56.9%) vs. 5 (14.7%), P < 0.001]. The NIHSS score for self-visiting patients was lower for patients who utilized the ambulance system in both years [self-visit: 6.00 (3.00, 12.00), ambulance: 14.00 (9.00, 19.00), P < 0.001]. The volume of reperfusion patients was lower in 2020; however, the decrease was only significant (P = 0.028) in February 2020. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the number of AIS patients receiving reperfusion therapy significantly decreased when compared to the same period in 2019. The patients' condition increased severity, ODT increased, and the DNT decreased. DPT was not significant for self-visiting and ambulance patients. Moderate to severe stroke patients were more likely to utilize ambulance services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Process Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Reperfusion/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Transportation of Patients/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulances/statistics & numerical data , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Am Psychol ; 76(1): 26-38, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894374

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the need for psychological care in the global population and has created new barriers to accessing services. Hospitals, mental health facilities, and other clinics face the challenge of providing continued care to a population that is under severe stress, while minimizing in-person visits that risk spreading the virus. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is the largest integrated health care system in the United States, providing care at 1,286 sites. VHA ensured the continuity of mental health services after the COVID-19 outbreak by rapidly expanding its use of telemental health methods in the first weeks after the U.S. pandemic outbreak. VHA provided nearly 1.2 million telephone and video encounters to veterans in April 2020 and reduced in-person visits by approximately 80% when compared with the October 2019 to February 2020 period before the pandemic. By June 2020, VHA had an 11-fold increase in encounters using direct-to-home video and a fivefold increase in telephone contacts relative to before the pandemic. This article discusses research on the effectiveness of telemental health, VHA policies before COVID-19 that facilitated the use of telemental health systemwide, and VHA's actions that rapidly scaled use of telemental health during the first months of the outbreak. Key challenges and lessons learned from VHA's experience and implications for providers and health care systems regarding the use of telemental health to meet patients' mental health care needs during the pandemic are also discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Process Assessment, Health Care , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organization & administration , Health Services Research , Humans , United States , Veterans
9.
Psychol Psychother ; 94(2): 382-389, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880927

ABSTRACT

Digital health has emerged in recent years as a tool to optimize care delivery and promote treatment adherence among individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Recent mandates for social distancing and sheltering in place due to the COVID-19 pandemic have catapulted efforts to provide ongoing coordinated specialty care (CSC) on virtual platforms. While prior evidence provides support for the general implementation of virtual individual therapy, there is limited guidance and evidence for the adoption of group teletherapy. Here we describe our efforts to implement group teletherapy for two small cohorts of individuals with FEP receiving care in a coordinated specialty care clinic using methods adopted from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. We observed high adherence with group visits as well as client satisfaction across groups. Based on our results, we have taken efforts to implement virtual group therapy more permanently in our clinic. Our experience provides guidance and a model for integration of virtual group therapy within CSC. PRACTITIONER POINTS: In-person group therapy can be adapted as an online treatment modality for individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Group teletherapy is both accessible and satisfactory to individuals with FEP. Group teletherapy has potential as a more standard and widespread treatment modality within coordinated specialty care for FEP.


Subject(s)
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Process Assessment, Health Care , Psychotherapy, Group , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Telemedicine , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Patient Compliance , Patient Satisfaction , Pilot Projects
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22254, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-787427

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has subsequently escalated exponentially worldwide. As this virus has never been experienced previously, it poses a significant challenge to healthcare systems who are poorly equipped to handle the large number of gravely ill patients who seek medical attention. Additionally, treating providers are placing their own lives at risk due to the lack of adequate personal protective equipment. We are reporting the proactive measures that were implemented at our healthcare system in a metropolitan community in Kentucky to address COVID-19. The primary goal was to maintain a safe environment for providers, staff, and patients. Three key strategies were incorporated at our healthcare system, including.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Health Plan Implementation , Hospital Bed Capacity , Humans , Kentucky/epidemiology , Male , Occupational Health , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Process Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039305, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733153

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) randomised controlled trial (RCT) is evaluating a home-based, face-to-face, individually tailored, activity and exercise programme for people living with dementia. Social distancing requirements following the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid changes to intervention delivery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-methods process evaluation will investigate how the changes were implemented and the impact that these have on participants' experience. An implementation study will investigate how the intervention was delivered during the pandemic. A study on the mechanisms of impact and context will investigate how these changes were experienced by the PrAISED participants, their carers and the therapists delivering the intervention. The study will commence in May 2020. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PrAISED RCT and process evaluation have received ethical approval number 18/YH/0059. The PrAISED process evaluation will enable us to understand how distancing and isolation affected participants, their activity and exercise routines and whether the therapy programme could be continued with remote support. This will be valuable both in explaining trial results and also contribute to understanding and designing new ways of delivering home-based services and rehabilitation interventions for people with dementia and their carers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15320670; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Dementia/therapy , Exercise , Health Promotion , Independent Living , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Process Assessment, Health Care , Activities of Daily Living , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Caregivers , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exercise Therapy , Female , Home Care Services , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
12.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(12): 1451-1456, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends aggressive contact tracing to control the COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, we (1) describe the development of a COVID-19 contact tracing initiative that includes medical, nursing, and public health students, and is led by clinicians and infectious disease epidemiologists within our health system, and, (2) articulate process steps for contact tracing including workflows and telephone scripts, and, (3) highlight the key challenges and strategies to overcome these challenges. METHODS: A single academic institution-based contact tracing initiative was rapidly scaled to 110 health professional students, four physicians, two epidemiologists, and a research team. Following training, students called patients who were COVID-19 positive and the individuals they were in contact with to ensure proper isolation and quarantine measures. Students also assisted those who faced barriers to quarantine. IMPLICATIONS: In total, between March 24 and May 28 - this initiative completed contact tracing for 536 confirmed cases, which resulted in the identification of 953 contacts. We aim to disseminate this process, including telephone scripts and workflow, to other health systems for use in their initiatives to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Emergency Responders/education , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Health Occupations , Adult , Female , Health Plan Implementation , Health Workforce , Humans , Male , Process Assessment, Health Care , Quarantine/methods , Workflow , Young Adult
13.
Psychother Psychosom ; 89(5): 314-319, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607232

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a critical procedure in psychiatric treatment, but as typically delivered involves the use of bag-mask ventilation (BMV), which during the COVID-19 pandemic exposes patients and treatment staff to potentially infectious aerosols. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the utility of a modified anesthesia protocol for ECT utilizing preoxygenation by facemask and withholding the use of BMV for only those patients who desaturate during the apneic period. METHODS: This chart review study analyzes patients who were treated with ECT using both the traditional and modified anesthesia protocols. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients were analyzed, of whom 51 (48.1%) required BMV using the new protocol. Of clinical factors, only patient BMI was significantly associated with the requirement for BMV. Mean seizure duration reduced from 52.0 ± 22.4 to 46.6 ± 17.1 s, but seizure duration was adequate in all cases. No acute physical, respiratory, or psychiatric complications occurred during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A modified anesthesia protocol reduces the use of BMV by more than 50%, while retaining adequate seizure duration.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Anesthesia/standards , Clinical Protocols/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Electroconvulsive Therapy/standards , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Process Assessment, Health Care , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
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