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J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 194: 113806, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065380


Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleotide analogue and used for COVID-19 treatment. However, the bioanalysis of the active metabolites remdesivir nucleotide triphosphate (RTP) and its precursor remdesivir nucleotide monophosphate (RMP) is very challenging. Herein, we established a novel method to separate RTP and RMP on a BioBasic AX column and quantified them by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. Stepwise, we optimized chromatographic retention on an anion exchange column, improved stability in matrix through the addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2nitrobenzoic acid) and PhosSTOP EASYpack, and increased recovery by dissociation of tight protein binding with 2 % formic acid aqueous solution. The method allowed lower limit of quantification of 20 nM for RMP and 10 nM for RTP. Method validation demonstrated acceptable accuracy (93.6%-103% for RMP, 94.5%-107% for RTP) and precision (RSD < 11.9 % for RMP, RSD < 11.4 % for RTP), suggesting that it was sensitive and robust for simultaneous quantification of RMP and RTP. The method was successfully applied to analyze RMP and RTP in mouse tissues. In general, the developed method is suitable to monitor RMP and RTP, and provides a useful approach for exploring more detailed effects of remdesivir in treating diseases.

Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Prodrugs/analysis , Prodrugs/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analysis , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analysis , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Humans , Liver/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Prodrugs/pharmacology
Biophys Chem ; 267: 106478, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778539


Discovery of a potent SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitor is the need of the hour to combat COVID-19. A total of 1000 protease-inhibitor-like compounds available in the ZINC database were screened by molecular docking with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the top 2 lead compounds based on binding affinity were found to be 1,2,4 triazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7-one compounds. We report these two compounds (ZINC000621278586 and ZINC000621285995) as potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors with high affinity (<-9 kCal/mol) and less toxicity than Lopinavir and Nelfinavir positive controls. Both the lead compounds effectively interacted with the crucial active site amino acid residues His41, Cys145 and Glu166. The lead compounds satisfied all of the druglikeness rules and devoid of toxicity or mutagenicity. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that both lead 1 and lead 2 formed stable complexes with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro as evidenced by the highly stable root mean square deviation (<0.23 nm), root mean square fluctuations (0.12 nm) and radius of gyration (2.2 nm) values. Molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculation revealed thermodynamically stable binding energies of -129.266 ± 2.428 kJ/mol and - 116.478 ± 3.502 kJ/mol for lead1 and lead2 with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, respectively.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus M Proteins/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyrimidines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Triazoles/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Prodrugs/chemistry , Prodrugs/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Thermodynamics , Triazoles/metabolism