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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(7): e1004056, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis and pericarditis following the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines administration have been reported, but their frequency is still uncertain in the younger population. This study investigated the association between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273 and myocarditis/pericarditis in the population of vaccinated persons aged 12 to 39 years in Italy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a self-controlled case series study (SCCS) using national data on COVID-19 vaccination linked to emergency care/hospital discharge databases. The outcome was the first diagnosis of myocarditis/pericarditis between 27 December 2020 and 30 September 2021. Exposure risk period (0 to 21 days from the vaccination day, subdivided in 3 equal intervals) for first and second dose was compared with baseline period. The SCCS model, adapted to event-dependent exposures, was fitted using unbiased estimating equations to estimate relative incidences (RIs) and excess of cases (EC) per 100,000 vaccinated by dose, age, sex, and vaccine product. Calendar period was included as time-varying confounder in the model. During the study period 2,861,809 persons aged 12 to 39 years received mRNA vaccines (2,405,759 BNT162b2; 456,050 mRNA-1273); 441 participants developed myocarditis/pericarditis (346 BNT162b2; 95 mRNA-1273). Within the 21-day risk interval, 114 myocarditis/pericarditis events occurred, the RI was 1.99 (1.30 to 3.05) after second dose of BNT162b2 and 2.22 (1.00 to 4.91) and 2.63 (1.21 to 5.71) after first and second dose of mRNA-1273. During the [0 to 7) days risk period, an increased risk of myocarditis/pericarditis was observed after first dose of mRNA-1273, with RI of 6.55 (2.73 to 15.72), and after second dose of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, with RIs of 3.39 (2.02 to 5.68) and 7.59 (3.26 to 17.65). The number of EC for second dose of mRNA-1273 was 5.5 per 100,000 vaccinated (3.0 to 7.9). The highest risk was observed in males, at [0 to 7) days after first and second dose of mRNA-1273 with RI of 12.28 (4.09 to 36.83) and RI of 11.91 (3.88 to 36.53); the number of EC after the second dose of mRNA-1273 was 8.8 (4.9 to 12.9). Among those aged 12 to 17 years, the RI was of 5.74 (1.52 to 21.72) after second dose of BNT162b2; for this age group, the number of events was insufficient for estimating RIs after mRNA-1273. Among those aged 18 to 29 years, the RIs were 7.58 (2.62 to 21.94) after first dose of mRNA-1273 and 4.02 (1.81 to 8.91) and 9.58 (3.32 to 27.58) after second dose of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273; the numbers of EC were 3.4 (1.1 to 6.0) and 8.6 (4.4 to 12.6) after first and second dose of mRNA-1273. The main study limitations were that the outcome was not validated through review of clinical records, and there was an absence of information on the length of hospitalization and, thus, the severity of the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study of about 3 millions of residents in Italy suggested that mRNA vaccines were associated with myocarditis/pericarditis in the population younger than 40 years. According to our results, increased risk of myocarditis/pericarditis was associated with the second dose of BNT162b2 and both doses of mRNA-1273. The highest risks were observed in males of 12 to 39 years and in males and females 18 to 29 years vaccinated with mRNA-1273. The public health implication of these findings should be considered in the light of the proven mRNA vaccine effectiveness in preventing serious COVID-19 disease and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
2.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A descriptive analysis of COVID-19 infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving fingolimod or siponimod. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of COVID-19 from postmarketing or ongoing clinical trials reported to Novartis through December 27, 2020. RESULTS: As of December 27, 2020, 283 cases had been reported in fingolimod-treated patients. The mean age was 44 years (from n = 224; range 11-69 years), and 190 were women. Of 161 cases with available information, 138 were asymptomatic (6), mild (100), or moderate (32); 50 cases required hospitalization. At the last follow-up, 140 patients were reported as recovered/recovering, condition was unchanged in 22, and deteriorated in 3 patients; 4 patients had a fatal outcome. Information was not available for 114 patients. Of the 54 cases of COVID-19 reported in siponimod-treated patients, 45 were from the postmarketing setting and 9 from an ongoing open-label clinical trial. The mean age was 54 years (from n = 45; range 31-70), and 30 were women. Of 28 cases with available information, 24 were asymptomatic (2), mild (17), or moderate (5); 9 cases required hospitalization. At the last follow-up, 27 patients were reported as recovered/recovering, condition remained unchanged for 1, and 3 patients had a fatal outcome. Information was not available for 23 patients. DISCUSSION: Based on a review of available information, the risk of more severe COVID-19 in patients receiving fingolimod or siponimod seems to be similar to that reported in the general population and the MS population with COVID-19. However, limitations of spontaneous reporting, especially missing data, should be considered in the interpretation of these observations.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/administration & dosage , Benzyl Compounds/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Clinical Trials as Topic , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1606-1613, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505020

ABSTRACT

Importance: As part of postauthorization safety surveillance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: To assess reports of GBS received in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Reports of presumptive GBS were identified in a US passive reporting system (VAERS) February-July 2021 and characterized, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine; the comparator was the background rate of GBS in the general (unvaccinated) population that had been estimated and published based on a standardized case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presumptive GBS; the reporting rate was analyzed, including calculation of the observed to expected ratio based on background rates and vaccine administration data. Because of limited availability of medical records, cases were not assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS. Results: As of July 24, 2021, 130 reports of presumptive GBS were identified in VAERS following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination (median age, 56 years; IQR, 45-62 years; 111 individuals [86.0%] were < 65 years; 77 men [59.7%]). The median time to onset of GBS following vaccination was 13 days (IQR, 10-18 days), with 105 cases (81.4%) beginning within 21 days and 123 (95.3%) within 42 days. One hundred twenty-one reports (93.1%) were serious, including 1 death. With approximately 13 209 858 doses of vaccine administered to adults in the US, the estimated crude reporting rate was 1 case of GBS per 100 000 doses administered. The overall estimated observed to expected rate ratio was 4.18 (95% CI, 3.47-4.98) for the 42-day window, and in the worst-case scenario analysis for adults 18 years or older, corresponded to an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100 000 person-years (based on a rate of approximately 8.36 cases per 100 000 person-years [123 cases per 1 472 162 person-years] compared with a background rate of approximately 2 cases per 100 000 person-years). For both risk windows, the observed to expected rate ratio was elevated in all age groups except individuals aged 18 through 29 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest a potential small but statistically significant safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. However, the findings are subject to the limitations of passive reporting systems and presumptive case definition, and they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of medical records to establish a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1606-1613, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453486

ABSTRACT

Importance: As part of postauthorization safety surveillance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: To assess reports of GBS received in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Reports of presumptive GBS were identified in a US passive reporting system (VAERS) February-July 2021 and characterized, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine; the comparator was the background rate of GBS in the general (unvaccinated) population that had been estimated and published based on a standardized case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presumptive GBS; the reporting rate was analyzed, including calculation of the observed to expected ratio based on background rates and vaccine administration data. Because of limited availability of medical records, cases were not assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS. Results: As of July 24, 2021, 130 reports of presumptive GBS were identified in VAERS following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination (median age, 56 years; IQR, 45-62 years; 111 individuals [86.0%] were < 65 years; 77 men [59.7%]). The median time to onset of GBS following vaccination was 13 days (IQR, 10-18 days), with 105 cases (81.4%) beginning within 21 days and 123 (95.3%) within 42 days. One hundred twenty-one reports (93.1%) were serious, including 1 death. With approximately 13 209 858 doses of vaccine administered to adults in the US, the estimated crude reporting rate was 1 case of GBS per 100 000 doses administered. The overall estimated observed to expected rate ratio was 4.18 (95% CI, 3.47-4.98) for the 42-day window, and in the worst-case scenario analysis for adults 18 years or older, corresponded to an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100 000 person-years (based on a rate of approximately 8.36 cases per 100 000 person-years [123 cases per 1 472 162 person-years] compared with a background rate of approximately 2 cases per 100 000 person-years). For both risk windows, the observed to expected rate ratio was elevated in all age groups except individuals aged 18 through 29 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest a potential small but statistically significant safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. However, the findings are subject to the limitations of passive reporting systems and presumptive case definition, and they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of medical records to establish a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(39): 1379-1384, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444557

ABSTRACT

On August 12, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines to authorize administration of an additional dose after completion of a primary vaccination series to eligible persons with moderate to severe immunocompromising conditions (1,2). On September 22, 2021, FDA authorized an additional dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine ≥6 months after completion of the primary series among persons aged ≥65 years, at high risk for severe COVID-19, or whose occupational or institutional exposure puts them at high risk for COVID-19 (1). Results from a phase 3 clinical trial conducted by Pfizer-BioNTech that included 306 persons aged 18-55 years showed that adverse reactions after receipt of a third dose administered 5-8 months after completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA vaccination series were similar to those reported after receipt of dose 2; these adverse reactions included mild to moderate injection site and systemic reactions (3). CDC developed v-safe, a voluntary, smartphone-based safety surveillance system, to provide information on adverse reactions after COVID-19 vaccination. Coincident with authorization of an additional dose for persons with immunocompromising conditions, the v-safe platform was updated to allow registrants to enter information about additional doses of COVID-19 vaccine received. During August 12-September 19, 2021, a total of 22,191 v-safe registrants reported receipt of an additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Most (97.6%) reported a primary 2-dose mRNA vaccination series followed by a third dose of the same vaccine. Among those who completed a health check-in survey for all 3 doses (12,591; 58.1%), 79.4% and 74.1% reported local or systemic reactions, respectively, after dose 3, compared with 77.6% and 76.5% who reported local or systemic reactions, respectively, after dose 2. These initial findings indicate no unexpected patterns of adverse reactions after an additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine; most of these adverse reactions were mild or moderate. CDC will continue to monitor vaccine safety, including the safety of additional doses of COVID-19 vaccine, and provide data to guide vaccine recommendations and protect public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
10.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(12): e509-e515, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375499

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements, protecting children and adults against numerous infectious diseases; however, the complex, rigorous process of vaccine development is unknown to many. A candidate vaccine undergoes extensive evaluation of safety and efficacy to meet licensure requirements before recommendations for use become policy. This time-consuming process involves an intricate collaboration among academia, public and private organizations, and federal agencies to ensure that safety is prioritized in every step. Vaccine safety continues to be monitored after licensure through a robust system. Yet, vaccine hesitancy remains a major challenge, especially now with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and concerns about the speed with which candidate vaccines are being developed. This article reviews the vaccine development process and the systems in place to ensure safety and effectiveness. A better understanding of these topics is necessary to address concerns and improve public acceptance of all vaccines, particularly COVID-19 vaccines. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(12):e509-e515.].


Subject(s)
Drug Approval , Vaccines/pharmacology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Licensure , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Safety Management , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(6): 1537-1546, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326762

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to systematically investigate if any of the available drugs in the electronic health record (EHR) can be repurposed as potential treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Based on a retrospective cohort analysis of EHR data, drug-wide association studies (DrugWAS) were performed on 9,748 patients with COVID-19 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). For each drug study, multivariable logistic regression with overlap weighting using propensity score was applied to estimate the effect of drug exposure on COVID-19 disease outcomes. Patient exposure to a drug between 3-months prior to the pandemic and the COVID-19 diagnosis was chosen as the exposure of interest. All-cause of death was selected as the primary outcome. Hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, and need for mechanical ventilation were identified as secondary outcomes. Overall, 17 drugs were significantly associated with decreased COVID-19 severity. Previous exposure to two types of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, PCV13 (odds ratio (OR), 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12-0.81 and OR, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.15-0.73), diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid vaccine (OR, 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15-0.93) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of death (primary outcome). Secondary analyses identified several other significant associations showing lower risk for COVID-19 outcomes: acellular pertussis vaccine, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), flaxseed extract, ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, turmeric extract, ubidecarenone, azelastine, pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, omega-3 fatty acids, fluticasone, and ibuprofen. In conclusion, this cohort study leveraged EHR data to identify a list of drugs that could be repurposed to improve COVID-19 outcomes. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to investigate the efficacy of the proposed drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14022, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301184

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic and there is an urgent need for safe and effective drugs for COVID-19 treatment. Since developing a new drug is time consuming, many approved or investigational drugs have been repurposed for COVID-19 treatment in clinical trials. Therefore, selection of safe drugs for COVID-19 patients is vital for combating this pandemic. Our goal was to evaluate the safety concerns of drugs by analyzing adverse events reported in post-market surveillance. We collected 296 drugs that have been evaluated in clinical trials for COVID-19 and identified 28,597,464 associated adverse events at the system organ classes (SOCs) level in the FDA adverse events report systems (FAERS). We calculated Z-scores of SOCs that statistically quantify the relative frequency of adverse events of drugs in FAERS to quantitatively measure safety concerns for the drugs. Analyzing the Z-scores revealed that these drugs are associated with different significantly frequent adverse events. Our results suggest that this safety concern metric may serve as a tool to inform selection of drugs with favorable safety profiles for COVID-19 patients in clinical practices. Caution is advised when administering drugs with high Z-scores to patients who are vulnerable to associated adverse events.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Humans , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Safety
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 680-684, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218745

ABSTRACT

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson) (1). The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, the third COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the United States, uses a replication-incompetent human adenoviral type 26 vector platform* (2) and is administered as a single intramuscular dose, whereas the first two authorized vaccines use an mRNA platform and require 2 doses. On February 28, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued interim recommendations for use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine among persons aged ≥18 years (3). During April 13-23, CDC and FDA recommended a pause in use of Janssen vaccine after reports of six cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/µL of blood) among Janssen vaccine recipients (4). Similar thrombotic events, primarily among women aged <60 years, have been described in Europe after receipt of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, which uses a replication-incompetent chimpanzee adenoviral vector (5-7). The U.S. CVST cases that prompted the pause in Janssen vaccination, as well as subsequently detected CVST cases, are described elsewhere (8). This report summarizes adverse events among Janssen vaccine recipients, including non-CVST cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), a passive surveillance system, and through v-safe, an active monitoring system. As of April 21, 2021, 7.98 million doses of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine had been administered. Among 13,725 VAERS reports reviewed, 97% were classified as nonserious and 3% as serious,† including three reports among women of cases of thrombosis in large arteries or veins accompanied by thrombocytopenia during the second week after vaccination. These three cases and the previously detected CVST cases are consistent with 17 cases of TTS,§ a newly defined condition. Approximately 338,700 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients completed at least one v-safe survey during the week after vaccination; 76% reported a systemic reaction, 61% reported a local reaction, and 34% reported a health impact.¶ Fatigue and pain were commonly reported symptoms in both VAERS and v-safe. The overall safety profile is consistent with preauthorization clinical trials data. Prompt review of U.S. vaccine safety data detected three additional cases of non-CVST TTS, in addition to the previously recognized CVST cases that initiated the pause in use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Ongoing monitoring of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccination with the Janssen single-dose vaccine, is essential for evaluating the risks and benefits of each vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Approval , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
16.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 30(7): 827-837, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192592

ABSTRACT

The US Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel System was established in 2009 to use routinely collected electronic health data for improving the national capability to assess post-market medical product safety. Over more than a decade, Sentinel has become an integral part of FDA's surveillance capabilities and has been used to conduct analyses that have contributed to regulatory decisions. FDA's role in the COVID-19 pandemic response has necessitated an expansion and enhancement of Sentinel. Here we describe how the Sentinel System has supported FDA's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight new capabilities developed, key data generated to date, and lessons learned, particularly with respect to working with inpatient electronic health record data. Early in the pandemic, Sentinel developed a multi-pronged approach to support FDA's anticipated data and analytic needs. It incorporated new data sources, created a rapidly refreshed database, developed protocols to assess the natural history of COVID-19, validated a diagnosis-code based algorithm for identifying patients with COVID-19 in administrative claims data, and coordinated with other national and international initiatives. Sentinel is poised to answer important questions about the natural history of COVID-19 and is positioned to use this information to study the use, safety, and potentially the effectiveness of medical products used for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Information Management/organization & administration , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislation & jurisprudence
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(9): e67, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are raising concerns about vaccine safety, particularly in the context of large-scale immunization. To address public concerns, we measured the baseline incidence rates of major conditions potentially related to vaccine-related adverse events (VAEs). We aimed to provide a basis for evaluating VAEs and verifying causality. METHODS: Conditions of interest were selected from the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System Table of Reportable Events and a recent report from a European consortium on vaccine surveillance. We used the National Health Insurance Service database in Korea to identify the monthly numbers of cases with these conditions. Data from January 2006 to June 2020 were included. Prediction models were constructed from the observed incidences using an autoregressive integrated moving average. We predicted the incidences of the conditions and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for January through December 2021. In addition, subgroup analysis for the expected vaccination population was conducted. RESULTS: Mean values (95% CIs) of the predicted monthly incidence of vasovagal syncope, anaphylaxis, brachial neuritis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Bell's palsy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalopathy, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus in 2021 were 23.89 (19.81-27.98), 4.72 (3.83-5.61), 57.62 (51.37-63.88), 0.03 (0.01-0.04), 8.58 (7.90-9.26), 0.26 (0.18-0.34), 2.13 (1.42-2.83), 1.65 (1.17-2.13), 0.19 (0.14-0.25), 0.75 (0.61-0.90), and 3.40 (2.79-4.01) cases per 100,000 respectively. The majority of the conditions showed an increasing trend with seasonal variations in their incidences. CONCLUSION: We measured the incidence of a total of 11 conditions that could potentially be associated with VAEs to predict the monthly incidence in 2021. In Korea, conditions that could potentially be related to VAEs occur on a regular basis, and an increasing trend is observed with seasonality.


Subject(s)
Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/methods , Vaccination/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Incidence , Models, Theoretical , National Health Programs , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Syncope, Vasovagal/diagnosis , Syncope, Vasovagal/epidemiology
18.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 30(7): 843-857, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Information regarding availability of electronic healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region is critical for planning vaccine safety assessments particularly, as COVID-19 vaccines are introduced. This study aimed to identify data sources in the region, potentially suitable for vaccine safety surveillance. This manuscript is endorsed by the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE). METHODS: Nineteen countries targeted for database reporting were identified using published country lists and review articles. Surveillance capacity was assessed using two surveys: a 9-item introductory survey and a 51-item full survey. Survey questions related to database characteristics, covariate and health outcome variables, vaccine exposure characteristics, access and governance, and dataset linkage capability. Other questions collated research/regulatory applications of the data and local publications detailing database use for research. RESULTS: Eleven databases containing vaccine-specific information were identified across 8 countries. Databases were largely national in coverage (8/11, 73%), encompassed all ages (9/11, 82%) with population size from 1.4 to 52 million persons. Vaccine exposure information varied particularly for standardized vaccine codes (5/11, 46%), brand (7/11, 64%) and manufacturer (5/11, 46%). Outcome data were integrated with vaccine data in 6 (55%) databases and available via linkage in 5 (46%) databases. Data approval processes varied, impacting on timeliness of data access. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in vaccine data availability, complexities in data access including, governance and data release approval procedures, together with requirement for data linkage for outcome information, all contribute to the challenges in building a distributed network for vaccine safety assessment in the Asia-Pacific and globally. Common data models (CDMs) may help expedite vaccine safety research across the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Information Interoperability , Pharmacoepidemiology/methods , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/methods , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Geography , Humans , International Cooperation , Pacific Islands/epidemiology , Pharmacoepidemiology/organization & administration , Pharmacovigilance , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1205-1210, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092870

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against COVID-19 are being developed at speeds not previously achieved. With this unprecedented effort comes challenges for post-marketing safety monitoring and challenges for vaccine safety communication. To deploy these new vaccines fast across diverse populations, it is vital that robust pharmacovigilance and active surveillance systems are in place. Not all countries have the capability or resources to undertake adequate surveillance and will rely on data from those who can. The tools exist to assess COVID-19 vaccines as they are deployed such as surveillance systems, administrative data and case definitions for adverse events of special interest. However, stitching these all together and using them effectively requires investment and collaboration. This paper provides a high-level overview of some of the facets of modern vaccine safety assessment and how they are, or can be, applied to COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic , Drug Approval , Humans , Pharmacoepidemiology , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2
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