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1.
AORN J ; 115(4): P10-P13, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157692
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 853, 2022 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the health benefits of physical activity are well documented, most older adults are not sufficiently active. There is a need to explore approaches to physical activity promotion amongst older adults that meet the personal preferences and needs of participants, and that can be implemented on a large scale in community-based settings. The current study evaluates Daily Moves, a community-based physical activity program for older adults living in Adelaide, Australia.  METHODS: The Daily Moves program, which ran almost entirely during the COVID-19 pandemic, provided participants with personalized plans and information about suitable physical activity promoting activities available in their local area. This study used an explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach to evaluate associations between participation in the Daily Moves program and physical activity engagement, physical function and psychosocial wellbeing, and to explore the experiences of Daily Moves participants through qualitative interviews, with a particular focus on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on program participation and enjoyment. RESULTS: The research evaluation included 69 older adults (mean age at baseline = 73.9 ± 5.6 years; 19 male). Following Daily Moves, participants reported an increase in self-report physical activity levels (mean increase = 1.8 days, p < 0.001), improvements on several measures of physical function (left grip strength (mean increase = 1.8 kg, p < 0.001); right grip strength (mean increase = 1.3 kg, p = 0.03); Timed Up and Go (mean decrease = 1.3 s, p < 0.001)), and no significant changes in measures of psychosocial wellbeing. Qualitative interviews revealed that participants valued the supportive and flexible nature of Daily Moves, and that they felt connected with staff and other participants despite the onset of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation demonstrates that physical activity programs embedded within the community can provide flexible and tailored recommendations to participants, and that this approach can promote positive change in important indicators of health in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Exercise/psychology , Emotions , Self Report , Program Evaluation
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18597, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106465

ABSTRACT

Studies reporting vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 outcomes concentrate mainly on estimates of one single type of vaccine and variant, seldom considering waning effects. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of the overall COVID-19 vaccination programme implemented in the Apulia region of Italy at preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections, COVID-19-related hospital admissions and deaths during alpha and delta variant dominant periods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records of persons 16 years and older resident in the Apulia region, assessing the effectiveness of the combined use of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines against confirmed COVID-19 infections, hospitalisations and deaths, for fully and partially vaccinated persons as well as by time since vaccination and variants. Cox regression models yielding hazard ratios were used to calculate the overall vaccination programme effectiveness. From 1 January to 1 December 2021, we included 3,530,967 eligible persons in the cohort, of whom 2,770,299 were fully vaccinated and 158,313 were COVID-19 positive at the end of the study period. The effectiveness of the programme over the entire study period for fully vaccinated persons against COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation and death were 87.69% (CI95% 87.73-88.18), 94.08% (93.58-94.54) and 95.95% (CI95% 95.26-96.54), respectively. The effectiveness against COVID-19 infection of fully vaccinated subjects during the alpha and delta period was respectively 88.20% (CI95% 87.60-99.78) and 59.31% (CI95% 57.91-60.67), against hospitalisation 93.89% (CI95% 92.67-94.90) and 88.32% (CI95% 86.50-89.90) and against death 93.83% (CI95% 91.65-95.45) and 85.91 (CI95% 79.98-90.09). The waning effects of the programme regarding COVID-19 infection during the delta period were stronger than for alpha, with 75.85% (CI95% 74.38-77.24) effectiveness after 1-2 months and 8.35% (CI95% 3.45-13.01) after 5-6 months after full vaccination. The effectiveness against hospitalisation and death during the delta period waned rapidly and at 7-8-months after the full vaccination respectively decreased to 27.67% (CI95% 7.48-43.45) and 48.47 (CI95% 53.97-34.82). Our study suggests that the COVID-19 vaccination program in Apulia was strongly protective against COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation, and death due to alpha as well as delta variants, although its effectiveness is reduced over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Program Evaluation , Retrospective Studies , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Hospitalization , Cohort Studies
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066044

ABSTRACT

Protective factors that build students' resilience are known. A six-week digital resilience training program was developed on the basis of theory, evidence, and contextual information. The feasibility study sought to evaluate the acceptability, appropriateness, demand, implementation, and limited efficacy of a digital resilience skills enhancement program for undergraduate students. A single group, pre-test, post-test, concurrent mixed methods design among 10 undergraduate students was conducted in one university in Singapore. The content analysis concluded that students accepted and perceived the digital resilience skills enhancement program as appropriate. Students also proposed several improvements, such as the initiation of the program and revisions to the content. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test found significant improvements in resilience (p = 0.02) and meta-cognitive self-regulation (p = 0.01) scores with medium (d = 0.79, 95% CI: -0.15 to 1.74) and very large effect sizes (d = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.30-2.33), respectively. Students found the digital resilience program appropriate and were able to apply their newly acquired skills to promote their resilience and learning. Although, several improvements are proposed to enhance the rigor of the digital resilience program, the findings of this study suggests that digital resilience programs are important for students' well-being.


Subject(s)
Learning , Students , Humans , Program Evaluation , Singapore , Students/psychology , Universities
5.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(10): 54-56, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055513
6.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(6): 639-649, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018363

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Considerable research has examined impacts of case investigation and contact tracing (CI/CT) programs on the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19, but there are few reports on factors affecting the ability of these programs to obtain interviews and acquire key information. OBJECTIVE: To investigate programmatic and case-specific factors associated with CI outcomes using data from the Public Health Institute's Tracing Health CI/CT program. Analyses were designed to detect variability in predictors of whether interviews and key information were obtained rather than quantify specific relationships. DESIGN: Logistic regression models examined variability in the predictive value of interview timeliness and respondent characteristics on outreach outcomes and interview results. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were members of a large California health care network with a positive laboratory test for COVID-19 and outreach from January 1 to July 31, 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the result of outreach attempts: completed interview, refused interview, or failure to reach the infected person. Secondary outcomes considered whether respondents provided information on symptom onset, employment, and contact information or a reason for declining to provide information, and whether resource support was requested or accepted. RESULTS: Of 9391 eligible records, 65.6% were for completed interviews, 6.0% were refusals, and 28.3% were failed outreach. One-third of respondents (36.7%) provided information on contacts (mean = 0.97 contacts per respondent, 2.6 for those naming at least 1). Privacy concerns were the most common reasons for not providing contact information. Among respondent characteristics and interview timeliness, only race and number of symptoms showed statistically significant effects in all adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation existed in outreach outcomes by subject characteristics and interview timeliness. CI/CT programs carefully focused to characteristics and needs of specific communities will likely have the greatest impact on the spread of COVID-19 and other communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Humans , Logistic Models , Program Evaluation , Public Health
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(9): 3416-3418, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010415

ABSTRACT

Mentor- mentee relationship in any discipline is a professional and interpersonal relationship. It associates a mentor with a protégé or a mentee. Mentoring is a serious business in Ophthalmology, both academically and surgically. The mentors act as role models for future generations by acting as a friend, coach, or guide to the mentee. They do so by giving valuable advice, moral support, and inculcating skills in a mentee. It is difficult to pinpoint the precise function of the mentor-mentee relationship, but the final goal is to achieve personal and professional objectives. In the current article, the authors have shed light on the imperative aspect of one's Ophthalmology career, i.e., the mentor-mentee relationship. This article describes various aspects of mentoring, the traits of a perfect mentor and mentee, the pre-requisites for a good mentee-mentor relationship, the hindrances and obstacles in a good relationship, and the impact of COVID-19 on the same. The potential goal of this article is to ignite the constructive spirit of the mentor-mentee relationship, encourage potential mentors to become ideal mentors, and potential mentees to gain from serious mentors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mentoring , Ophthalmology , Humans , Mentors , Program Evaluation , Research Personnel
9.
Health Technol Assess ; 26(31): 1-88, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence affects around half of stroke survivors in the acute phase, and it often presents as a new problem after stroke or, if pre-existing, worsens significantly, adding to the disability and helplessness caused by neurological deficits. New management programmes after stroke are needed to address urinary incontinence early and effectively. OBJECTIVE: The Identifying Continence OptioNs after Stroke (ICONS)-II trial aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a systematic voiding programme for urinary incontinence after stroke in hospital. DESIGN: This was a pragmatic, multicentre, individual-patient-randomised (1 : 1), parallel-group trial with an internal pilot. SETTING: Eighteen NHS stroke services with stroke units took part. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were adult men and women with acute stroke and urinary incontinence, including those with cognitive impairment. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to the intervention, a systematic voiding programme, or to usual care. The systematic voiding programme comprised assessment, behavioural interventions (bladder training or prompted voiding) and review. The assessment included evaluation of the need for and possible removal of an indwelling urinary catheter. The intervention began within 24 hours of recruitment and continued until discharge from the stroke unit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was severity of urinary incontinence (measured using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire) at 3 months post randomisation. Secondary outcome measures were taken at 3 and 6 months after randomisation and on discharge from the stroke unit. They included severity of urinary incontinence (at discharge and at 6 months), urinary symptoms, number of urinary tract infections, number of days indwelling urinary catheter was in situ, functional independence, quality of life, falls, mortality rate and costs. The trial statistician remained blinded until clinical effectiveness analysis was complete. RESULTS: The planned sample size was 1024 participants, with 512 allocated to each of the intervention and the usual-care groups. The internal pilot did not meet the target for recruitment and was extended to March 2020, with changes made to address low recruitment. The trial was paused in March 2020 because of COVID-19, and was later stopped, at which point 157 participants had been randomised (intervention, n = 79; usual care, n = 78). There were major issues with attrition, with 45% of the primary outcome data missing: 56% of the intervention group data and 35% of the usual-care group data. In terms of the primary outcome, patients allocated to the intervention group had a lower score for severity of urinary incontinence (higher scores indicate greater severity in urinary incontinence) than those allocated to the usual-care group, with means (standard deviations) of 8.1 (7.4) and 9.1 (7.8), respectively. LIMITATIONS: The trial was unable to recruit sufficient participants and had very high attrition, which resulted in seriously underpowered results. CONCLUSIONS: The internal pilot did not meet its target for recruitment and, despite recruitment subsequently being more promising, it was concluded that the trial was not feasible owing to the combined problems of poor recruitment, poor retention and COVID-19. The intervention group had a slightly lower score for severity of urinary incontinence at 3 months post randomisation, but this result should be interpreted with caution. FUTURE WORK: Further studies to assess the effectiveness of an intervention starting in or continuing into the community are required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered as ISRCTN14005026. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 26, No. 31. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Urinary incontinence affects around half of stroke survivors. It causes embarrassment and distress, affecting patients' ability to take part in rehabilitation. It also has a major impact on families and may determine whether or not patients are able to return home. Finding the underlying cause and addressing it can prevent, cure or reduce problems. Doing this in a systematic way for everyone with incontinence problems as early as possible after the stroke, while they are still in hospital, may work best. We also wanted to avoid using catheters in the bladder to drain the urine away, as these are often unnecessary and can cause urinary tract infections. This study aimed to test whether or not continence problems and the use of urinary catheters could be reduced if everyone with incontinence was fully assessed and given the right management and support early after hospital admission. We also wanted to find out if the benefits outweighed the costs. We planned to involve 1024 men and women with incontinence from 18 stroke units in the study, with 512 people receiving the intervention and 512 receiving usual care. However, the trial was paused because of COVID-19, at which time only 157 participants had been recruited. When we were thinking about restarting the study and looked at its progress, we found that not enough people had agreed to take part and, of those who had agreed, many had not returned their outcome questionnaires. This indicated that the trial was not feasible and should not restart. We could not make any firm conclusions about whether or not the intervention worked, as not enough people were involved. We found that stays in hospital after stroke are shorter than they were in the past. This suggests that future studies investigating ways of treating incontinence should consider interventions with management and support for incontinence that continue after patients leave the hospital.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Urinary Incontinence , Adult , COVID-19 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Program Evaluation , Quality of Life , Stroke/complications , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Urinary Incontinence/therapy
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957278

ABSTRACT

Racial and ethnic minorities, and women, experience stark disparities in cancer risk behaviors and mortality rates, yet often remain underrepresented in scientific research positions. We conducted an exploratory, qualitative study to examine the value of mentored research experience as part of an NCI-funded research training program designed to increase the representation of minority and women scientists in cancer disparities research. Using individual interviews, we explored 16 mentees' and 7 mentors' program experiences and perspectives to identify the most effective strategies to build strong mentoring relationships that could ultimately contribute to increased representation in health disparities research. Two expert analysts employed thematic analysis and constant comparison to code, categorize, and summarize the data into themes. Mentees and mentors shared five themes identifying contributions to program success: conditions for building successful mentoring relationships; role of mentor/mentee similarities or differences and their impact on effective collaboration; program elements that fostered developing knowledge, skills, and confidence; program supportive opportunities; and challenges and benefits of in-person vs. virtual program delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings contribute to improving the quality of training programs for historically excluded trainees to advance their cancer disparities research careers and offer a successful model that can guide similar programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Mentors , Pandemics , Program Evaluation
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e057790, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The REFORM (REhabilitation FOR Musculoskeletal conditions) trial is a non-inferiority randomised controlled trial (n=210) designed to determine whether a supported home exercise programme is as good or better than a course of face-to-face physiotherapy for the management of some musculoskeletal conditions. The trial is currently being conducted across Sydney government hospitals in Australia. This process evaluation will run alongside the REFORM trial. It combines qualitative and quantitative data to help explain the trial results and determine the feasibility of rolling out supported home exercise programmes in settings similar to the REFORM trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two theoretical frameworks underpin our process evaluation methodology: the Realist framework (context, mechanism, outcomes) considers the causal assumptions as to why a supported home exercise programme may be as good or better than face-to-face physiotherapy in terms of the context, mechanisms and outcomes of the trial. The RE-AIM framework describes the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance of the intervention. These two frameworks will be broadly used to guide this process evaluation using a mixed-methods approach. For example, qualitative data will be derived from interviews with patients, healthcare professionals and stakeholders, and quantitative data will be collected to determine the cost and feasibility of providing supported home exercise programmes. These data will be analysed iteratively before the analysis of the trial results and will be triangulated with the results of the primary and secondary outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial will be conducted in accordance with the National Health and Medical Research Council National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2018) and the Note for Good Clinical Practice (CPMP/ICH-135/95). Ethical approval was obtained on 17 March 2017 from the Northern Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee (trial number: HREC/16HAWKE/431-RESP/16/287) with an amendment for the process evaluation approved on 4 February 2020. The results of the process evaluation will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619000065190.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Ambulatory Care , Australia , Exercise Therapy/methods , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Musculoskeletal Diseases/rehabilitation , Program Evaluation , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Self Care
12.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 38(10): 1385-1390, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926022

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the impact of a virtual Pediatric Surgery Bootcamp curriculum on resource utilization, learner engagement, knowledge retention, and stakeholder satisfaction. METHODS: A virtual curriculum was developed around Pediatric Surgery Milestones. GlobalCastMD delivered pre-recorded and live content over a single 10-h day with a concluding social hour. Metrics of learner engagement, faculty interaction, knowledge retention, and satisfaction were collected and analyzed during and after the course. RESULTS: Of 56 PS residencies, 31 registered (55.4%; 8/8 Canadian and 23/48 US; p = 0.006), including 42 learners overall. The virtual BC budget was $15,500 (USD), 54% of the anticipated in-person course. Pre- and post-tests were administered, revealing significant knowledge improvement (48.6% [286/589] vs 66.9% [89/133] p < 0.0002). Learner surveys (n = 14) suggested the virtual BC facilitated fellowship transition (85%) and strengthened peer-group camaraderie (69%), but in-person events were still favored (77%). Program Directors (PD) were surveyed, and respondents (n = 22) also favored in-person events (61%). PDs not registering their learners (n = 7) perceived insufficient value-added and concern for excessive participants. CONCLUSIONS: The virtual bootcamp format reduced overall expenses, interfered less with schedules, achieved more inclusive reach, and facilitated content archiving. Despite these advantages, learners and program directors still favored in-person education. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Canada , Child , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Humans , Program Evaluation
13.
Can J Public Health ; 113(4): 562-568, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924772

ABSTRACT

SETTING: Substance use remains a pervasive public health issue throughout Canada, exerting substantial economic, social, and political pressure on health care systems, while impacting lives of affected individuals. The advent of COVID-19 has been doubly perilous; it restricts existing programming, while exacting a worsening toll on mental health and substance use fronts across the demographic landscape. INTERVENTION: In response to the crisis, the Mobile Withdrawal Management Service (MWMS) was established in 2019 through a Winnipeg-based community health centre. MWMS is a community-based outreach withdrawal service that supports individuals for up to 30 days. Clients may choose where services are accessed in the community, including their own home. For those without safe housing, short-term accommodation is offered. Additionally, Indigenous cultural support, peer support, trauma counselling, and linkage to primary care are available. OUTCOMES: The MWMS approach is resolutely patient-centred. The program meets people where they are at, both figuratively and literally. Agility and adaptability-particularly in the context of substance use treatment-is uniquely advantageous in maintaining service delivery to the broad demographic cross-section revealed in the data. Moreover, relative to inpatient detoxification services, MWMS holds significant potential for system-wide cost savings. IMPLICATIONS: The presented approach addresses a significant gap in addiction services. There is substantial capacity for both increased access and system savings with implementation of this approach. Furthermore, the principles behind the program are readily transferable to different contexts and easily modifiable to local conditions. There is particular potential for servicing hard-to-reach populations, with respect to both physical and social geography.


RéSUMé: LIEU: L'usage de substances demeure un problème de santé publique omniprésent au Canada; en plus de son impact sur la vie des personnes touchées, il exerce une pression économique, sociale et politique considérable sur les systèmes de soins de santé. L'avènement de la COVID-19 a été doublement périlleux : il a limité les programmes existants tout en aggravant le bilan en matière de santé mentale et d'usage de substances dans toutes les couches de la société. INTERVENTION: En réponse à la crise, un service mobile de sevrage contrôlé (Mobile Withdrawal Management Service ­ MWMS) a été créé en 2019 par un centre de santé communautaire de Winnipeg. Le MWMS est un service de sevrage de proximité qui offre une aide individuelle pendant une période pouvant aller jusqu'à 30 jours. Les usagères et usagers peuvent choisir l'endroit où recevoir ces services dans la communauté, y compris à leur domicile. Un hébergement à court terme est offert aux personnes sans logement sûr. Du soutien culturel aux personnes autochtones, du soutien par les pairs, du counseling traumatologique et un aiguillage vers les soins primaires sont aussi disponibles. RéSULTATS: La démarche du MWMS est résolument centrée sur la personne. Le programme rejoint les gens là où ils se trouvent, au propre et au figuré. Son agilité et son adaptabilité­particulièrement dans le contexte du traitement de l'usage de substances­lui procurent un avantage unique lorsqu'il s'agit de maintenir la prestation de services au large spectre démographique révélé dans les données. De plus, comparé aux services de désintoxication en établissement, le MWMS peut générer des économies considérables à l'échelle du système. CONSéQUENCES: La démarche présentée comble une lacune importante dans les services d'aide aux toxicomanes. Sa mise en œuvre permettrait d'élargir l'accès aux services et de réaliser des économies à l'échelle du système. De plus, les principes qui sous-tendent le programme sont faciles à transférer à d'autres contextes et à modifier en fonction des conditions locales. C'est aussi une démarche qui revêt l'intérêt particulier de pouvoir joindre les populations difficiles à atteindre, tant sur le plan de la géographie physique que sociale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Community Health Services , Housing , Humans , Program Evaluation/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
14.
J Surg Educ ; 79(6): 1326-1333, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921216

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since residency interviews became virtual due to COVID-19, and likely continue in the future, programs must find ways to improve their non-traditional recruiting methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a structured, non-traditional approach on visibility and perception of the program as well as virtual interview experience. METHODS: The focus of our approach was to ensure constant engagement while maintaining all pre-interview communication as resident-led and informal. The program focused on improving visibility and outreach through an organized utilization of social media platforms highlighting people and local culture. The virtual interview process was restructured with resident-led virtual meet and greets followed by small group discussions and providing virtual hospital tours, videos, and slides of the program's culture and expectationson the interview day. Perception of the program and the new approach to the interview process was assessed via an anonymous survey. RESULTS: The program's visibility was measured via social media analytics with an increase in reach on Facebook from 0/post to as high as 4200/post and engagement 2/post to nearly 600/post. Tweet Impressions from approximately 350/mo to 11,000/mo with the increase in new Followers/month by 532.5%. Increase in total number of applicants in 2021 of 16% compared to average between 2018 and 2020. Survey response rate was 66.1%; of those 53.8% of interviewees attended a virtual meet and greet session. Perceptions of interviewees on our program was exclusively positive. Specific characteristics of the program that would make students rank us higher were program's culture, people, academics, and clinical experiences they would get as residents. CONCLUSIONS: The exponential increase in our program's visibility and exclusively positive program assessment suggest that a structured approach utilizing social media and virtual technologies could improve both the recruitment and the virtual interview process while maintaining positive perceptions of the program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Surveys and Questionnaires , Program Evaluation
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917475

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 presented challenges for global health research training programs. The Clean Air Research and Education (CARE) program, which aims to enhance research capacity related to noncommunicable diseases and environmental health in the country of Georgia, was launched in 2020-as the COVID-19 pandemic began. At its foundation is mentorship and mentored research, alongside formal didactic training, informal training/meetings, and other supports. Current analyses examined CARE's initial 1.5 years (e.g., program benefits, mentorship relationships) using data from an evaluation survey among trainees and faculty in January 2022. Trainees (100% response rate: n = 12/12; 4 MPH, 8 PhD) and faculty (86.7% response rate: n = 13/15; 7 Georgia-based, 6 United States-based) rated factors related to mentor-mentee relationships highly, particularly mutual consideration of each other's thoughts, opinions, and perspectives; one major challenge was completing goals planned. Trainees and faculty identified several growth experiences and program benefits (e.g., skills development, expanding professional network) but also identified challenges (e.g., meeting program demands, communication gaps, unclear expectations)-exacerbated by the pandemic. Findings underscore the importance of strong mentorship relationships and that the pandemic negatively impacted communication and clarity of expectations. Given the likely ongoing impact of the pandemic on such programs, program leaders must identify ways to address these challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Health , Georgia (Republic)/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , United States
16.
Eval Program Plann ; 94: 102129, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914355

ABSTRACT

To address the economic losses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, countries have implemented, together with policies aimed at stopping the spread of the virus, a mixture of fiscal and monetary measures. This work investigates the effect of containment policies and economic support measures on economic growth in the short run, investigating a time window of six quarters in a cross country perspective. Our results confirm the existence of a negative effect of stringency measures on GDP; we also detect a positive effect from economic support measures. Moreover, looking at the interaction between these two kinds of interventions, our findings suggest that up to a relatively low level of stringency policies, economic support measures are able to positively counterbalance the negative impact of containment and closure policies. When the level of closures became more severe, however, the economic support measures that countries adopt are not able to completely recoup, in the short run, the economic losses due to stringency policies. Results suggest that in order to have a positive net effect, policymakers should take into account the level of stringency measures implemented before investing in economic support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Daucus carota , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Program Evaluation
17.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 73(2): 147-158, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912672

ABSTRACT

The problem of obesity is affecting an increasing number of people worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic and the required social distancing, which make it impossible to see a dietitian, present new challenges and require the development of new ways of working with overweight individuals. Based on research and practice, dietetic services are beginning to shift from in-office consultations to a form of online consultation using mobile apps and websites. This literature review aims to critically analyze the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of interventions targeting weight loss in overweight or obese individuals focusing on behavioral and online interventions. The data from the presented studies suggest that the effectiveness of online interventions to control body weight is high enough to be used in nutritional education and in weight reduction or maintenance. The main advantage is a wide access to them for the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity , Overweight , Weight Reduction Programs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention , Obesity/prevention & control , Overweight/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Program Evaluation , Weight Reduction Programs/methods
18.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E32, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912038

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard (ScoreCard) is a free, publicly available survey tool designed to help employers assess the extent to which they have implemented evidence-based interventions or strategies at their worksites to improve the health and well-being of employees. We examined how, how broadly, and to what effect the ScoreCard has been applied. METHODS: We analyzed peer-reviewed and grey literature along with the ScoreCard database of online submissions from January 2012 through January 2021. Our inclusion criteria were workplace settings, adult working populations, and explicit use of the ScoreCard. RESULTS: We found that the ScoreCard had been used in 1) surveillance efforts by states, 2) health promotion training and technical assistance, 3) research on workplace health promotion program effectiveness, and 4) employer efforts to improve program design, implementation, and evaluation. CONCLUSION: The ScoreCard has been used as intended to support the development, planning, monitoring, and continuous improvement of workplace health promotion programs. Our review revealed gaps in the tool and opportunities to improve it by 1) enhancing surveillance efforts, 2) engaging employers in low-wage industries, 3) adding new questions or topic areas, and 4) conducting quantitative studies on the relationship between improvements in the ScoreCard and employee health and well-being outcomes.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Workplace , Adult , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Health Promotion , Humans , Program Evaluation , United States
19.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 46(3): 472-480, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909855

ABSTRACT

The Mississippi IDeA Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence (INBRE) supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Grant P20GM103476) launched the new Mississippi INBRE Outreach Scholars (MIOS) summer research program in 2019. The program was designed to offer students community outreach and research experiences related to the study of behavioral and health disparities life sciences. The program was adapted in early 2020 to offer the program in a fully online format in the summer of 2020. This article details the program adaptations and discusses program evaluation data related to scholars' perceptions of program benefits and expectations and their confidence in research-related skills. The program evaluation was a mixed-method approach that included a qualitative postprogram survey and a pre-post quantitative survey. Scholars identified technical and communication skill building and resilience as areas of personal growth. Overall, the program met scholars' expectations for the program and significantly improved their confidence on 8 of the 19 (with confidence interval estimated differences from 0.3 to 2.56, where a difference of 1 is an improvement across 1 anchor on a Likert-type scale) various research-related tasks/skills after completion of the program. The analyses presented demonstrated that a combined qualitative and quantitative analysis approach is useful for examining the extent to which programs such as Mississippi INBRE are meeting goals of providing a rich research experience in health disparities for a diverse student body. Future longitudinal data may be examined to explore the long-term impact of MIOS on career preparation and choices and graduate education.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The Mississippi INBRE Outreach Scholars program is a summer research program for Mississippi college students that was successfully adapted to a fully online environment amidst the coronavirus-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Biological Science Disciplines , Biomedical Research/standards , Community-Institutional Relations , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Mississippi , Program Evaluation/methods , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Virtual Reality
20.
Am J Transplant ; 22(11): 2616-2626, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895940

ABSTRACT

Potential regional variations in effects of COVID-19 on federally mandated, program-specific evaluations by the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) have been controversial. SRTR January 2022 program evaluations ended transplant follow-up on March 12, 2020, and excluded transplants performed from March 13, 2020 to June 12, 2020 (the "carve-out"). This study examined the carve-out's impact, and the effect of additionally censoring COVID-19 deaths, on first-year posttransplant outcomes for transplants from July 2018 through December 2020. Program-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for graft failure and death estimated under two alternative scenarios were compared with published HRs: (1) the carve-out was removed; (2) the carve-out was retained, but deaths due to COVID-19 were additionally censored. The HRs estimated by censoring COVID-19 deaths were highly correlated with those estimated with the carve-out alone (r2  = .96). Removal of the carve-out resulted in greater variation in HRs while remaining highly correlated (r2  = .82); however, little geographic impact of the carve-out was observed. The carve-out increased average HR in the Northwest by 0.049; carve-out plus censoring reduced average HR in the Midwest by 0.009. Other regions of the country were not significantly affected. Thus, the current COVID-19 carve-out does not appear to impart substantial bias based on the region of the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Program Evaluation , Pandemics , Transplant Recipients , Registries
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