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1.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2897, 2020 10 17.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608979

ABSTRACT

Taking into account the latent threat of future pandemics, the objective of this study is to analyze - particularly with respect to medications - the sustainability of the health system, healthcare coverage, budgetary efficiency, and connections with the pharmaceutical patent system. In this context, the pharmaceutical patent system acts as a determining factor, given that promoting its existence stimulates the production of research, but in turn its existence stands in the way of rapid advancements, primarily due to the development of protective legislation concerning patents, which has largely accommodated the industry. Given that the pharmaceutical industry has managed to extend the duration of patents and avoid the incorporation of generics, our analysis focuses on the influence of pharmaceutical patents; this influence has led to reflection on the possibility of combining efforts by forging alliances between numerous companies and the public sector in order to face the challenges posed by new diseases caused by viruses that give rise to epidemics and pandemics.


Ante la amenaza latente de futuras pandemias, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar ­desde el eje de los medicamentos­ la sostenibilidad del sistema sanitario, la cobertura, la eficiencia del gasto y su vinculación al sistema de patentes farmacéuticas. En este marco, el sistema de patentes farmacéuticas adquiere un papel determinante, dado que fomentar su existencia estimula la producción de investigación pero, a su vez, su existencia no suscita un rápido avance, debido al desarrollo legislativo protector que han tenido las patentes y que ha dado lugar a un acomodamiento de la industria. Como la industria farmacéutica ha conseguido extender la duración de patentes y evitar la incorporación de genéricos, se analiza la influencia de las patentes farmacéuticas que ha dado lugar a reflexionar acerca de la posibilidad de consorciar esfuerzos realizando alianzas entre varias empresas y el sector público para afrontar los retos que plantean nuevas enfermedades producidas por virus que dan lugar a epidemias y pandemias.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Costs , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Patents as Topic , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/economics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , Virus Diseases/economics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
2.
Anesth Analg ; 133(6): 1497-1509, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607763

ABSTRACT

Research has shown that women have leadership ability equal to or better than that of their male counterparts, yet proportionally fewer women than men achieve leadership positions and promotion in medicine. The Women's Empowerment and Leadership Initiative (WELI) was founded within the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) in 2018 as a multidimensional program to help address the significant career development, leadership, and promotion gender gap between men and women in anesthesiology. Herein, we describe WELI's development and implementation with an early assessment of effectiveness at 2 years. Members received an anonymous, voluntary survey by e-mail to assess whether they believed WELI was beneficial in several broad domains: career development, networking, project implementation and completion, goal setting, mentorship, well-being, and promotion and leadership. The response rate was 60.5% (92 of 152). The majority ranked several aspects of WELI to be very or extremely valuable, including the protégé-advisor dyads, workshops, nomination to join WELI, and virtual facilitated networking. For most members, WELI helped to improve optimism about their professional future. Most also reported that WELI somewhat or absolutely contributed to project improvement or completion, finding new collaborators, and obtaining invitations to be visiting speakers. Among those who applied for promotion or leadership positions, 51% found WELI to be somewhat or absolutely valuable to their application process, and 42% found the same in applying for leadership positions. Qualitative analysis of free-text survey responses identified 5 main themes: (1) feelings of empowerment and confidence, (2) acquisition of new skills in mentoring, coaching, career development, and project implementation, (3) clarification and focus on goal setting, (4) creating meaningful connections through networking, and (5) challenges from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the inability to sustain the advisor-protégé connection. We conclude that after 2 years, the WELI program has successfully supported career development for the majority of protégés and advisors. Continued assessment of whether WELI can meaningfully contribute to attainment of promotion and leadership positions will require study across a longer period. WELI could serve as a programmatic example to support women's career development in other subspecialties.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiologists , Empowerment , Gender Equity , Leadership , Pediatricians , Physicians, Women , Sexism , Women, Working , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Career Mobility , Female , Humans , Male , Mentors , Program Evaluation , Staff Development , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1905918, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576028

ABSTRACT

In the USA, numerous summer programs are available for undergraduate students that seek to increase the number of individuals from groups underrepresented in medicine (URM) that matriculate to medical school. These programs have typically been conducted at research-focused institutions, involving hands-on-research and various enrichment experiences. For 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the suspension of on-campus student activities at American universities, necessitating a switch to a virtual format for these URM-focused programs. Outcomes, however, from these programs conducted virtually, necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, have not been reported. The Penn Access Summer Scholars (PASS) program at the Perelman School of Medicine (PSOM) targets URM undergraduates, providing two consecutive summers of mentored research and enrichment experiences, with the goal of enabling participants' matriculation to PSOM. PASS has been an 8 week on-campus experience, but during summer 2020, virtual programming of 6 weeks was provided due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in the 2020 virtual offering of PASS completed pre- and post-program surveys that included 5-point Likert-style and open-ended questions to determine the impact of the programing on self-assessments of research skills, familiarity with the physician identity, and preparedness to be a PSOM student. Post-program, participants also assessed program administration and content. With respect to program objectives, participants reported significant increases in their self-reported confidence in conducting research, understanding of physician identity, and sense of preparedness for medical school. The educational value of the program content, their level of engagement in the program and the overall quality of the program were rated as excellent or outstanding by large majorities of respondents. Content analyses of participant comments were consistent with these quantitative results. Therefore, a premedical summer enrichment program targeting URM undergraduates can be successfully conducted virtually to achieve program objectives and may increase the availability to these initiatives.


Subject(s)
Mentors , Minority Groups , Research/education , Students, Premedical , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pennsylvania , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical , Self Report , Universities
4.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211065628, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccination rollout against COVID-19 has started in developed countries in early December 2020. Mass immunization for poor or low-income countries is quite challenging before 2023. Being a lower-middle-income country, Bangladesh has begun a nationwide COVID-19 vaccination drive in early February 2021. Here, we aimed to assess the opinions, experiences, and adverse events of the COVID-19 vaccination in Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted this online cross-sectional study from 10 February 2021, to 10 March 2021, in Bangladesh. A self-reported semi-structured survey questionnaire was used using Google forms. We recorded demographics, disease history, medication records, opinions and experiences of vaccination, and associated adverse events symptoms. RESULTS: We observed leading comorbid diseases were hypertension (25.9%), diabetes (21.1%), heart diseases (9.3%), and asthma (8.7%). The most frequently reported adverse events were injection site pain (34.3%), fever (32.6%), headache (20.2%), fatigue (16.6%), and cold feeling (15.4%). The chances of having adverse events were significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.039). However, 36.4% of respondents reported no adverse events. Adverse events usually appeared after 12 h and went way within 48 h of vaccination. Besides, 85.5% were happy with the overall vaccination management, while 88.0% of the respondents recommended the COVID-19 vaccine for others for early immunization. CONCLUSION: According to the present findings, reported adverse events after the doses of Covishield in Bangladesh were non-serious and temporary. In Bangladesh, the early vaccination against COVID-19 was possible due to its prudent vaccine deal, previous mass vaccination experience, and vaccine diplomacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Program Evaluation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138464, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567894

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness due to COVID-19 because of a limited ability to physically distance and a higher burden of underlying health conditions. Objective: To describe and assess a hotel-based protective housing intervention to reduce incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PEH in Chicago, Illinois, with increased risk of severe illness due to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed PEH who were provided protective housing in individual hotel rooms in downtown Chicago during the COVID-19 pandemic from April 2 through September 3, 2020. Participants were PEH at increased risk for severe COVID-19, defined as (1) aged at least 60 years regardless of health conditions, (2) aged at least 55 years with any underlying health condition posing increased risk, or (3) aged less than 55 years with any underlying health condition posing substantially increased risk (eg, HIV/AIDS). Exposures: Participants were housed in individual hotel rooms to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; on-site health care workers provided daily symptom monitoring, regular SARS-CoV-2 testing, and care for chronic health conditions. Additional on-site services included treatment of mental health and substance use disorders and social services. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome measured was SARS-CoV-2 incidence, with SARS-Cov2 infection defined as a positive upper respiratory specimen using any polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assay authorized for emergency use by the Food and Drug Administration. Secondary outcomes were blood pressure control, glycemic control as measured by hemoglobin A1c, and housing placements at departure. Results: Of 259 participants from 16 homeless shelters in Chicago, 104 (40.2%) were aged at least 65 years, 190 (73.4%) were male, 185 (71.4%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 49 (18.9%) were non-Hispanic White. There was an observed reduction in SARS-CoV-2 incidence during the study period among the protective housing cohort (54.7 per 1000 people [95% CI, 22.4-87.1 per 1000 people]) compared with citywide rates for PEH residing in shelters (137.1 per 1000 people [95% CI, 125.1-149.1 per 1000 people]; P = .001). There was also an adjusted change in systolic blood pressure at a rate of -5.7 mm Hg (95% CI, -9.3 to -2.1 mm Hg) and hemoglobin A1c at a rate of -1.4% (95% CI, -2.4% to -0.4%) compared with baseline. More than half of participants (51% [n = 132]) departed from the intervention to housing of some kind (eg, supportive housing). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that protective housing was associated with a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk PEH during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Chicago. These findings suggest that with appropriate wraparound supports (ie, multisector services to address complex needs), such housing interventions may reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improve noncommunicable disease control, and provide a pathway to permanent housing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Homeless Persons , Housing , Noncommunicable Diseases , Program Evaluation , Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago , Chronic Disease , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Problems
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512290

ABSTRACT

This participatory action research study was conducted to confirm the implementation process and effect of developing and applying a preceptor education program based on the One-Minute Preceptor Model to foster the competence of preceptor clinical nurses. The study was conducted for eight weeks from March 2020 on 30 preceptor nurses in South Korea. Nursing standards were developed for two weeks and six cycles (comprising four stages) were performed. Data collection was integrated using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. For quantitative data, the Clinical Core Competency of Preceptor (CCCP) and General Communication Competence Scale (GICC-15) results were collected from preceptor nurses through questionnaires. Reflection journals of nurses' experiences were also analyzed through content analysis and frequency of keywords using WordClouds. There was no significant change in CCCP or GICC-15 results among preceptor nurses. However, nurses' experiences were associated with the growth and development of competencies such as evidence-based practice, quality feedback, and self-reflection. The program was effective in developing nurse competencies. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage One-Minute Preceptor Model activities among preceptors through an action research approach and to actively support research and practice in clinical settings, as well as to provide organizational and systematic support.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Preceptorship , Evidence-Based Practice , Health Services Research , Humans , Program Evaluation , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Rev Neurol ; 73(10): 345-350, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513474

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The health pandemic brought about by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has limited access to neurorehabilitation programmes for many patients who have suffered stroke, traumatic brain injury or acquired brain damage due to some other cause. As telerehabilitation allows for the provision of care in situations of social distancing, it may mitigate the negative effects of confinement. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy, adherence and usability of a teleneurorehabilitation intervention for patients with acquired brain injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients included in a face-to-face neurorehabilitation programme at the time of the declaration of the state of alarm in Spain due to COVID-19 and who agreed to participate in the study were included in a teleneurorehabilitation programme. The effectiveness of the programme, understood as an improvement in independence, was quantified with the Barthel index. Adherence to the programme and usability of the tool were explored through questionnaires. RESULTS: Altogether, 46 patients, accounting for 70.6% of the total, participated in the study. Participants significantly improved their independence and showed an improvement in the Barthel index between the start (77.3 ± 28.6) and the end of the programme (82.3 ± 26). Adherence to the intervention was very high (8.1 ± 2.2 out of 10) and the online sessions were the most highly rated content. The tool used showed a high usability (50.1 ± 9.9 out of 60) and could be used without assistance by more than half the participants. CONCLUSION: The teleneurorehabilitation intervention was found to be effective in improving patients' independence, and promoted a high degree of adherence and usability.


Efectividad, adhesión y usabilidad de un programa de teleneurorrehabilitación para garantizar la continuidad de cuidados en pacientes con daño cerebral adquirido durante la pandemia originada por la COVID-19.Introducción. La pandemia sanitaria originada por el SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ha limitado el acceso a programas de neurorrehabilitación de muchos pacientes que han sufrido ictus, traumatismos craneoencefálicos o un daño cerebral adquirido por otra causa. Dado que la telerrehabilitación permite la provisión de cuidados en situaciones de distanciamiento social, podría atenuar los efectos negativos del confinamiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la eficacia, la adhesión y la usabilidad de una intervención de teleneurorrehabilitación dirigida a pacientes con daño cerebral adquirido. Pacientes y métodos. Todos los pacientes incluidos en un programa de neurorrehabilitación presencial en el momento de la declaración del estado de alarma en España con motivo de la COVID-19 y que aceptaron participar en el estudio fueron incluidos en un programa de teleneurorrehabilitación. La eficacia del programa, entendida como una mejora en la independencia, se cuantificó con el índice de Barthel. La adhesión al programa y la usabilidad de la herramienta se investigaron mediante cuestionarios. Resultados. Un total de 146 pacientes, el 70,6% del total, participó en el estudio. Los participantes mejoraron significativamente su independencia y mostraron una mejoría en el índice de Barthel entre el inicio (77,3 ± 28,6) y el fin del programa (82,3 ± 26). La intervención tuvo una gran adhesión (8,1 ± 2,2 sobre 10) y las sesiones en línea fueron el contenido mejor valorado. La herramienta utilizada mostró una elevada usabilidad (50,1 ± 9,9 sobre 60) y pudo ser utilizada sin ayuda por más de la mitad de los participantes. Conclusión. La intervención de teleneurorrehabilitación resultó ser eficaz para mejorar la independencia de los pacientes, y promovió una elevada adhesión y usabilidad.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/rehabilitation , COVID-19/complications , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Telerehabilitation/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Compliance , Patient Satisfaction , Physical Distancing , Program Evaluation , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Virtual Reality
10.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1580-1585, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501151

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: Mentorship is valuable to medical students undergoing professional identity formation. Many institutions lack infrastructure to facilitate the personalized mentoring that supports students' integration of new professional identities with their personal identities and values. APPROACH: The authors developed a novel mentorship platform called Weave via a multistep, iterative design process, incorporating in-person and survey-based student and faculty feedback. Features of Weave include clear communication of mentorship offerings and expectations, plus opportunities to engage mentors based on professional and personal (identity-based) attributes. Faculty at Harvard Medical School who created a mentor profile within the first 3 months of launch and students who visited the website within the same period were invited to complete usability surveys in February 2019; students were invited to complete impact surveys in August 2020. OUTCOMES: Fifty-two of 132 invited faculty members (39.4%) and 80 of 185 students (43.2%) completed the usability surveys. Most of these faculty (86.5%) and students (73.8%) reported navigating the website was easy/very easy; 36 faculty (69.2%) created a mentor profile within 10 minutes. Key innovations highlighted by faculty and students were the listing of personal attributes and identities of diverse faculty; centralized, increased access to faculty mentors; ease of use; and provision of clear expectations. Nearly all students who completed the impact surveys agreed that Weave allowed them to connect with a faculty mentor whom they would not have found through other sources and to learn about the dimensions of diverse faculty. NEXT STEPS: Weave is a customizable online mentorship platform that fosters empowered vulnerability and increases dialogue between medical students and faculty based on professional and personal interests and identities. Weave may be expanded to other mentoring contexts and adapted for implementation at other institutions to help cultivate an institutional culture that values mentoring and to strengthen broader diversity and inclusion efforts.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Mentoring/methods , Mentors/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Boston , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communication , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Empowerment , Formative Feedback , Humans , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Social Identification , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Can J Public Health ; 112(5): 957-964, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485587

ABSTRACT

SETTING: The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction promotes an "all-of-society" approach to disaster risk reduction (DRR). Since 2013, the EnRiCH Research Lab has implemented a community-based, participatory program to promote youth development and engagement in DRR in Ottawa-Gatineau. The EnRiCH Youth Research Team used an existing community education program called the Enrichment Mini-Course Program as a framework to engage youth in DRR. We aim to share the implementation process and lessons learned from this innovative "all-of-society" approach to DRR. INTERVENTION: The EnRiCH Youth Research Team provides high school and university students with a platform to be heard on disaster and climate change issues. Youth are given opportunities to design and lead knowledge dissemination projects intended to educate members of the community about disaster prevention and preparedness. Students have opportunities to connect with academics, governmental and non-governmental organizations, and public health practitioners to share their ideas on youth participation in DRR in Canada. OUTCOMES: To date, this public health intervention has produced DRR training modules that can be used as curriculum support by teachers, a children's book on earthquake preparedness, an educational video about youth participation in DRR, and several conference presentations. Members of the team have become well versed in disaster preparedness strategies. IMPLICATIONS: This program has demonstrated that youth can contribute to DRR through knowledge mobilization, and support public education about disaster preparedness. Offering this opportunity at a grassroots level can support participation by youth by allowing flexibility in design and adaptation to individual environmental and social contexts.


Subject(s)
Community-Based Participatory Research , Disasters , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Community-Based Participatory Research/organization & administration , Disasters/prevention & control , Humans , Program Evaluation , Public Opinion
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052560, 2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It is known that women are under-represented in senior positions within the health and medical research sector. The Franklin Women Mentoring Programme (Programme) is a professionally facilitated, cross-organisational initiative designed to support career development for mid-career women. The objective of this study was to evaluate Programme outcomes reported by participants 12 months following its formal conclusion. DESIGN: Explanatory sequential mixed-methods study design using a cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Health and medical research institutes in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Health and medical researchers from the 2018 Programme. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in knowledge, skills, behaviours and research metrics directly attributed to Programme participation. RESULTS: A total of 50 mentors and mentees participated in the cross-sectional survey (68% of the total cohort) and 14 mentors and mentees participated in the interviews. All reported changes to their knowledge, skills, behaviours and research metrics which were directly attributed to participation in the Programme. This included changes in knowledge and skills to be more inclusive (96% mentees, 83% mentors), resilience (88% mentees, 67% mentors), ability to have difficult workplace conversations (88% mentees, 71% mentors) and improvements in supervisory and team management (82% mentees, 75% mentors) skills. Positive impacts on promotions and grant opportunities were also reported. All evaluation participants believed this Programme was a worthwhile initiative for their workplaces to invest in. CONCLUSION: Participation in this cross-organisational, professionally facilitated, structured mentoring programme has led to positive outcomes for mentees, as well as mentors. Reported outcomes indicate the Programme is meeting its aims to support the career development of mid-career women in health and medical research, while facilitating a more inclusive workforce.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Mentoring , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mentors , Program Evaluation
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258509, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Variable, and typically inadequate, delivery of skills training following manual wheelchair (MWC) provision has a detrimental impact on user mobility and participation. Traditional in-person delivery of training by rehabilitation therapists has diminished due to cost, travel time, and most recently social distancing restrictions due to COVID-19. Effective alternative training approaches include eHealth home training applications and interactive peer-led training using experienced and proficient MWC users. An innovative TEAM Wheels program integrates app-based self-training and teleconference peer-led training using a computer tablet platform. OBJECTIVE: This protocol outlines implementation and evaluation of the TEAM Wheels training program in a randomized control trial using a wait-list control group. SETTING: The study will be implemented in a community setting in three Canadian cities. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals ≥ 18 years of age within one year of transitioning to use of a MWC. INTERVENTION: Using a computer tablet, participants engage in three peer-led teleconference training sessions and 75-150 minutes of weekly practice using a video-based training application over 4 weeks. Peer trainers individualize the participants' training plans and monitor their tablet-based training activity online. Control group participants also receive the intervention following a 1-month wait-list period and data collection. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes assessing participation; skill capacity and performance; self-efficacy; mobility; and quality of life will be measured at baseline and post-treatment, and at 6-month follow-up for the treatment group. IMPACT STATEMENT: We anticipate that TEAM Wheels will be successfully carried out at all sites and participants will demonstrate statistically significant improvement in the outcome measures compared with the control group.


Subject(s)
Program Evaluation , Wheelchairs , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Durable Medical Equipment/standards , Humans , Male , Manuals as Topic , Movement , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 124, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is facing substantial risks of imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and a domestic resurgence in the long run, and COVID-19 vaccination is expected to be the long-lasting solution to end the pandemic. We aim to estimate the size of the target population for COVID-19 vaccination at the provincial level in the mainland of China, and summarize the current progress of vaccination programs, which could support local governments in the timely determination and adjustment of vaccination policies and promotional measures. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study of the entire population in the mainland of China, between December 2020 and August 2021. By extracting provincial-stratified data from publicly available sources, we estimated the size of priority target groups for vaccination programs, and further characterized the ongoing vaccination program at the provincial level, including the total doses administered, the coverage rate, and the vaccination capacity needed to achieve the target coverage of 80% by the end of 2021. We used R (version 4.1.0) to complete the descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The size of the target population shows large differences among provinces, ranging from 3.4 million to 108.4 million. As of 31 August, 2021, the speed of vaccine roll-out differs considerably as well, with the highest coverage occurring in Beijing and Shanghai, where 88.5% and 79.1% of the population has been fully vaccinated, respectively. In 22 of 31 provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs), more than 70% of the population was administered at least one dose by August. With the current vaccination capacity, the target of 80% coverage could be achieved by 2021 in 28 PLADs. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities exist in the target population size and vaccination progress across provinces in the mainland of China. China has made great strides in the vaccination speed since roll-out, and could basically achieve the targeted vaccine coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Program Evaluation , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
15.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 204, 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has stripped many medical students worldwide of their right to quality education. In response, we developed hybrid courses involving aspects of both online and in-person teaching for radiation oncology medical student clerkship. METHODS: We entitled students to customize their own rotation schedule using Google Forms and developed a flipped learning online class, which consisted of at least one video clip on basic knowledge of radiation oncology per day (yonsei-radonc.com). Students were instructed to watch online videos before the next day's discussion session. Required components of the medical education program (e.g., target drawing, site visits to treatment facilities) were also prepared and conducted in accordance with the appropriate level of social distancing measures. Finally, we conducted questionnaire surveys after the completion of the week-long course and clerkship. RESULTS: From March to June 2020, 110 fourth-year medical students undertook a clinical module in our 1-week radiation oncology program course. Each day, students completed the flipped learning prior to meeting with the educator and then participated in the online discussion session and conference. All activities were well performed as scheduled. Students' motivation was high, as was their overall satisfaction with the course. The students were satisfied with the online contents, flipped learning strategy, and instructors. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully integrated open and virtual educational platforms to improve access to and satisfaction with student clerkship. In the future "new normal," minimized face-to-face learning interactions, such as flipped learning, should be actively utilized for medical and other students' education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical , Radiation Oncology/education , SARS-CoV-2 , Virtual Reality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Curriculum , Humans , Program Evaluation , Students, Medical , Teaching , Telemedicine
16.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003779, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults, including those with long-term conditions (LTCs), are vulnerable to social isolation. They are likely to have become more socially isolated during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, often due to advice to "shield" to protect them from infection. This places them at particular risk of depression and loneliness. There is a need for brief scalable psychosocial interventions to mitigate the psychological impacts of social isolation. Behavioural activation (BA) is a credible candidate intervention, but a trial is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook an external pilot parallel randomised trial (ISRCTN94091479) designed to test recruitment, retention and engagement with, and the acceptability and preliminary effects of the intervention. Participants aged ≥65 years with 2 or more LTCs were recruited in primary care and randomised by computer and with concealed allocation between June and October 2020. BA was offered to intervention participants (n = 47), and control participants received usual primary care (n = 49). Assessment of outcome was made blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was depression severity (measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9)). We also measured health-related quality of life (measured by the Short Form (SF)-12v2 mental component scale (MCS) and physical component scale (PCS)), anxiety (measured by the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7)), perceived social and emotional loneliness (measured by the De Jong Gierveld Scale: 11-item loneliness scale). Outcome was measured at 1 and 3 months. The mean age of participants was aged 74 years (standard deviation (SD) 5.5) and they were mostly White (n = 92, 95.8%), and approximately two-thirds of the sample were female (n = 59, 61.5%). Remote recruitment was possible, and 45/47 (95.7%) randomised to the intervention completed 1 or more sessions (median 6 sessions) out of 8. A total of 90 (93.8%) completed the 1-month follow-up, and 86 (89.6%) completed the 3-month follow-up, with similar rates for control (1 month: 45/49 and 3 months 44/49) and intervention (1 month: 45/47and 3 months: 42/47) follow-up. Between-group comparisons were made using a confidence interval (CI) approach, and by adjusting for the covariate of interest at baseline. At 1 month (the primary clinical outcome point), the median number of completed sessions for people receiving the BA intervention was 3, and almost all participants were still receiving the BA intervention. The between-group comparison for the primary clinical outcome at 1 month was an adjusted between-group mean difference of -0.50 PHQ-9 points (95% CI -2.01 to 1.01), but only a small number of participants had completed the intervention at this point. At 3 months, the PHQ-9 adjusted mean difference (AMD) was 0.19 (95% CI -1.36 to 1.75). When we examined loneliness, the adjusted between-group difference in the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale at 1 month was 0.28 (95% CI -0.51 to 1.06) and at 3 months -0.87 (95% CI -1.56 to -0.18), suggesting evidence of benefit of the intervention at this time point. For anxiety, the GAD adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 0.20 (-1.33, 1.73) and at 3 months 0.31 (-1.08, 1.70). For the SF-12 (physical component score), the adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 0.34 (-4.17, 4.85) and at 3 months 0.11 (-4.46, 4.67). For the SF-12 (mental component score), the adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 1.91 (-2.64, 5.15) and at 3 months 1.26 (-2.64, 5.15). Participants who withdrew had minimal depressive symptoms at entry. There were no adverse events. The Behavioural Activation in Social Isolation (BASIL) study had 2 main limitations. First, we found that the intervention was still being delivered at the prespecified primary outcome point, and this fed into the design of the main trial where a primary outcome of 3 months is now collected. Second, this was a pilot trial and was not designed to test between-group differences with high levels of statistical power. Type 2 errors are likely to have occurred, and a larger trial is now underway to test for robust effects and replicate signals of effectiveness in important secondary outcomes such as loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that BA is a credible intervention to mitigate the psychological impacts of COVID-19 isolation for older adults. We demonstrated that it is feasible to undertake a trial of BA. The intervention can be delivered remotely and at scale, but should be reserved for older adults with evidence of depressive symptoms. The significant reduction in loneliness is unlikely to be a chance finding, and replication will be explored in a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN94091479.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Health Services for the Aged , Loneliness , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Aged , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Internet , Male , Pilot Projects , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation , State Medicine , United Kingdom
17.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e21973, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462504

ABSTRACT

Contemporary science has become increasingly multi-disciplinary and team-based, resulting in unprecedented growth in biomedical innovation and technology over the last several decades. Collaborative research efforts have enabled investigators to respond to the demands of an increasingly complex 21st century landscape, including pressing scientific challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic. A major contributing factor to the success of team science is the mobilization of core facilities and shared research resources (SRRs), the scientific instrumentation and expertise that exist within research organizations that enable widespread access to advanced technologies for trainees, faculty, and staff. For over 40 years, SRRs have played a key role in accelerating biomedical research discoveries, yet a national strategy that addresses how to leverage these resources to enhance team science and achieve shared scientific goals is noticeably absent. We believe a national strategy for biomedical SRRs-led by the National Institutes of Health-is crucial to advance key national initiatives, enable long-term research efficiency, and provide a solid foundation for the next generation of scientists.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Intersectoral Collaboration , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organization & administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Academies and Institutes/organization & administration , Career Mobility , Congresses as Topic , Humans , Policy , Program Evaluation , Research Support as Topic , Societies, Scientific/organization & administration , Stakeholder Participation , United States , Universities/organization & administration
18.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 49, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a crisis in access to addiction treatment. Programs with residential components have been particularly impacted as they try to keep infection from spreading in facilities and contributing to further community spread of the virus. This crisis highlights the ongoing daily trade-offs that organizations must weigh as they balance the risks and benefits of individual patients with those of the group of patients, staff and the community they serve. MAIN BODY: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced provider organizations to make individual facility level decisions about how to manage patients who are COVID-19 positive while protecting other patients, staff and the community. While guidance documents from federal, state, and trade groups aimed to support such decision making, they often lagged pandemic dynamics, and provided too little detail to translate into front line decision making. In the context of incomplete knowledge to make informed decisions, we present a way to integrate guidelines and local data into the decision process and discuss the ethical dilemmas faced by provider organizations in preventing infections and responding to COVID positive patients or staff. CONCLUSION AND COMMENTARY: Provider organizations need decision support on managing the risk of COVID-19 positive patients in their milieu. While useful, guidance documents may not be capable of providing support with the nuance that local data and simulation modeling may be able to provide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Residential Treatment/organization & administration , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Program Evaluation , Risk Management
20.
Nursing ; 51(10): 42-48, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440657

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Patient safety attendants (PSAs) provide constant direct observation to patients who have cognitive impairments or thoughts. Some estimates report that an acute care hospital in the United States may spend more than $1 million annually on PSAs, an expenditure often not reimbursed. With no national defined standards to regulate or monitor PSA use, this study sought to determine the impact of COVID-19 on a PSA reduction program in a large Midwestern healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Allied Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Safety , Allied Health Personnel/economics , Cognitive Dysfunction/nursing , Humans , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , Program Evaluation
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