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1.
Nature ; 603(7899): 25-27, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730273

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Repositioning , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/economics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Guanidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Internationality , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Mice , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organization & administration , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
N Engl J Med ; 386(15): 1397-1408, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692474

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nirmatrelvir is an orally administered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitor with potent pan-human-coronavirus activity in vitro. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2-3 double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in which symptomatic, unvaccinated, nonhospitalized adults at high risk for progression to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 300 mg of nirmatrelvir plus 100 mg of ritonavir (a pharmacokinetic enhancer) or placebo every 12 hours for 5 days. Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause through day 28, viral load, and safety were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2246 patients underwent randomization; 1120 patients received nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (nirmatrelvir group) and 1126 received placebo (placebo group). In the planned interim analysis of patients treated within 3 days after symptom onset (modified intention-to treat population, comprising 774 of the 1361 patients in the full analysis population), the incidence of Covid-19-related hospitalization or death by day 28 was lower in the nirmatrelvir group than in the placebo group by 6.32 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.04 to -3.59; P<0.001; relative risk reduction, 89.1%); the incidence was 0.77% (3 of 389 patients) in the nirmatrelvir group, with 0 deaths, as compared with 7.01% (27 of 385 patients) in the placebo group, with 7 deaths. Efficacy was maintained in the final analysis involving the 1379 patients in the modified intention-to-treat population, with a difference of -5.81 percentage points (95% CI, -7.78 to -3.84; P<0.001; relative risk reduction, 88.9%). All 13 deaths occurred in the placebo group. The viral load was lower with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir than with placebo at day 5 of treatment, with an adjusted mean difference of -0.868 log10 copies per milliliter when treatment was initiated within 3 days after the onset of symptoms. The incidence of adverse events that emerged during the treatment period was similar in the two groups (any adverse event, 22.6% with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir vs. 23.9% with placebo; serious adverse events, 1.6% vs. 6.6%; and adverse events leading to discontinuation of the drugs or placebo, 2.1% vs. 4.2%). Dysgeusia (5.6% vs. 0.3%) and diarrhea (3.1% vs. 1.6%) occurred more frequently with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of symptomatic Covid-19 with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir resulted in a risk of progression to severe Covid-19 that was 89% lower than the risk with placebo, without evident safety concerns. (Supported by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04960202.).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Proline , Ritonavir , Administration, Oral , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Hospitalization , Humans , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/adverse effects , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/adverse effects , Leucine/therapeutic use , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/adverse effects , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/adverse effects , Proline/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Viral Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
Science ; 374(6575): 1586-1593, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666355

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. Alongside vaccines, antiviral therapeutics are an important part of the healthcare response to countering the ongoing threat presented by COVID-19. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of PF-07321332, an orally bioavailable SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitor with in vitro pan-human coronavirus antiviral activity and excellent off-target selectivity and in vivo safety profiles. PF-07321332 has demonstrated oral activity in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 model and has achieved oral plasma concentrations exceeding the in vitro antiviral cell potency in a phase 1 clinical trial in healthy human participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/pharmacology , Proline/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/pharmacokinetics , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/pharmacokinetics , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/pharmacokinetics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Antiviral Res ; 198: 105252, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654043

ABSTRACT

We assessed the in vitro antiviral activity of remdesivir and its parent nucleoside GS-441524, molnupiravir and its parent nucleoside EIDD-1931 and the viral protease inhibitor nirmatrelvir against the ancestral SARS-CoV2 strain and the five variants of concern including Omicron. VeroE6-GFP cells were pre-treated overnight with serial dilutions of the compounds before infection. The GFP signal was determined by high-content imaging on day 4 post-infection. All molecules have equipotent antiviral activity against the ancestral virus and the VOCs Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. These findings are in line with the observation that the target proteins of these antivirals (respectively the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase and the viral main protease Mpro) are highly conserved.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
11.
Nature ; 601(7894): 496, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641925

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development/trends , Drug Resistance, Viral , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutagenesis , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/pharmacology , Proline/therapeutic use , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(2): 102396, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Molnupiravir is a newer oral antiviral drug that has recently received emergency use authorization (EUA) in USA, UK and India. We aim to conduct an update on our previous systematic review to provide practical clinical guideline for using molnupiravir in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched the electronic database of PubMed, MedRxiv and Google Scholar until January 5, 2022, using key MeSH keywords. RESULTS: Final result of phase 3 study in 1433 non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients showed a significant reduction in composite risk of hospital admission or death (absolute risk difference, -3.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -5.9 to -0.1%]; 1-sided P = 0.02) although with a non-significant 31% relative risk reduction (RRR). RRR for death alone was 89% (95% CI, 14 to 99; P-value not reported). Number needed to treat to prevent 1 death or 1 hospitalization or death composite appears to be closely competitive to other agents having EUA in people with COVID-19. However, cost-wise molnupiravir is comparatively cheaper compared to all other agents. CONCLUSION: Molnupiravir could be a useful agent in non-pregnant unvaccinated adults with COVID-19 who are at increased risk of severity including hospitalization. However, it is effective only when used within 5-days of onset of symptoms. A 5-days course seems to be safe without any obvious short-term side effects.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytidine/adverse effects , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Drug Approval , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines/adverse effects , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935952, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596813

ABSTRACT

On 4th November 2021, the first oral antiviral drug for COVID-19, molnupiravir (Lagevrio®), received full regulatory approval from the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) in the UK. Molnupiravir is an orally bioavailable antiviral drug for use at home when a SARS-CoV-2 test is positive. On 22nd December 2022, the FDA granted emergency use authorization (EUA) for the oral antiviral drug, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid®) for adults and children with mild and moderate COVID-19 at increased risk of progression to severe COVID-19. These regulatory drug approvals come at a crucial time when new variants of concern of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are spreading rapidly. Although the FDA approved remdesivir (Veklury®) on 22nd October 2020 for use in adults and children for the treatment of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization, its use has been limited by the requirement for intravenous administration in a healthcare facility. The four FDA-approved therapeutic neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, imdevimab, bamlanivimab, etesevimab, and casirivimab are costly and also require medically-supervised intravenous administration. The availability of effective, low-cost oral antiviral drugs available in a community setting that can be used at an early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection is now a priority in controlling COVID-19. An increasing number of repurposed antiviral drugs are currently under investigation or in the early stages of regulatory approval. This Editorial aims to present an update on the current status of orally bioavailable antiviral drug treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , Drug Repositioning/trends , Humans , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374423

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease, caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly spreading around the world, poses a major threat to the global public health. Herein, we demonstrated the binding mechanism of PF-07321332, α-ketoamide, lopinavir, and ritonavir to the coronavirus 3-chymotrypsin-like-protease (3CLpro) by means of docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The analysis of MD trajectories of 3CLpro with PF-07321332, α-ketoamide, lopinavir, and ritonavir revealed that 3CLpro-PF-07321332 and 3CLpro-α-ketoamide complexes remained stable compared with 3CLpro-ritonavir and 3CLpro-lopinavir. Investigating the dynamic behavior of ligand-protein interaction, ligands PF-07321332 and α-ketoamide showed stronger bonding via making interactions with catalytic dyad residues His41-Cys145 of 3CLpro. Lopinavir and ritonavir were unable to disrupt the catalytic dyad, as illustrated by increased bond length during the MD simulation. To decipher the ligand binding mode and affinity, ligand interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteases and binding energy were calculated. The binding energy of the bespoke antiviral PF-07321332 clinical candidate was two times higher than that of α-ketoamide and three times than that of lopinavir and ritonavir. Our study elucidated in detail the binding mechanism of the potent PF-07321332 to 3CLpro along with the low potency of lopinavir and ritonavir due to weak binding affinity demonstrated by the binding energy data. This study will be helpful for the development and optimization of more specific compounds to combat coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lactams/pharmacology , Leucine/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Proline/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(48): e23357, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944499

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak globally, repurposing approved drugs is emerging as important therapeutic options. Danoprevir boosted by ritonavir (Ganovo) is a potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease (NS3/4A) inhibitor, which was approved and marketed in China since 2018 to treat chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS: This is an open-label, single arm study evaluating the effects of danoprevir boosted by ritonavir on treatment naïve and experienced COVID-19 patients for the first time. Patients received danoprevir boosted by ritonavir (100 mg/100 mg, twice per day). The primary endpoint was the rate of composite adverse outcomes and efficacy was also evaluated. RESULTS: The data showed that danoprevir boosted by ritonavir is safe and well tolerated in all patients. No patient had composite adverse outcomes during this study. After initiation of danoprevir/ritonavir treatment, the first negative reverse real-time PCR (RT-PCR) test occurred at a median of 2 days, ranging from 1 to 8 days, and the obvious absorption in CT scans occurred at a median 3 days, ranging from 2 to 4 days. After 4 to 12-day treatment of danoprevir boosted by ritonavir, all enrolled 11 patients were discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that repurposing danoprevir for COVID-19 is a promising therapeutic option.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Isoindoles/therapeutic use , Lactams, Macrocyclic/therapeutic use , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cyclopropanes/administration & dosage , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Isoindoles/administration & dosage , Isoindoles/adverse effects , Lactams, Macrocyclic/administration & dosage , Lactams, Macrocyclic/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/adverse effects , Proline/therapeutic use , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
19.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2631-2636, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-541340

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first broke out in Wuhan, China, and has now become a global pandemic. However, there is no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. This study enrolled 33 COVID-19 patients in the nineth hospital of Nanchang from 27th January to 24th February 2020. Clinical indexes of patients upon admission/discharge were examined. Patients were divided into two groups according to different treatment plans (danoprevir and lopinavir/ritonavir). The days to achieve negative nucleic acid testing and the days of hospital stays were counted and statistically analyzed. COVID-19 patients treated with danoprevir or lopinavir/ritonavir were all improved and discharged. Indexes like blood routine, inflammation and immune-related indexes were significantly recovered after treatment. Additionally, under the circumstance that there was no significant difference in patients' general information between the two groups, we found that the mean time to achieve both negative nucleic acid testing and hospital stays of patients treated with danoprevir were significantly shorter than those of patients with lopinavir/ritonavir. Collectively, applying danoprevir is a good treatment plan for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Isoindoles/therapeutic use , Lactams, Macrocyclic/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Proline/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Young Adult
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