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1.
J Am Nutr Assoc ; 41(7): 646-657, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473011

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With a well-established role in inflammation and immune function, vitamin D status has emerged as a potential factor for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the moderating effect of race on the relationship between vitamin D status and the risk of COVID-19 test positivity, and to compare propensity score (PS) model results to those obtained from classical bivariate and multivariable models, which have primarily comprised the literature to date. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) data from TriNetX (unmatched n = 21,629; matched n = 16,602) were used to investigate the effect of vitamin D status, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], on the odds of experiencing a positive COVID-19 test using multivariable logistic regression models with and without PS methodology. RESULTS: Having normal (≥ 30 ng/mL) versus inadequate 25(OH)D (< 30 ng/mL) was not associated with COVID-19 positivity overall (OR = 0.913, p = 0.18), in White individuals (OR = 0.920, p = 0.31), or in Black individuals (OR = 1.006, p = 0.96). When 25(OH)D was analyzed on a continuum, a 10 ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D lowered the odds of having a positive COVID-19 test overall (OR = 0.949, p = 0.003) and among White (OR = 0.935, p = 0.003), but not Black individuals (OR = 0.994, p = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: Models which use weighting and matching methods resulted in smaller estimated effect sizes than models which do not use weighting or matching. These findings suggest a minimal protective effect of vitamin D status on COVID-19 test positivity in White individuals and no protective effect in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Propensity Score , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamins
2.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 28(3): 296-301, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The benefit of endovascular thrombectomy for patients with in-hospital stroke remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the endovascular thrombectomy outcomes between in-hospital stroke and community-onset stroke among patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: From January 2015 to July 2019, 362 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation received endovascular thrombectomy in our centre. After propensity score matching with a ratio of 1:2 (in-hospital stroke:community-onset stroke), clinical characteristics and functional outcomes were compared between in-hospital stroke and community-onset stroke groups. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with in-hospital stroke and 72 patients with community-onset stroke were enrolled. The number of patients with New York Heart Association classification III/IV (41.7% vs. 6.9%, p < 0.001) and with underlying cancer (25.0% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001) was higher in the in-hospital stroke than in the community-onset stroke group. The intravenous thrombolysis rate was lower in the in-hospital stroke group (13.9% vs. 43.1%, p = 0.002). No significant difference in symptom onset to puncture (p = 0.618), symptom onset to recanalisation (p = 0.618) or good reperfusion (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2b) rates (p = 0.852) was found between the groups. The favourable clinical outcome trend (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at 90 days) was inferior, but acceptable, in the in-hospital stroke, group compared to the community-onset stroke group (30.6% vs. 41.7%, p = 0.262). CONCLUSION: Patients with in-hospital stroke had more disadvantageous comorbidities than those with community-onset stroke. Cardiac dysfunction seems to be associated with poor outcomes after thrombectomy. Nevertheless, endovascular thrombectomy still appears to be safe and effective for patients with in-hospital stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Propensity Score , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 18(2): 553-561, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534075

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with cardiovascular events (CVEs), although recent randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated that long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prevents CVEs. Our objective was to determine the effect of CPAP on older adults with moderate OSA regarding CVE reduction. METHODS: An observational and multicenter study of a cohort of older adults (> 70 years of age) diagnosed with moderate OSA (apnea-hypopnea index 15.0-29.9 events/h) was conducted. Two groups were formed: (1) CPAP treatment and (2) standard of care. The primary endpoint was CVE occurrence after OSA diagnosis. Association with CPAP treatment was assessed by propensity score matching and inverse weighting probability. Secondary endpoints were incidence of CVE separately and time to first CVE. RESULTS: A total of 614 patients were included. After matching, 236 older adults (111 men, mean age 75.9 ± 4.7 years) with a follow-up of 47 months (interquartile range: 29.6-64.0 months) were considered for primary and secondary endpoint evaluations. Forty-one patients presented at least 1 CVE (17.4%): 20 were in the standard-of-care group (16.9%) and 21 were in the CPAP group (17.8%), with a relative risk of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.83; P = .43) for CPAP treatment. Inverse probability weighting of the initial 614 patients determined an adjusted relative risk of 1.24 (95% CI, 0.79-1.96; P = .35) for CPAP treatment. No statistical differences were found in secondary endpoint analyses. CONCLUSIONS: CPAP should not be prescribed to reduce CVE probability in older adults with moderate OSA. CITATION: López-Padilla D, Terán-Tinedo J, Cerezo-Lajas A, et al. Moderate obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular outcomes in older adults: a propensity score-matched multicenter study (CPAGE-MODE study). J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(2):553-561.


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Heart , Humans , Male , Propensity Score , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
4.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(12): 1409-1417, 2022 Dec 07.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707944

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the prognoses between parameningeal and non-parameningeal head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma based on propensity score matching and to explore the prognostic factors of overall survival in patients with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Methods: The medical records of 64 patients with pathologically diagnosed as head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma from January 2016 to May 2020 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively retrieved, including 31 males and 33 females, with an average age of (8.0±8.9) years. Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw and compare survival curves in subgroup analysis according to different histopathological characteristics. Patients were divided into non-parameningeal (27 cases) and parameningeal (37 cases) group based on the location of primary lesion. Patients were further selected using 1∶1 propensity score matching method. The basic clinical data and overall survival were compared before and after matching. Prognostic factors were anlysed using Cox's proportional hazards regression model. Results: In 64 patients with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma, lower risk stratification, and lower TNM stage indicated higher overall survival (all P<0.05). Before matching, patients in parameningeal group presented with higher T stage and IRS (Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study) staging (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in basic clinical data and 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates between two groups after matching(P>0.05). Tumor size smaller than 5 cm, embryonal histology, negative FOXO1 fusion gene, lower risk stratification, and lower TNM stage were associated with higher overall survival (all P<0.05). Among these, tumor size and histology were independent prognostic factors (HR=2.36, 95%CI:1.07-5.20, P=0.033; HR=5.54, 95%CI: 1.18-25.95, P=0.030). Conclusions: There is no significant difference in overall survival between patients with parameningeal and non-parameningeal rhabdomyosarcomas. Tumor size smaller than 5 cm and embryonal histology are two independent prognostic factors.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Rhabdomyosarcoma/diagnosis , Rhabdomyosarcoma/pathology , Survival Analysis , Prognosis
5.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 56, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689075

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thoracoscopic esophagectomy (TE) is widely used for esophageal cancer treatment. However, the short- and long-term outcomes of TE in older patients remain unknown. Thus, we investigated those outcomes as well as the effectivity of TE in this patient cohort. METHODS: A total of 228 consecutive patients who underwent TE for esophageal cancer from 2002 to 2015 were included in the study and categorized into the elderly (≥ 75 years) and non-elderly (< 75 years) groups. The background was adjusted by propensity score matching. The short- and long-term outcomes were then compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no difference in the short-term outcomes between the two groups. The elderly group had significantly lower overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) than the non-elderly group. When pulmonary complications occurred, the OS and RFS were significantly decreased in the elderly group but not in the non-elderly group. Without pulmonary complications, the OS and RFS in the elderly group did not differ from those in the non-elderly group. The multivariate analysis showed that pulmonary complications were independent poor prognostic factors for OS and RFS in the elderly group but not in the non-elderly group. CONCLUSION: TE is safe and feasible for older patients. However, the OS and RFS of the elderly group were significantly worse than those of the non-elderly group, especially when pulmonary complications occurred. Therefore, perioperative management to prevent pulmonary complications is essential to improve the long-term outcomes of older patients receiving TE.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagectomy , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Propensity Score , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 38(1): 22, 2023 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690760

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between laparoscopic Hartmann reversal (LHR) and open Hartmann reversal (OHR) in patients who had undergone Hartmann surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: The patients who underwent Hartmann reversal (HR) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from Jun 2013 to Jun 2022 were retrospectively enrolled. The LHR group and the OHR group were compared using propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. RESULTS: A total of 89 patients who underwent Hartmann reversal (HR) were enrolled in this study. There were 48 (53.9%) patients in the LHR group and 41 (46.1%) patients in the OHR group. After 1:1 ratio PSM, no difference in baseline information remained (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in operation time, blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, and postoperative complications (p > 0.05) before and after PSM. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, pre-operative albumin < 42.0 g/L was an independent risk factor (p = 0.013 < 0.05, OR = 0.248, 95% CI = 0.083-0.741) for the HR-related complications; however, LHR/OHR was not a predictive risk factor (p = 0.663, OR = 1.250, 95% CI = 0.500-3.122). CONCLUSION: Based on the current evidence, although there was no difference in short-term prognosis, LHR still had some advantages considering that it was less invasive to the patient.


Subject(s)
Laparoscopy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
7.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 36, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: External ventricular drainage (EVD) is frequently used in neurosurgical procedures for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. It is, however, associated with high infection rates, namely secondary meningitis and ventriculitis. Based on a previous high prevalence of these infections among patients with EVDs, we have proposed and implemented a protocol in an effort to decrease the infection rate. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of hospital-wide implementation of the EVD handling protocol on secondary EVD infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 409 consecutive patients who received a new EVD for other indications than infectious pathologies from January 2000 until June 2012. Patients above 18 years of age were divided into pre- (n = 228) and post-protocol (n = 181) groups. Patient and disease demographics, as well as EVD data together with confounders for secondary meningitis were recorded in a database. Propensity score matching was then performed to create groups matched for sex, age, reason for drainage, type of shunt, time in situ and duration of surgery to place the EVD. Binomial logistic regression for confounder adjustment and regression discontinuity analyses were then performed on the matched cohort. RESULTS: Infections occurred more frequently in the pre-protocol group (23% vs 9%, p <  0.001). The incidence of infection was 33/1000 drain-days pre-protocol and 9/1000 drain-days post-protocol. Regression analysis in a propensity score-matched cohort (n = 103 in the pre- and n = 178 in the post-protocol groups) showed that the pre-protocol period was independently associated with more infections (OR 2.69; 95%-CI 1.22-5.95, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of secondary EVD infections can be reduced significantly by the implementation of a strict hospital-wide EVD handling protocol.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Meningitis , Humans , Cohort Studies , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Meningitis/epidemiology , Drainage/methods , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak
8.
Can Respir J ; 2023: 4119541, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36687390

ABSTRACT

Background: There is currently limited evidence for a correlation between the recommended operation and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: NSCLC patients with stages III and IV, recommended for operation, were identified in the US National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (SEER).We used propensity score matching (PSM) and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to ensure the robustness of our findings. The cumulative rates of death were compared between patients with and without recommended operations using the Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: Operation was recommended for 3331 patients but was not performed in 912 (27.4%) patients (then on-operative group). After PSM, 553 pairs matched. Compared to the nonoperative group, the hazard ratios (HRs) in the operative group were 0.46 (95% CI 0.23-0.95 and p=0.037) in stage IIIA and 0.54 (95% CI 0.42-0.68 and p < 0.001) in stage IVA. However, in stages IIIB, IIIC, and IVB, the recommended operative group was not associated with better OS. The OS was not different in stage IIIA-N2, stage IVA-N1, and stage IVA-N3 patients between groups (p=0.28, p=0.14, and p=0.79, respectively). Moreover, the recommended operative group had better OS than the nonoperative group in stage IIIA-N0 (p=0.00085), stage IIIA-N1 (p=0.009), stage IVA-N0 (p < 0.001), and stage IVA-N2 (p=0.034). Conclusion: Compared to the nonoperative group, recommended operation improved survival in NSCLC patients with stage IIIA-N0, stage IIIA-N1, stage IVA-N0, and stage IVA-N2. However, in stages IIIA-N2, IIIB, IIIC, IVA-N1, IVA-N3, and IVB, recommended operation did not lead to significantly improved survival time.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Staging , Proportional Hazards Models , Propensity Score
9.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678285

ABSTRACT

Breastfeeding rates among infants participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are consistently lower than those of WIC nonparticipants. The 2009 WIC food package revisions were intended to incentivize breastfeeding among the WIC population. To examine the effectiveness of this policy change, we estimated an intent-to-treat regression-adjusted difference-in-difference model with propensity score weighting, an approach that allowed us to control for both secular trends in breastfeeding and selection bias. We used novel data from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Survey from 2008 and 2016. We defined our treatment group as infants eligible for WIC based on household income and our control group as infants in households with incomes just above the WIC eligibility threshold. The breastfeeding outcomes we analyzed were whether the infants were ever breastfed, breastfed through 6 months, and breastfed exclusively through 6 months. We observed significant increases in infants that were ever breastfed in both the treatment group (10 percentage points; p < 0.01) and the control group (15 percentage points; p < 0.05); however, we did not find evidence that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant, suggesting that the 2009 revisions may not have had an effect on any of these breastfeeding outcomes.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Food Assistance , Infant , Humans , Female , Food , Surveys and Questionnaires , Propensity Score
10.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 51, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging has been increasingly used in laparoscopic anatomic liver resection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICG-guided laparoscopic anatomic liver resection in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with traditional laparoscopic anatomic liver resection. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on patients with pathologically diagnosed HCC who successfully underwent laparoscopic anatomical liver resection from January 2019 to December 2021. The outcomes were compared between the two groups before and after the propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: A total of 110 patients were included in this study, including 50 patients in the ICG-guided group and 60 patients in the traditional group. Compared with the traditional group, the ICG-guided group had a shorter operative duration (P = 0.040), less intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.044), a lower incidence of postoperative complications (P = 0.023), and a shorter postoperative hospitalisation (P < 0.001). After PSM, significant differences remained between the two groups for the duration of postoperative hospitalisation (P = 0.018) and postoperative complications (P = 0.042). There was no significant difference in the recurrence rate between the two groups before and after PSM. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic anatomic liver resection guided by ICG fluorescence imaging can reduce the duration of postoperative hospitalisation for patients and the incidence of postoperative complications. However, it has no impact on the long-term outcome of patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Laparoscopy , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Indocyanine Green , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Hepatectomy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Optical Imaging/methods
11.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 47, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662323

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Staple line leakage (SLL) and staple line bleeding (SLB) are the most relevant postoperative complications of sleeve gastrectomy (SG). It is controversial whether and which method of staple line reinforcement (SLR) can best reduce these complications. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether reinforcement of the most proximal part of the staple line with synthetic buttressing material, a strategy we termed partial SLR (p-SLR), reduces the 30-day incidence of SLL. METHODS: A retrospective search of medical records of all bariatric patients from 2010 to 2019 was performed. Patients who underwent SG with either p-SLR or non-SLR were included. Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were analyzed before and after propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: Data from 431 patients were analyzed (364 in the p-SLR group and 67 in the non-SLR group). No difference in the 30-day incidence of SLL was observed between the two groups. The 30-day incidence of SLB (1.1% vs. 6.0% in the p-SLR and non-SLR groups, respectively) was significantly lower in the p-SLR group. These results were confirmed by PSM analysis. CONCLUSION: Partial staple line reinforcement with synthetic buttressing material does not reduce the 30-day incidence of SLL. Although our analysis showed a significant reduction in the 30-day incidence of SLB in the p-SLR group, this result should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Laparoscopy , Obesity, Morbid , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Laparoscopy/methods , Surgical Stapling/adverse effects , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Anastomotic Leak/epidemiology , Anastomotic Leak/prevention & control , Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Treatment Outcome
12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 23(1): 16, 2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considerable number of people still use opium worldwide and many believe in opium's health benefits. However, several studies proved the detrimental effects of opium on the body, especially the cardiovascular system. Herein, we aimed to provide the first evidence regarding the effects of opium use on one-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in the patients with ST-elevation MI (STEMI) who underwent primary PCI. METHODS: We performed a propensity score matching of 2:1 (controls: opium users) that yielded 518 opium users and 1036 controls. Then, we performed conventional statistical and machine learning analyses on these matched cohorts. Regarding the conventional analysis, we performed multivariate analysis for hazard ratio (HR) of different variables and MACE and plotted Kaplan Meier curves. In the machine learning section, we used two tree-based ensemble algorithms, Survival Random Forest and XGboost for survival analysis. Variable importance (VIMP), tree minimal depth, and variable hunting were used to identify the importance of opium among other variables. RESULTS: Opium users experienced more one-year MACE than their counterparts, although it did not reach statistical significance (Opium: 72/518 (13.9%), Control: 112/1036 (10.8%), HR: 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94-1.71), adjusted p-value = 0.136). Survival random forest algorithm ranked opium use as 13th, 13th, and 12th among 26 variables, in variable importance, minimal depth, and variable hunting, respectively. XGboost revealed opium use as the 12th important variable. Partial dependence plot demonstrated that opium users had more one-year MACE compared to non-opium-users. CONCLUSIONS: Opium had no protective effects on one-year MACE after primary PCI on patients with STEMI. Machine learning and one-year MACE analysis revealed some evidence of its possible detrimental effects, although the evidence was not strong and significant. As we observed no strong evidence on protective or detrimental effects of opium, future STEMI guidelines may provide similar strategies for opium and non-opium users, pending the results of forthcoming studies. Governments should increase the public awareness regarding the evidence for non-beneficial or detrimental effects of opium on various diseases, including the outcomes of primary PCI, to dissuade many users from relying on false beliefs about opium's benefits to continue its consumption.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Propensity Score
13.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 40, 2023 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652008

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Laparoscopic central pancreatectomy (LCP) has been implemented in pancreatic surgery; however, open surgery is still the predominant approach for central pancreatectomy (CP). Our objective was to compare LCP with open CP (OCP). METHODS: Data were collected from patients with tumours located in the pancreatic neck and proximal body who underwent CP in the Department of Pancreatic Surgery West China Hospital from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2019. A comparison between the LCP and OCP groups was performed. RESULTS: Fifteen patients underwent CP via the laparoscopic approach, and 96 patients underwent CP via the open approach. Using 1:2 propensity score matching (PSM), 12 patients in the LCP group were matched to 21 in the OCP group. Regarding safety, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was not significantly different between the two groups (13.3% vs. 12.5%, P = 1.000), even with PSM (16.7% vs. 14.3%, P = 1.000). However, regarding effectiveness, the operative time in the OCP group was significantly shorter than that in the LCP group before (307.0 ± 92.3 ml vs. 220.6 ± 63.6 ml, P < 0.000) and after (300.3 ± 90.2 ml vs. 212.7 ± 44.4 ml, P = 0.002) PSM. Regarding length of stay (LOS), there was no difference between the two groups before (13.1 ± 13.7 days vs. 12.7 ± 10.1 days, P = 0.376) and after PSM (14.4 ± 15.1 days vs. 14.5 ± 16.2 days, P = 0.985). The length of the resected pancreas was shorter in the OCP group than in the LCP group before PSM (50.0 ± 13.2 mm vs. 41.1 ± 11.1 mm, P = 0.043). However, there was no difference between the two groups after PSM (47.9 ± 12.5 mm vs. 37.9 ± 10.4 mm, P = 0.084). Moreover, the other variables showed no difference between the two groups before and after PSM. CONCLUSION: LCP can demonstrate similar safety and effectiveness to OCP, even in the early stages of the learning curve.


Subject(s)
Laparoscopy , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Humans , Pancreatectomy , Retrospective Studies , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Propensity Score , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Length of Stay , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMC Emerg Med ; 23(1): 5, 2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little evidence suggests that trauma centres are associated with a lower risk of mortality in severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥16) with multiple injuries in China. The objective of this study was to determine the association between the establishment of trauma centres and mortality among severely injured patients with multiple injuries and to identify some risk factors associated with mortality. METHODS: A retrospective single-centre study was performed including trauma patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (FAHNU) between January 2016 and December 2021. To determine whether the establishment of a trauma centre was an independent predictor of mortality, logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching (PSM) were performed. RESULTS: Among 431 trauma patients, 172 were enrolled before the trauma centre was built, while 259 were included after the trauma centre was built. A higher frequency of older age and traffic accident injury was found in patients diagnosed after the trauma centre was built. The times for the completion of CT examinations, emergency operations and blood transfusions in the "after trauma centre" group were shorter than those in the "before trauma centre" group. However, the total expenditure of patients was increased. In the overall group, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that a higher ISS was an independent predictor for worse mortality (OR = 17.859, 95% CI, 8.207-38.86, P < 0.001), while the establishment of a trauma centre was favourable for patient survival (OR = 0.492), which was also demonstrated by PSM. After determining the cut-off value of time for the completion of CT examination, emergency operation and blood transfusion, we found that the values were within the "golden one hour", and it was better for patients when the time was less than the cut-off value. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that for severely injured patients, the establishment of a trauma centre was favourable for a lower mortality rate. Furthermore, the completion of a CT examination, emergency surgery and blood transfusion in a timely manner and a lower ISS were associated with a decreased mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Multiple Trauma , Wounds and Injuries , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers , Propensity Score , Hospitalization , Injury Severity Score
15.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279273, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652414

ABSTRACT

It is well-known that the more educated people are, the more liberal views they tend to express. However, it is unclear whether this is due to college attendance itself or because those who go to college differ from those who do not in ways (directly or indirectly) related to their later political identification. In this paper, we therefore attempt to estimate the effect of college on political identification net of people's tendencies to select into college using an inverse probability of treatment weighting approach. Based on data from the General Social Survey, we analyze how this effect has changed over time and whether college affects the political identification of women in the same ways as that of men. We find evidence consistent with the argument that college attendance politicizes both men and women. Moreover, we show that not only the general, but also the gender specific effects change markedly across the decades. This raises questions about the different mechanisms at play in how college mobilizes men and women politically.


Subject(s)
Dissent and Disputes , Politics , Male , Humans , Female , Propensity Score , Universities
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280262, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High-resolution micro-ultrasound (micro-US) is a novel precise imaging modality that allows targeted prostate biopsies and multiparametric magnet resonance imaging (mpMRI) fusion. Its high resolution relying on a 29 MHz transducer allows real-time visualisation of prostate cancer lesions; this might overcome the inaccuracy of conventional MRI-US fusion biopsy strategies. We compared cancer detection rates in patients who underwent transrectal (TR-B) versus transperineal (TP-B) MR-micro-US fusion biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1:2 propensity score matching was performed in 322 consecutive procedures: 56 TR-B and 266 TP-B. All prostate biopsies were performed using ExactVuTM micro-US system with mpMRI image fusion. Clinically significant disease was defined as grade group ≥2. The primary objective was to evaluate the detection of clinically significant disease according to access route. The secondary outcomes were to compare the respective detection rates of random and targeted biopsies stratified per access route and to evaluate micro-US for its potential added value. RESULTS: 47 men undergoing TR-B and 88 undergoing TP-B were matched for age, PSA, clinical stage, prostate volume, PIRADS score, number of mpMRI-visible lesions and indication to biopsy. The detection rates of clinically significant and of any prostate cancer did not differ between the two groups (45% TR-B vs 42% TP-B; p = 0.8, and 57% TR-B vs 59% TP-B; p = 0.9, respectively). Detection rates also did not differ significantly between random (p = 0.4) and targeted biopsies (p = 0.7) stratified per access route. Micro-US targeted biopsy detected 36 MRI-invisible lesions in 33 patients; 19% of these lesions were positive for clinically significant disease. Overall, micro-US targeted biopsies upgraded 2% of patients to clinically significant disease that would have been missed otherwise. CONCLUSIONS: MR-micro-US-fusion TR-B and TP-B have similar diagnostic yields in terms of detection rates of clinically significant prostate cancer. Micro-US targeted biopsy appears to have an additional diagnostic value over systematic and MRI-targeted biopsies.


Subject(s)
Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostate/pathology , Propensity Score , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e051911, 2022 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to explore the impact of occupational hazards and occupational stress on job burn-out among factory workers and miners. This study also aimed to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of job burn-out among factory workers and miners. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study based on the factory Workers and Miners of Urumqi, Xinjiang. Demographic biases, that is, confounding factors, were eliminated by the propensity score-matched analysis method. PARTICIPANTS: An electronic questionnaire was used to survey 7500 eligible factory workers and miners in Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang, and 7315 complete questionnaires were returned. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A general demographic questionnaire, the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: The total rate of burn-out was 86.5%. Noise (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.64) and ERI (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.78 to 2.61) were the risk factors for job burn-out among factory workers and miners (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The job burn-out rate of factory workers and miners was high, and the noise and occupational stress factors among occupational hazard factors will affect the likelihood of job burn-out of factory workers and miners. We should control the impact of occupational hazards on factory workers and miners and reduce occupational stress to alleviate workers' job burn-out.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Occupational Stress , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Propensity Score , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction
18.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 23(1): 18, 2023 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To have confidence in one's interpretation of treatment effects assessed by comparing trial results to external controls, minimizing bias is a critical step. We sought to investigate different methods for causal inference in simulated data sets with measured and unmeasured confounders. METHODS: The simulated data included three types of outcomes (continuous, binary, and time-to-event), treatment assignment, two measured baseline confounders, and one unmeasured confounding factor. Three scenarios were set to create different intensities of confounding effect (e.g., small and blocked confounding paths, medium and blocked confounding paths, and one large unblocked confounding path for scenario 1 to 3, respectively) caused by the unmeasured confounder. The methods of g-computation (GC), inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), overlap weighting (OW), standardized mortality/morbidity ratio (SMR), and targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) were used to estimate average treatment effects and reduce potential biases. RESULTS: The results with the greatest extent of biases were from the raw model that ignored all the potential confounders. In scenario 2, the unmeasured factor indirectly influenced the treatment assignment through a measured controlling factor and led to medium confounding. The methods of GC, IPTW, OW, SMR, and TMLE removed most of bias observed in average treatment effects for all three types of outcomes from the raw model. Similar results were found in scenario 1, but the results tended to be biased in scenario 3. GC had the best performance followed by OW. CONCLUSIONS: The aforesaid methods can be used for causal inference in externally controlled studies when there is no large, unblockable confounding path for an unmeasured confounder. GC and OW are the preferable approaches.


Subject(s)
Research Design , Humans , Propensity Score , Likelihood Functions , Computer Simulation , Bias
19.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 33, 2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645519

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently, a new certification system called the Endoscopic Surgical Skill Qualification System (ESSQS) has been launched in Japan to improve surgical safety. This study aimed to determine whether ESSQS-qualified surgeons affect the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. METHODS: A total of 187 colon cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy at Kindai University Hospital between January 2016 and December 2020 were enrolled. These patients were divided into two groups based on surgeries performed by ESSQS-qualified surgeons (QS group) and non-ESSQS-qualified surgeons (NQS group). The short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups before and after propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: After PSM, 43 patients from each group were included in the matched cohort. In the short-term outcomes, the total operative time was significantly longer in the NQS group than in the QS group (229 vs. 174 min, p < 0.0001). However, there were no significant differences in the two groups regarding blood loss (0 vs. 0 ml, p = 0.7126), conversion (0.0% vs. 7.0%, p = 0.0779), Clavien-Dindo ≥ 2 complications (9.3% vs. 7.0%, p = 0.6933), mortality (2.3% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.3145), and postoperative hospital stay (9 vs. 9 days, p = 0.5357). In the long-term outcomes, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the 3-year overall survival (86.6% vs. 83.0%, p = 0.8361) and recurrence-free survival (61.7% vs. 72.0%, p = 0.3394). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy performed by ESSQS-qualified surgeons contributed to shorter operative time. Under the supervision of ESSQS-qualified surgeons, almost equivalent safety and oncological outcomes are expected even in surgeries performed by non-ESSQS-qualified surgeons.


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , Laparoscopy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Colectomy , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 18(1): 27, 2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitral valve repair (MVRe) is considered to have a superior outcome compared to replacement (MVRp) in patients with mitral valve regurgitation (MVR). It was the aim of the study to analyse the clinical results and identify risk factors for short and long-term mortality. METHODS: In a retrospective single-center analysis, patients undergoing an isolated mitral valve procedure from June 2010 to December 2016 were identified. These were subsequently homogenized using 10 baseline characteristics for propensity-score matching. Comparative analyses were performed for early and long-term results, using adequate statistical tools, and identifying risk factors for the investigated endpoints, primary end-point: all-cause mortality within 5 years and secondary end-points: recurrent MVR, reoperation, endocarditis and/or mortality with 30 days, 1, 3 and 5 years. RESULTS: 241 patients were identified in the entire patient cohort. After matching, patients were divided into 2 groups of 64 each respectively. The median age was similar in the two groups. There was a significant interaction between early mortality risk of MV in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR 11.94, 95% CI 1.49-285.92, p = 0.04) and late mortality in patients with higher EuroSCORE II (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23, p < 0.001). The primary end-point showed 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in MVRe versus MVRp (90.06% vs. 79.54% respectively, p = 0.04). The secondary end-point demonstrated recurrent MVR not to be statistically significant between the 2 groups (p = 0.09) as well as reoperation (p = 0.28). Endocarditis was observed in one patient after MVRp. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded MVRe to be associated with lower operative and 5-year mortality and good postoperative outcomes compared to patients undergoing MVRp. Concomitant CAD was identified as one of the risk factors for increasing the in-hospital mortality rate. There was no significant difference in rehospitalisation over the follow-up period. MVRe should be the treatment of choice for severe MVR and should remain a central aspect in valve centers' treatment algorithms and quality measures.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Endocarditis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Humans , Mitral Valve/surgery , Follow-Up Studies , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Endocarditis/surgery
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