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1.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938913

ABSTRACT

Propolis has gained wide popularity over the last decades in several parts of the world. In parallel, the literature about propolis composition and biological properties increased markedly. A great number of papers have demonstrated that propolis from different parts of the world is composed mainly of phenolic substances, frequently flavonoids, derived from plant resins. Propolis has a relevant role in increasing the social immunity of bee hives. Experimental evidence indicates that propolis and its components have activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Mechanisms of action on bacteria, fungi, and viruses are known for several propolis components. Experiments have shown that propolis may act synergistically with antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirus drugs, permitting the administration of lower doses of drugs and higher antimicrobial effects. The current trend of growing resistance of microbial pathogens to the available drugs has encouraged the introduction of propolis in therapy against infectious diseases. Because propolis composition is widely variable, standardized propolis extracts have been produced. Successful clinical trials have included propolis extracts as medicine in dentistry and as an adjuvant in the treatment of patients against COVID-19. Present world health conditions encourage initiatives toward the spread of the niche of propolis, not only as traditional and alternative medicine but also as a relevant protagonist in anti-infectious therapy. Production of propolis and other apiary products is environmentally friendly and may contribute to alleviating the current crisis of the decline of bee populations. Propolis production has had social-economic relevance in Brazil, providing benefits to underprivileged people.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Ascomycota , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Propolis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Propolis/pharmacology , Propolis/therapeutic use
2.
Med Res Rev ; 42(2): 897-945, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925975

ABSTRACT

Propolis is a complex natural product that possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, and antiviral properties mainly attributed to the high content in flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives. The chemical composition of propolis is multifarious, as it depends on the botanical sources from which honeybees collect resins and exudates. Nevertheless, despite this variability propolis may have a general pharmacological value, and this review systematically compiles, for the first time, the existing preclinical and clinical evidence of propolis activities as an antiviral and immunomodulatory agent, focusing on the possible application in respiratory diseases. In vitro and in vivo assays have demonstrated propolis broad-spectrum effects on viral infectivity and replication, as well as the modulatory actions on cytokine production and immune cell activation as part of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Clinical trials confirmed propolis undeniable potential as an effective therapeutic agent; however, the lack of rigorous randomized clinical trials in the context of respiratory diseases is tangible. Since propolis is available as a dietary supplement, possible use for the prevention of respiratory diseases and their deleterious inflammatory drawbacks on the respiratory tract in humans is considered and discussed. This review opens up new perspectives on the clinical investigation of neglected propolis biological properties which, now more than ever, are particularly relevant with respect to the recent outbreaks of pandemic respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Propolis , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bees , Humans , Immunity , Immunomodulation , Propolis/chemistry , Propolis/pharmacology , Propolis/therapeutic use
3.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810042

ABSTRACT

Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes a significant life-long disease. Long-term side effects of antiviral drugs can lead to the emergence of drug resistance. Thus, propolis, a natural product derived from beehives, has been proposed to prevent or treat HSV-2 infections. Unfortunately, therapeutic applications of propolis are still limited due its poor solubility. To overcome this, a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system was employed. An ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and chitosan using a modified oil-in-water single emulsion by using the solvent evaporation method. The produced nanoparticles (EEP-NPs) had a spherical shape with a size of ~450 nm and presented satisfactory physicochemical properties, including positively charged surface (38.05 ± 7.65 mV), high entrapment efficiency (79.89 ± 13.92%), and sustained release profile. Moreover, EEP-NPs were less cytotoxic on Vero cells and exhibited anti-HSV-2 activity. EEP-NPs had a direct effect on the inactivation of viral particles, and also disrupted the virion entry and release from the host cells. A significant decrease in the expression levels of the HSV-2 replication-related genes (ICP4, ICP27, and gB) was also observed. Our study suggests that EEP-NPs provide a strong anti-HSV-2 activity and serve as a promising platform for the treatment of HSV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Herpes Simplex , Nanoparticles , Propolis , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 2, Human , Propolis/chemistry , Vero Cells
4.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785837

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis from a semi-arid region of Morocco were investigated. Fifteen compounds, including triterpenoids (1, 2, 7-12), macrocyclic diterpenes of ingol type (3-6) and aromatic derivatives (13-15), were isolated by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chiroptical methods. Compounds 1 and 3 are new natural compounds, and 2, 4-6, and 9-11 are newly isolated from propolis. Moreover, the full nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments of three of the known compounds (2, 4 and 5) were reported for the first time. Most of the compounds tested, especially the diterpenes 3, 4, and 6, exhibited very good activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the strongest activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4-64 µg/mL. The combination of isolated triterpenoids and ingol diterpenes was found to be characteristic for Euphorbia spp., and Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus could be suggested as a probable and new plant source of propolis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Diterpenes , Euphorbia , Propolis , Triterpenes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry , Euphorbia/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Morocco , Propolis/pharmacology , Triterpenes/chemistry
5.
Trials ; 23(1): 255, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread and affects large numbers of people with unprecedented impacts. Experimental evidence has already been obtained for use of the standardized extract of Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) against viral targets, and clinical rationality has been demonstrated for testing this extract as an adjunct to treatment in patients affected by COVID-19. The BeeCovid2 study aims to assess whether EPP-AF has an impact on the improvement of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 by reducing the length of hospital stay. METHODS: BeeCovid2 is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study being conducted in Brazil to provide further evidence on the effectiveness of standardized green propolis extract as an adjunctive treatment for adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Hospitalized patients over 18 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and up to 14 days of symptoms were included. Patients under mechanical ventilation at randomization, pregnant women, cancer patients, transplanted or using immunosuppression, HIV patients, patients who used propolis in the last 30 days, bacterial or fungal infection at randomization, impossibility of using medication orally or enterally, and advanced chronic diseases (e.g., advanced heart failure, severe liver disease, and end-stage chronic kidney disease). Enrolled patients are randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive placebo or standardized propolis extract (900 mg/day) for 10 days. The study treatments are administered in a double-blinded manner, and patients are followed for 28 days. The primary outcome is the difference in length of hospital stay in days between groups. Secondary outcomes include the need for mechanical ventilation, the rate of secondary infection, rate of acute kidney injury, the need for renal replacement therapy, the requirement for vasoactive drugs, the use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). DISCUSSION: This trial is very useful and will provide more data on the effectiveness of using the standardized Brazilian green propolis extract as an adjunctive treatment in association with standard care in adults hospitalized with moderate to severe acute COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04800224 . Registered on March 16, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Propolis , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Plant Extracts , Pregnancy , Propolis/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
J Integr Med ; 20(2): 114-125, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propolis and honey have been studied as alternative treatments for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no study has yet summarized the full body of evidence for the use of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviews the mechanisms of propolis and honey against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and current evidence for the use of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library from their inceptions to April 2021. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Studies that evaluated the effect of propolis or bee products against SARS-CoV-2 using in silico methods, clinical studies, case reports and case series were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: A standardized data extraction form was used, and data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was used to summarize study results concerning the use of propolis or honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment and their potential mechanisms of action against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies were included. Nine studies were in silico studies, two studies were case reports, one study was a case series, and three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In silico studies, using molecular docking methods, showed that compounds in propolis could interact with several target proteins of SARS-CoV-2, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the main protease enzyme, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike protein. Propolis may have a positive effect for clinical improvement in mild and moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients, according to case reports and case series. The included RCTs indicated that propolis or honey could probably improve clinical symptoms and decrease viral clearance time when they were used as adjuvant therapy to standard of care. CONCLUSION: In silico studies showed that compounds from propolis could interact with target proteins of SARS-CoV-2, interfering with viral entry and viral RNA replication, while clinical studies revealed that propolis and honey could probably improve clinical COVID-19 symptoms and decrease viral clearance time. However, clinical evidence is limited by the small number of studies and small sample sizes. Future clinical studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Honey , Propolis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Propolis/pharmacology , Propolis/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736897

ABSTRACT

The impact of globalization on beekeeping brings new economic, scientific, ecological and social dimensions to this field The present study aimed to evaluate the chemical compositions of eight propolis extracts from Romania, and their antioxidant action and antimicrobial activity against seven species of bacteria, including pathogenic ones: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of propolis extracts were quantified; the presence of flavones and aromatic acids was determined. Quercetin and rutin were identified by HPLC analysis and characterized using molecular descriptors. All propolis samples exhibited antibacterial effects, especially against P. aeruginosa and L. monocytogenes. A two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate correlations among the diameters of the inhibition zones, the bacteria used and propolis extracts used. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the diameter of the inhibition zone was influenced by the strain type, but no association between the propolis origin and the microbial activity was found.


Subject(s)
Propolis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Romania
8.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 20: eRC6151, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732642

ABSTRACT

Propolis is a lipophilic resin extracted from plants by bees. The purpose of this case report was to show the importance of this substance as cause of allergic contact cheilitis. A 21-year-old female patient complained of pruritic perioral eczema for 5 years. In the past months it also affected the neck. After diagnosing contact dermatitis, she was submitted to a patch test with a Latin American baseline series. The result was strongly positive for propolis (++) and weakly positive for perfume mix I (+). After the test, the patient revealed she had been using propolis drops, per oris, for 10 years. The worsening of the condition was due to increased dose, aiming "to improve immunity", during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The contact allergy to propolis might be increasing due to the widespread use of natural products. Propolis is a sensitizer to be considered in patients with long-lasting cheilitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cheilitis , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact , Propolis , Cheilitis/chemically induced , Cheilitis/complications , Cheilitis/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Female , Humans , Propolis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613909

ABSTRACT

Conducted studies indicate the relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Moreover, the latest research indicated that cariogenic bacteria may severely influence the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increase risk of COVID-19 complications. This article aims to review various applications of propolis and pay attention to a healthy diet rich in polyphenols, which may allow the reduction of dental plaque accumulation. A literature review has been conducted from June until November 2021. It showed that propolis could be a useful agent in decreasing the accumulation of dental plaque. Moreover, a diet rich in polyphenols prevents cariogenic bacteria and reduces the accumulation of dental plaque. A reduction of a dental plaque may influence the risk of a severe course of COVID-19. Therefore, propolis and a diet rich in polyphenols may play an important role in prophylaxis of systemic diseases. Recently, it has been proven that oral infection may affect cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, nervous system, as well as may be a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. These aspects should stimulate clinicians to further research about polyphenols.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Diet , Propolis/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Oral Health
11.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410347

ABSTRACT

Current studies suggest that cariogenic bacteria in dental plaque influence the severity of COVID-19 complications since the oral cavity is a reservoir for respiratory pathogens potentially responsible for the development of hospital-acquired pneumonia. This article focuses on the association between dental plaque and COVID-19 concerning the influence of altered oral biofilm on the risk of increased severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, it concentrates on the usefulness of propolis, with its apitherapeutic antibacterial properties, for treating oral bacterial infections co-occurring with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A review of the literature on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Medline between 2000 and 2021 revealed 56 published articles indicating that a link between dental plaque and COVID-19 complications was probable. Furthermore, they indicated that propolis may minimize COVID-19 severity by reducing dental plaque accumulation. The possibility that improved oral health could reduce the risk of COVID-19 complications should be of interest to scientists.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , COVID-19 , Dental Caries , Dental Plaque , Mouth Diseases , Propolis/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Biofilms/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Humans , Mouth Diseases/drug therapy , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Oral Health
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(6): 3557-3564, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216209

ABSTRACT

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-related carboxypeptidase, ACE-II, is a type I integral membrane protein of 805 amino acids that contains 1 HEXXH-E zinc binding consensus sequence. ACE-II has been implicated in the regulation of heart function and also as a functional receptor for the coronavirus that causes the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In this study, the potential of some flavonoids presents in propolis to bind to ACE-II receptors was calculated with in silico. Binding constants of ten flavonoids, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, chrysin, galangin, myricetin, rutin, hesperetin, pinocembrin, luteolin and quercetin were measured using the AutoDock 4.2 molecular docking program. And also, these binding constants were compared to reference ligand of MLN-4760. The results are shown that rutin has the best inhibition potentials among the studied molecules with high binding energy - 8.04 kcal/mol, and it is followed by myricetin, quercetin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester and hesperetin. However, the reference molecule has binding energy of - 7.24 kcal/mol. In conclusion, the high potential of flavonoids in ethanolic propolis extracts to bind to ACE-II receptors indicates that this natural bee product has high potential for COVID-19 treatment, but this needs to be supported by experimental studies.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Propolis/pharmacology , Animals , Bees , Caffeic Acids , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Hesperidin , Humans , Luteolin , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts , Quercetin , Rutin
13.
Phytother Res ; 35(7): 4000-4006, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188038

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global health crisis. Nevertheless, no antiviral treatment has yet been proven effective for treating COVID-19 and symptomatic supportive cares have been the most common treatment. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of propolis and Hyoscyamus niger L. extract in patients with COVID-19. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 50 cases referred to Akhavan and Sepehri Clinics, Kashan university of medical sciences, Iran. Subjects were divided into two groups (intervention and placebo). This syrup (containing 1.6 mg of methanolic extract along with 450 mg of propolis per 10 mL) was administered three times a day to each patient for 6 days. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 such as: dry cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, chest pain, fever, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea were reduced with propolis plus Hyoscyamus niger L. extract than the placebo group. However, the administration of syrup was not effective in the control of nausea and vomiting. In conclusion, syrup containing propolis and Hyoscyamus niger L. extract had beneficial effects in ameliorating the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 disease, in comparison with placebo groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyoscyamus , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Propolis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hyoscyamus/chemistry , Iran , Male , Methanol , Middle Aged , Propolis/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(3): 281-299, 2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Viral outbreaks are a frequent concern for humans. A great variety of drugs has been used to treat viral diseases, which are not always safe and effective and may induce adverse effects, indicating the need for new antiviral drugs extracted from natural sources. Propolis is a bee-made product exhibiting many biological properties. An overview of viruses, antiviral immunity, propolis safety and its immunomodulatory and antiviral action is reported, as well as perspectives for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. PubMed platform was used for data collection, searching for the keywords "propolis", "virus", "antiviral", "antimicrobial" and "coronavirus". KEY FINDINGS: Propolis is safe and exerts antiviral and immunomodulatory activity; however, clinical trials should investigate its effects on individuals with viral diseases, in combination or not with antiviral drugs or vaccines. SUMMARY: Regarding COVID-19, the effects of propolis should be investigated directly on the virus in vitro or on infected individuals alone or in combination with antiviral drugs, due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action. Propolis administration simultaneously with vaccines should be analyzed, due to its adjuvant properties, to enhance the individuals' immune response. The search for therapeutic targets may be useful to find out how propolis can help to control COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Propolis/immunology , Propolis/therapeutic use , Animals , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111526, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) promotes challenging immune and inflammatory phenomena. Though various therapeutic possibilities have been tested against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the most adequate treatment has not yet been established. Propolis is a natural product with considerable evidence of immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, and experimental data point to potential against viral targets. We hypothesized that propolis can reduce the negative effects of COVID-19. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, open-label, single-center trial, hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients were treated with a standardized green propolis extract (EPP-AF®ï¸) as an adjunct therapy. Patients were allocated to receive standard care plus an oral dose of 400 mg or 800 mg/day of green propolis for seven days, or standard care alone. Standard care included all necessary interventions, as determined by the attending physician. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the length of hospital stay or oxygen therapy dependency duration. Secondary outcomes included acute kidney injury and need for intensive care or vasoactive drugs. Patients were followed for 28 days after admission. RESULTS: We enrolled 124 patients; 40 were assigned to EPP-AF®ï¸ 400 mg/day, 42 to EPP-AF®ï¸ 800 mg/day, and 42 to the control group. The length of hospital stay post-intervention was shorter in both propolis groups than in the control group; lower dose, median 7 days versus 12 days (95% confidence interval [CI] -6.23 to -0.07; p = 0.049) and higher dose, median 6 days versus 12 days (95% CI -7.00 to -1.09; p = 0.009). Propolis did not significantly affect the need for oxygen supplementation. In the high dose propolis group, there was a lower rate of acute kidney injury than in the controls (4.8 vs 23.8%), (odds ratio [OR] 0.18; 95% CI 0.03-0.84; p = 0.048). No patient had propolis treatment discontinued due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of propolis to the standard care procedures resulted in clinical benefits for the hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially evidenced by a reduction in the length of hospital stay. Consequently, we conclude that propolis can reduce the impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Propolis/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Propolis/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121891

ABSTRACT

Despite the virulence and high fatality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), no specific antiviral treatment exists until the current moment. Natural agents with immune-promoting potentials such as bee products are being explored as possible treatments. Bee honey and propolis are rich in bioactive compounds that express strong antimicrobial, bactericidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities. This review examined the literature for the anti-COVID-19 effects of bee honey and propolis, with the aim of optimizing the use of these handy products as prophylactic or adjuvant treatments for people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Molecular simulations show that flavonoids in propolis and honey (e.g., rutin, naringin, caffeic acid phenyl ester, luteolin, and artepillin C) may inhibit viral spike fusion in host cells, viral-host interactions that trigger the cytokine storm, and viral replication. Similar to the potent antiviral drug remdesivir, rutin, propolis ethanolic extract, and propolis liposomes inhibited non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, and these compounds along with naringin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells. Propolis extracts delivered by nanocarriers exhibit better antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2 than ethanolic extracts. In line, hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving green Brazilian propolis or a combination of honey and Nigella sativa exhibited earlier viral clearance, symptom recovery, discharge from the hospital as well as less mortality than counterparts receiving standard care alone. Thus, the use of bee products as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 may produce beneficial effects. Implications for treatment outcomes and issues to be considered in future studies are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Honey , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Propolis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Trials as Topic , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Propolis/chemistry , Propolis/therapeutic use , Vero Cells
17.
Phytother Res ; 35(2): 743-750, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098921

ABSTRACT

The emergence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 in China marked the third outbreak of a highly pathogenic coronavirus infecting humans. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread worldwide, becoming an emergency of major international concern. However, even after a decade of coronavirus research, there are still no licensed vaccines or therapeutic agents to treat the coronavirus infection. In this context, apitherapy presents as a promising source of pharmacological and nutraceutical agents for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of COVID-19. For instance, several honeybee products, such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, beeswax, and bee venom, have shown potent antiviral activity against pathogens that cause severe respiratory syndromes, including those caused by human coronaviruses. In addition, the benefits of these natural products to the immune system are remarkable, and many of them are involved in the induction of antibody production, maturation of immune cells, and stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, in the absence of specific antivirals against SARS-CoV-2, apitherapy could offer one hope toward mitigating some of the risks associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Apitherapy , Bees/metabolism , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chemoprevention/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apitherapy/methods , Apitherapy/trends , Biological Products/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatty Acids/physiology , Honey , Humans , Pollen/physiology , Propolis/metabolism , Propolis/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Waxes/metabolism , Waxes/therapeutic use
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110622, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996661

ABSTRACT

Propolis, a resinous material produced by honey bees from plant exudates, has long been used in traditional herbal medicine and is widely consumed as a health aid and immune system booster. The COVID-19 pandemic has renewed interest in propolis products worldwide; fortunately, various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanism are potential targets for propolis compounds. SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells is characterized by viral spike protein interaction with cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and serine protease TMPRSS2. This mechanism involves PAK1 overexpression, which is a kinase that mediates coronavirus-induced lung inflammation, fibrosis, and immune system suppression. Propolis components have inhibitory effects on the ACE2, TMPRSS2 and PAK1 signaling pathways; in addition, antiviral activity has been proven in vitro and in vivo. In pre-clinical studies, propolis promoted immunoregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including reduction in IL-6, IL-1 beta and TNF-α. This immunoregulation involves monocytes and macrophages, as well as Jak2/STAT3, NF-kB, and inflammasome pathways, reducing the risk of cytokine storm syndrome, a major mortality factor in advanced COVID-19 disease. Propolis has also shown promise as an aid in the treatment of various of the comorbidities that are particularly dangerous in COVID-19 patients, including respiratory diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. Standardized propolis products with consistent bioactive properties are now available. Given the current emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and limited therapeutic options, propolis is presented as a promising and relevant therapeutic option that is safe, easy to administrate orally and is readily available as a natural supplement and functional food.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Propolis/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Monocytes/drug effects , Monocytes/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Propolis/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 996, 2020 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the effect of propolis supplementation on clinical symptoms in patients with coronavirus (COVID-19). TRIAL DESIGN: This is a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Arm, Randomized Phase ΙΙ Clinical Trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with the confirmed COVID-19 based on the PCR test are eligible to participate in the trial if they are 18 to 75 years of age and have no history of the current use of warfarin or propolis supplement and presence of sensitivity to bee products. Patients will be recruited from the Al-Zahra hospital in Isfahan city, Isfahan, Iran. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants (N=40) in the intervention group will receive an identical propolis tablet (containing 300 mg Iranian green propolis extract) three times a day for a period of 2 weeks. Participants (N=40) in the control group will receive an identical placebo tablet (containing 300 mg microcrystalline cellulose) three times a day for 2 weeks. All tablets are prepared by the Reyhan Naghsh Jahan Pharmaceutical Co., Isfahan, Iran. MAIN OUTCOMES: The main outcomes are changes in the coronavirus disease's clinical symptoms including duration and severity from baseline to the end of 2 weeks. RANDOMIZATION: Eligible patients will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention or control group. Randomization will be performed on the basis of permuted block sizes of 4 and will be stratified according to sex categories. Randomization sequences will be prepared by the trial's pharmacist with the use of random-number tables. BLINDING (MASKING): The trial-group assignment will be concealed from all participants, clinicians, and investigators throughout the trial. To ensure blinding, randomization sequences will be kept in identical, opaque, sealed, sequentially numbered envelopes. Only the trial's pharmacist has access to the randomization list. Also, the placebo tablet will be similar to the propolis tablet in terms of texture, taste, color, odor, and weight. Both tablets will be provided in containers that are completely identical in weight, shape, labelling, and packaging. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The calculated total sample size is 80 patients, with 40 patients in each group. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, October 10, 2020. Recruitment began August 22, 2020, and is anticipated to be completed by March 21, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The name of the trial register: The effect of propolis supplementation on clinical symptoms in patients with coronavirus (COVID-19): A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. IRCT registration number: IRCT20200802048267N1 . Date of trial registration: 20 October 2020, retrospectively registered. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting the dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Propolis/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Placebos/administration & dosage , Propolis/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Pharm ; 592: 120028, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912244

ABSTRACT

The present work aimed to develop an optimized liposomal formulation for enhancing the anti-viral activity of propolis against COVID-19. Docking studies were performed for certain components of Egyptian Propolis using Avigan, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir as standard antivirals against both COVID-19 3CL-protease and S1 spike protein. Response surface methodology and modified injection method were implemented to maximize the entrapment efficiency and release of the liposomal formulation. The optimized formulation parameters were as follow: LMC of 60 mM, CH% of 20% and DL of 5 mg/ml. At those values the E.E% and released % were 70.112% and 81.801%, respectively with nanosized particles (117 ± 11 nm). Docking studies revealed that Rutin and Caffeic acid phenethyl ester showed the highest affinity to both targets. Results showed a significant inhibitory effect of the optimized liposomal formula of Propolis against COVID-3CL protease (IC50 = 1.183 ± 0.06) compared with the Egyptian propolis extract (IC50 = 2.452 ± 0.11), P < 0.001. Interestingly, the inhibition of viral replication of COVID-19 determined by RT_PCR has been significantly enhanced via encapsulation of propolis extract within the liposomal formulation (P < 0.0001) and was comparable to the viral inhibitory effect of the potent antiviral (remdesivir). These findings identified the potential of propolis liposomes as a promising treatment approach against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Propolis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Liposomes , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Propolis/administration & dosage , Propolis/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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