Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 343
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 10, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Narrowing a large set of features to a smaller one can improve our understanding of the main risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. This study aimed to derive a parsimonious model for predicting overall survival (OS) among re-infected COVID-19 patients using machine-learning algorithms. METHODS: The retrospective data of 283 re-infected COVID-19 patients admitted to twenty-six medical centers (affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences) from 10 June to 26 December 2020 were reviewed and analyzed. An elastic-net regularized Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression and model approximation via backward elimination were utilized to optimize a predictive model of time to in-hospital death. The model was further reduced to its core features to maximize simplicity and generalizability. RESULTS: The empirical in-hospital mortality rate among the re-infected COVID-19 patients was 9.5%. In addition, the mortality rate among the intubated patients was 83.5%. Using the Kaplan-Meier approach, the OS (95% CI) rates for days 7, 14, and 21 were 87.5% (81.6-91.6%), 78.3% (65.0-87.0%), and 52.2% (20.3-76.7%), respectively. The elastic-net Cox PH regression retained 8 out of 35 candidate features of death. Transfer by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (HR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.63-9.48), SpO2≤85% (HR=8.10, 95% CI: 2.97-22.00), increased serum creatinine (HR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.48-2.30), and increased white blood cells (WBC) count (HR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15) were associated with higher in-hospital mortality rates in the re-infected COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The results of the machine-learning analysis demonstrated that transfer by EMS, profound hypoxemia (SpO2≤85%), increased serum creatinine (more than 1.6 mg/dL), and increased WBC count (more than 8.5 (×109 cells/L)) reduced the OS of the re-infected COVID-19 patients. We recommend that future machine-learning studies should further investigate these relationships and the associated factors in these patients for a better prediction of OS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Machine Learning , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 169-178, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591240

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the association between individual-level adherence to social-distancing and personal hygiene behaviors recommended by public health experts and subsequent risk of COVID-19 diagnosis in the United States. Methods. Data are from waves 7 through 26 (June 10, 2020-April 26, 2021) of the Understanding America Study COVID-19 survey. We used Cox models to assess the relationship between engaging in behaviors considered high risk and risk of COVID-19 diagnosis. Results. Individuals engaging in behaviors indicating lack of adherence to social-distancing guidelines, especially those related to large gatherings or public interactions, had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis than did those who did not engage in these behaviors. Each additional risk behavior was associated with a 9% higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.13). Results were similar after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and local infection rates. Conclusions. Personal mitigation behaviors appear to influence the risk of COVID-19, even in the presence of social factors related to infection risk. Public Health Implications. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual behaviors for preventing COVID-19, which may be relevant in contexts with low vaccination. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):169-178. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306565).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Risk Behaviors , Hygiene , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
3.
BMJ ; 375: e065834, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the rates for consulting a general practitioner (GP) for sequelae after acute covid-19 in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and those managed in the community, and to determine how the rates change over time for patients in the community and after vaccination for covid-19. DESIGN: Population based study. SETTING: 1392 general practices in England contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database. PARTICIPANTS: 456 002 patients with a diagnosis of covid-19 between 1 August 2020 and 14 February 2021 (44.7% men; median age 61 years), admitted to hospital within two weeks of diagnosis or managed in the community, and followed-up for a maximum of 9.2 months. A negative control group included individuals without covid-19 (n=38 511) and patients with influenza before the pandemic (n=21 803). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of rates for consulting a GP for new symptoms, diseases, prescriptions, and healthcare use in individuals admitted to hospital and those managed in the community, separately, before and after covid-19 infection, using Cox regression and negative binomial regression for healthcare use. The analysis was repeated for the negative control and influenza cohorts. In individuals in the community, outcomes were also described over time after a diagnosis of covid-19, and compared before and after vaccination for individuals who were symptomatic after covid-19 infection, using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Relative to the negative control and influenza cohorts, patients in the community (n=437 943) had significantly higher GP consultation rates for multiple sequelae, and the most common were loss of smell or taste, or both (adjusted hazard ratio 5.28, 95% confidence interval 3.89 to 7.17, P<0.001); venous thromboembolism (3.35, 2.87 to 3.91, P<0.001); lung fibrosis (2.41, 1.37 to 4.25, P=0.002), and muscle pain (1.89, 1.63 to 2.20, P<0.001); and also for healthcare use after a diagnosis of covid-19 compared with 12 months before infection. For absolute proportions, the most common outcomes ≥4 weeks after a covid-19 diagnosis in patients in the community were joint pain (2.5%), anxiety (1.2%), and prescriptions for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (1.2%). Patients admitted to hospital (n=18 059) also had significantly higher GP consultation rates for multiple sequelae, most commonly for venous thromboembolism (16.21, 11.28 to 23.31, P<0.001), nausea (4.64, 2.24 to 9.21, P<0.001), prescriptions for paracetamol (3.68, 2.86 to 4.74, P<0.001), renal failure (3.42, 2.67 to 4.38, P<0.001), and healthcare use after a covid-19 diagnosis compared with 12 months before infection. For absolute proportions, the most common outcomes ≥4 weeks after a covid-19 diagnosis in patients admitted to hospital were venous thromboembolism (3.5%), joint pain (2.7%), and breathlessness (2.8%). In patients in the community, anxiety and depression, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, general pain, nausea, chest tightness, and tinnitus persisted throughout follow-up. GP consultation rates were reduced for all symptoms, prescriptions, and healthcare use, except for neuropathic pain, cognitive impairment, strong opiates, and paracetamol use in patients in the community after the first vaccination dose for covid-19 relative to before vaccination. GP consultation rates were also reduced for ischaemic heart disease, asthma, and gastro-oesophageal disease. CONCLUSIONS: GP consultation rates for sequelae after acute covid-19 infection differed between patients with covid-19 who were admitted to hospital and those managed in the community. For individuals in the community, rates of some sequelae decreased over time but those for others, such as anxiety and depression, persisted. Rates of some outcomes decreased after vaccination in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Community Health Services , General Practitioners , Hospitalization , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
4.
Drugs ; 82(1): 43-54, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes in US veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 27,556 adult US veterans who tested positive for COVID-19 between March to November 2020. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models using propensity score (PS) for weight, adjustment, and matching were used to examine the odds of an event within 60 days following a COVID-19-positive case date and time to death, respectively, according to ACEI and/or ARB prescription within 6 months prior to the COVID-19-positive case date. RESULTS: The overlap PS weighted logistic regression model showed lower odds of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 95% CI 0.77, 0.61-0.98) and death within 60 days (0.87, 0.79-0.97) with an ACEI or ARB prescription. Veterans with an ARB-only prescription also had lower odds of an ICU admission (0.64, 0.44-0.92). The overlap PS weighted model similarly showed a lower risk of time to all-cause mortality in veterans with an ACEI or ARB prescription (HR [95% CI]: 0.87, 0.79-0.97) and an ARB only prescription (0.78, 0.67-0.91). Veterans with an ACEI prescription had higher odds of experiencing a septic event within 60 days after the COVID-19-positive case date (1.22, 1.02-1.46). CONCLUSION: In this study of a national cohort of US veterans, we found that the use of an ACEI/ARB in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with increased mortality and other worse outcomes. Future studies should examine underlying pathways and further confirm the relationship of ACEI prescription with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Veterans
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24436, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585781

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) who are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) belong to the most vulnerable patient subgroups. Emerging data has shown increased risks of severe infections, increased in ICU admissions, longer durations of admission, and increased mortality among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes. We performed a subgroup analysis comparing the outcomes of patients diagnosed with DM (n = 2191) versus patients without DM (n = 8690) on our data from our study based on a nationwide, comparative, retrospective, cohort study among adult, hospitalized COVID-19 patients involving 37 hospital sites from around the Philippines. We determined distribution differences between two independent samples using Mann-Whitney U and t tests. Data on the time to onset of mortality, respiratory failure, intensive care unit (ICU) admission were used to build Kaplan-Meier curves and to compute for hazard ratios (HR). The odds ratios (OR) for longer ventilator dependence, longer ICU stay, and longer hospital stays were computed via multivariate logistic regression. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and ORs (aOR) with 95% CI were calculated. We included a total of 10,881 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection (2191 have DM while 8690 did not have DM). The median age of the DM cohort was 61, with a female to male ratio of 1:1.25 and more than 50% of the DM population were above 60 years old. The aOR for mortality was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.46 (95% CI 1.28-1.68; p < 0.001) as compared to the non-DM group. Similarly, the aOR for respiratory failure was also significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.67 (95% CI 1.46-1.90). The aOR for developing severe COVID-19 at nadir was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.85 (95% CI 1.65-2.07; p < 0.001). The aOR for ICU admission was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.80 (95% CI 1.59-2.05) than those in the non-DM group. DM patients had significantly longer duration of ventilator dependence (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.64; p = 0.008) and longer hospital admission (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26; p = 0.027). The presence of DM among COVID-19 patients significantly increased the risk of mortality, respiratory failure, duration of ventilator dependence, severe/critical COVID-19, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Philippines , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Ventilators, Mechanical , Young Adult
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26257, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, an initial risk-adapted allocation is crucial for managing medical resources and providing intensive care. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to identify factors that predict the overall survival rate for COVID-19 cases and develop a COVID-19 prognosis score (COPS) system based on these factors. In addition, disease severity and the length of hospital stay for patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a nationwide cohort of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases between January and April 2020 in Korea. The cohort was split randomly into a development cohort and a validation cohort with a 2:1 ratio. In the development cohort (n=3729), we tried to identify factors associated with overall survival and develop a scoring system to predict the overall survival rate by using parameters identified by the Cox proportional hazard regression model with bootstrapping methods. In the validation cohort (n=1865), we evaluated the prediction accuracy using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The score of each variable in the COPS system was rounded off following the log-scaled conversion of the adjusted hazard ratio. RESULTS: Among the 5594 patients included in this analysis, 234 (4.2%) died after receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis. In the development cohort, six parameters were significantly related to poor overall survival: older age, dementia, chronic renal failure, dyspnea, mental disturbance, and absolute lymphocyte count <1000/mm3. The following risk groups were formed: low-risk (score 0-2), intermediate-risk (score 3), high-risk (score 4), and very high-risk (score 5-7) groups. The COPS system yielded an area under the curve value of 0.918 for predicting the 14-day survival rate and 0.896 for predicting the 28-day survival rate in the validation cohort. Using the COPS system, 28-day survival rates were discriminatively estimated at 99.8%, 95.4%, 82.3%, and 55.1% in the low-risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups, respectively, of the total cohort (P<.001). The length of hospital stay and disease severity were directly associated with overall survival (P<.001), and the hospital stay duration was significantly longer among survivors (mean 26.1, SD 10.7 days) than among nonsurvivors (mean 15.6, SD 13.3 days). CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed predictive COPS system may assist in making risk-adapted decisions for the allocation of medical resources, including intensive care, during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 293-303, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Associations between pre-infection prescription for glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes have been postulated but only investigated in small studies and limited to a few agents. We investigated whether there are associations between prescription of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs and risk of COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a nationwide observational cohort study done with data from the National Diabetes Audit for people with type 2 diabetes and registered with a general practice in England since 2003. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of COVID-19-related mortality in people prescribed each class of glucose-lowering drug, with covariate adjustment with a propensity score to address confounding by demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors. FINDINGS: Among the 2 851 465 people with type 2 diabetes included in our analyses, 13 479 (0·5%) COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period (Feb 16 to Aug 31, 2020), corresponding to a rate of 8·9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 8·7-9·0). The adjusted HR associated with recorded versus no recorded prescription was 0·77 (95% CI 0·73-0·81) for metformin and 1·42 (1·35-1·49) for insulin. Adjusted HRs for prescription of other individual classes of glucose-lowering treatment were as follows: 0·75 (0·48-1·17) for meglitinides, 0·82 (0·74-0·91) for SGLT2 inhibitors, 0·94 (0·82-1·07) for thiazolidinediones, 0·94 (0·89-0·99) for sulfonylureas, 0·94 (0·83-1·07) for GLP-1 receptor agonists, 1·07 (1·01-1·13) for DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1·26 (0·76-2·09) for α-glucosidase inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence of associations between prescription of some glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality, although the differences in risk are small and these findings are likely to be due to confounding by indication, in view of the use of different drug classes at different stages of type 2 diabetes disease progression. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no clear indication to change prescribing of glucose-lowering drugs in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6767-6774, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the efficiency of CHA2DS2-VASc, CHA2DS2-VASc-HS, R2CHA2DS2-VASc score systems on the prediction of mortality in the patients with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The data were collected from 508 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Comorbidity features including coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular event, cancer status, and renal disease were recorded. The patients were divided as surviving group (n=440) and non-survivors (n=68). RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality rate of the patients with COVID-19 was 13.4%. Factors found to be associated with mortality in univariate analysis were CHA2DS2-VASc, CHA2DS2-VASc-HS, R2CHA2DS2-VASc, cancer state, atrial fibrillation, hemoglobin, lymphocyte count, CRP, albumin and ferritin. Model 1 multivariate cox regression analysis revealed CHA2DS2-VASc, hemoglobin, CRP and ferritin levels to be independently associated with mortality. Factors that were found to be independently associated with in-hospital mortality in Model 2 analysis were CHA2DS2-VASc-HS, R2CHA2DS2-VASc, hemoglobin, CRP and ferritin whereas except hemoglobin in Model 3 analysis, the other variables had been the same. Predictive power of R2CHA2DS2-VASc was better than of both CHA2DS2-VASc (p=0.002) and CHA2DS2-VASc-HS (p=0.034) in determining the in-hospital mortality. Patients with higher R2CHA2DS2-VASc (> 3 points), CHA2DS2-VASc-HS (> 3 points) and CHA2DS2-VASc (> 2 points) scores exhibited the highest mortality rate in survival analysis by using Kaplan-Meier and long-rank tests. CONCLUSIONS: CHA2DS2-VASc, CHA2DS2-VASc-HS, and R2CHA2DS2-VASc were found to be independent predictors of mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The current study revealed that the predictive ability of R2CHA2DS2-VASc was better than the both of CHA2DS2-VASc and CHA2DS2-VASc-HS score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2135379, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520147

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is a need for studies to evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19 and mortality among the entire Medicare long-term dialysis population using Medicare claims data. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 and mortality in Medicare patients undergoing long-term dialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, claims-based cohort study compared mortality trends of patients receiving long-term dialysis in 2020 with previous years (2013-2019) and fit Cox regression models to identify risk factors for contracting COVID-19 and postdiagnosis mortality. The cohort included the national population of Medicare patients receiving long-term dialysis in 2020, derived from clinical and administrative databases. COVID-19 was identified through Medicare claims sources. Data were analyzed on May 17, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 2 main outcomes were COVID-19 and all-cause mortality. Associations of claims-based risk factors with COVID-19 and mortality were investigated prediagnosis and postdiagnosis. Results: Among a total of 498 169 Medicare patients undergoing dialysis (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-74] years; 215 935 [43.1%] women and 283 227 [56.9%] men), 60 090 (12.1%) had COVID-19, among whom 15 612 patients (26.0%) died. COVID-19 rates were significantly higher among Black (21 787 of 165 830 patients [13.1%]) and Hispanic (13 530 of 86 871 patients [15.6%]) patients compared with non-Black patients (38 303 of 332 339 [11.5%]), as well as patients with short (ie, 1-89 days; 7738 of 55 184 patients [14.0%]) and extended (ie, ≥90 days; 10 737 of 30 196 patients [35.6%]) nursing home stays in the prior year. Adjusting for all other risk factors, residing in a nursing home 1 to 89 days in the prior year was associated with a higher hazard for COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR] vs 0 days, 1.60; 95% CI 1.56-1.65) and for postdiagnosis mortality (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25-1.37), as was residing in a nursing home for an extended stay (COVID-19: HR, 4.48; 95% CI, 4.37-4.59; mortality: HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16). Black race (HR vs non-Black: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.23-1.28) and Hispanic ethnicity (HR vs non-Hispanic: HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.64-1.72) were associated with significantly higher hazards of COVID-19. Although home dialysis was associated with lower COVID-19 rates (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75-0.80), it was associated with higher mortality (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: These results shed light on COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes among Medicare patients receiving long-term chronic dialysis and could inform policy decisions to mitigate the significant extra burden of COVID-19 and death in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Medicare , Renal Dialysis , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Aminobutyrates/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Ramipril/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Valsartan/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21888, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506965

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and the need for prioritizing coagulation markers for prognostic abilities have been highlighted in COVID-19. We aimed to quantify the associations of D-dimer with disease progression in patients with COVID-19. This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020186661.We included 113 studies in our systematic review, of which 100 records (n = 38,310) with D-dimer data) were considered for meta-analysis. Across 68 unadjusted (n = 26,960) and 39 adjusted studies (n = 15,653) reporting initial D-dimer, a significant association was found in patients with higher D-dimer for the risk of overall disease progression (unadjusted odds ratio (uOR) 3.15; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.64). The time-to-event outcomes were pooled across 19 unadjusted (n = 9743) and 21 adjusted studies (n = 13,287); a strong association was found in patients with higher D-dimers for the risk of overall disease progression (unadjusted hazard ratio (uHR) 1.41; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.10). The prognostic use of higher D-dimer was found to be promising for predicting overall disease progression (studies 68, area under curve 0.75) in COVID-19. Our study showed that higher D-dimer levels provide prognostic information useful for clinicians to early assess COVID-19 patients at risk for disease progression and mortality outcomes. This study, recommends rapid assessment of D-dimer for predicting adverse outcomes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/chemistry , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood
14.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic seems to have a different picture in Africa; the first case was identified in the continent after it had already caused a significant loss to the rest of the world and the reported number of cases and mortality rate has been low. Understanding the characteristics and outcome of the pandemic in the African setup is therefore crucial. AIM: To assess the characteristics and outcome of Patients with COVID-19 and to identify determinants of the disease outcome among patients admitted to Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1345 consecutively admitted RT-PCR confirmed Patients with COVID-19 from July to September, 2020. Frequency tables, KM plots, median survival times and Log-rank test were used to describe the data and compare survival distribution between groups. Cox proportional hazard survival model was used to identify determinants of time to clinical recovery and the independent variables, where adjusted hazard ratio, P-value and 95% CI for adjusted hazard ratio were used for testing significance and interpretation of results. Binary logistic regression model was used to assess the presence of a statistically significant association between disease outcome and the independent variables, where adjusted odds ratio, P-value and 95% CI for adjusted odds ratio were used for testing significance and interpretation of results. RESULTS: Among the study population, 71 (5.3%) died, 72 (5.4%) were transferred and the rest 1202 (89.4%) were clinically improved. The median time to clinical recovery was 14 days. On the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model; temperature (AHR = 1.135, 95% CI = 1.011, 1.274, p-value = 0.032), COVID-19 severity (AHR = 0.660, 95% CI = 0.501, 0.869, p-value = 0.003), and cough (AHR = 0.705, 95% CI = 0.519, 0.959, p-value = 0.026) were found to be significant determinants of time to clinical recovery. On the binary logistic regression, the following factors were found to be significantly associated with disease outcome; SPO2 (AOR = 0.302, 95% CI = 0.193, 0.474, p-value = 0.0001), shortness of breath (AOR = 0.354, 95% CI = 0.213, 0.590, p-value = 0.0001) and diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.549, 95% CI = 0.337, 0.894, p-value = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: The average duration of time to clinical recovery was 14 days and 89.4% of the patients achieved clinical recovery. The mortality rate of the studied population is lower than reports from other countries including those in Africa. Having severe COVID-19 disease severity and presenting with cough were found to be associated with delayed clinical recovery of the disease. On the other hand, being hyperthermic is associated with shorter disease duration (faster time to clinical recovery). In addition, lower oxygen saturation, subjective complaint of shortness of breath and being diabetic were associated with unfavorable disease outcome. Therefore, patients with these factors should be followed cautiously for a better outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259514, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502075

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Famotidine is a competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist most commonly used for gastric acid suppression but thought to have potential efficacy in treating patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to summarize the current literature and report clinical outcomes on the use of famotidine for treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Five databases were searched through February 12, 2021 to identify observational studies that reported on associations of famotidine use with outcomes in COVID-19. Meta-analysis was conducted for composite primary clinical outcome (e.g. rate of death, intubation, or intensive care unit admissions) and death separately, where either aggregate odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) was calculated. RESULTS: Four studies, reporting on 46,435 total patients and 3,110 patients treated with famotidine, were included in this meta-analysis. There was no significant association between famotidine use and composite outcomes in patients with COVID-19: HR 0.63 (95% CI: 0.35, 1.16). Across the three studies that reported mortality separated from other endpoints, there was no association between famotidine use during hospitalization and risk of death-HR 0.67 (95% CI: 0.26, 1.73) and OR 0.79 (95% CI: 0.19, 3.34). Heterogeneity ranged from 83.69% to 88.07%. CONCLUSION: Based on the existing observational studies, famotidine use is not associated with a reduced risk of mortality or combined outcome of mortality, intubation, and/or intensive care services in hospitalized individuals with COVID-19, though heterogeneity was high, and point estimates suggested a possible protective effect for the composite outcome that may not have been observed due to lack of power. Further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may help determine the efficacy and safety of famotidine as a treatment for COVID-19 patients in various care settings of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Adult , Aged , Data Management , Female , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27400, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To depict the clinical characters and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 patients who developed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).A cohort consisted of 526 patients, which including 109 patients complicated MODS, was retrospectively analyzed to examine the clinical characteristics and risk factors of MODS.Among the 526 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia patients, 109 patients developed multiple organ failure, the incidence rate was 20.7%. Among all 109 patients with MODS, 81.7% were over 60 years old, and 63.3% were male. The most common symptoms were fever (79.8%), dyspnea (73.4%), and fatigue (55.0%). Compared with patients non-MODS patients, there were 70 cases of MODS patients with one or more underlying diseases (64.2% vs 41.0%, P < .001). Respiratory failure (92.7%), circulatory failure (52.0%), and liver function injury (30.9%) were the most common symptoms within the spectrum of MODS. Invasive ventilator, noninvasive ventilator, and high-flow respiratory support treatment for patients in MODS patients were higher than those in the non-MODS group (P < .001). The antiviral therapy and 2 or more antibacterial drug treatments in MODS patients were higher than those in the non-MODS group (P < .001). The median hospital stay of all patients was 16 days (interquartile range [IQR], 9-26), of which 20 days (IQR, 11.5-30.5) in the MODS patients, which was approximately 4 days longer than that of non-MODS patients. In addition, our data suggested that lymphocyte counts <1.0 ∗ 109/L, Troponin T > 0.014 ng/mL and lower oxygenation index were risk factors for MODS. In the early stage of hospital admission, higher inflammatory indexes and lactic acid concentration were associated with increased risk of death.MODS often leads to poor prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019. Our data suggested the importance of early identification of MODS. We recommend close monitoring and timely supportive therapy for patients with high risks, stopping the disease progression before it was too late.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(4): 333-338, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Decision-making on allocating scarce medical resources is crucial in the context of a strong health system reaction to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Therefore, understanding the risk factors related to a high mortality rate can enable the physicians for a better decision-making process. METHODS: Information was collected regarding clinical, demographic, and epidemiological features of the definite COVID-19 cases. Through Cox regression and statistical analysis, the risk factors related to mortality were determined. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival function and measure the mean length of living time in the patients. RESULTS: Among about 3000 patients admitted in the Taleghani hospital as outpatients with suspicious signs and symptoms of COVID-19 in 2 months, 214 people were confirmed positive for this virus using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Median time to death was 30 days. In this population, 24.29% of the patients died and 24.76% of them were admitted to the ICU (intensive care unit) during hospitalization. The results of Multivariate Cox regression Analysis showed that factors including age (HR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.001-1.062; P value=0.04), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (HR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.000-1.015; P value=0.04) could independently predict mortality. Furthermore, the results showed that age above 59 years directly increased mortality rate and decreased survival among our study population. CONCLUSION: Predictor factors play an important role in decisions on public health policy-making. Our findings suggested that advanced age and CRP were independent mortality rate predictors in the admitted patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259061, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496526

ABSTRACT

Effective, low-cost therapeutics are needed to prevent and treat COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 disease is linked to excessive inflammation. Disulfiram is an approved oral drug used to treat alcohol use disorder that is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and an inhibitor of the viral proteases. We investigated the potential effects of disulfiram on SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity in an observational study using a large database of clinical records from the national US Veterans Affairs healthcare system. A multivariable Cox regression adjusted for demographic information and diagnosis of alcohol use disorder revealed a reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection with disulfiram use at a hazard ratio of 0.66 (34% lower risk, 95% confidence interval 24-43%). There were no COVID-19 related deaths among the 188 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients treated with disulfiram, in contrast to 5-6 statistically expected deaths based on the untreated population (P = 0.03). Our epidemiological results suggest that disulfiram may contribute to the reduced incidence and severity of COVID-19. These results support carefully planned clinical trials to assess the potential therapeutic effects of disulfiram in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Disulfiram/therapeutic use , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Disulfiram/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Veterans
19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(9): 1024-1034, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495777

ABSTRACT

Rationale: ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), the entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is expressed in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AT2) that may play key roles in postinjury repair. An imbalance between ACE2 and ACE has also been hypothesized to contribute to lung injury. Objectives: To characterize the expression and distribution of ACE2 and ACE and to compare AT2 with endothelial cell expression in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related or -unrelated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and controls. Methods: Lung tissue stainings (using multiplex immunofluorescence) and serum concentrations of ACEs were determined retrospectively in two different cohorts of patients. AT2 and endothelial cells were stained in lung tissue for ProSPC (pro-surfactant protein C) and CD31, respectively. Measurements and Main Results: Pulmonary ACE2 expression was increased in patients with COVID-19-related and -unrelated ARDS (0.06% of tissue area and 0.12% vs. 0.006% for control subjects; P = 0.013 and P < 0.0001, respectively). ACE2 was upregulated in endothelial cells (0.32% and 0.53% vs. 0.01%; P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001) but not in AT2 cells (0.13% and 0.08% vs. 0.03%; P = 0.94 and P = 0.44). Pulmonary expression of ACE was decreased in both COVID-19-related and -unrelated ARDS (P = 0.057 and P = 0.032). Similar increases in ACE2 and decreases in ACE were observed in sera of COVID-19 (P = 0.0054 and P < 0.0001) and non-COVID-19 ARDS (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.016). In addition, AT2 cells were decreased in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS compared with COVID-19-unrelated ARDS (1.395% vs. 2.94%, P = 0.0033). Conclusions: ACE2 is upregulated in lung tissue and serum of both COVID-19-related and -unrelated ARDS, whereas a loss of AT2 cells is selectively observed in COVID-19-related ARDS.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20964, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483147

ABSTRACT

Multicentre, retrospective cohort study with multivariable Cox proportional-hazards modelling and survival-time inverse-probability-weighting, evaluating the impact of different treatments on survival of proven COVID-19 patients admitted to two Hospitals in the province of Piacenza, Italy. Use of tocilizumab and of high doses of low molecular weight heparin, but not of antivirals (either alone or in combination), azithromycin, and any corticosteroid, was independently associated with lower mortality. Our results support further clinical evaluation of high doses of low molecular weight heparin and tocilizumab as COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heparin/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Probability , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...