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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(19)2020 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-869025

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, recently has dominated people's lifestyle. The impact of COVID-19 seems to be relevant to the sexual health as well. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on two occasions involving 764 female patients between March and April 2020-before and during the time of social quarantine. The sexual function was assessed using the Polish version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Every patient filled out the survey concerning socio-demographic characteristics as well as the influence of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on their lives. RESULTS: The overall FSFI score before the pandemic was 30.1 ± 4.4 and changed to 25.8 ± 9.7 during it. Scores of every domain: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain decreased as well (p < 0.001). There was statistically significant association between the workplace and the change of FSFI scores before and during COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.01). We noticed the biggest decrease in FSFI score in the group of women who did not work at all (5.2 ± 9.9). Religion had a statistically important impact on level of anxiety (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The main finding of our study was the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of sexual lifestyle and frequency of intercourse among Polish women.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Sexual Health , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Poland , Prospective Studies , Workplace
2.
Air Med J ; 39(5): 404-409, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866388

ABSTRACT

Objective: There is a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients transported by the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) for confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and to investigate the surge capacity of and operational implications for the RFDS in dealing with COVID-19. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. To determine the characteristics of patients transported for confirmed or suspected COVID-19, we included patient data from February 2, 2020, to May 6, 2020. To investigate the surge capacity and operational implications for the RFDS in dealing with COVID-19, we built and validated an interactive operations area-level discrete event simulation decision support model underpinned by RFDS air medical activity data from 2015 to 2019 (4 years). This model was subsequently used in a factorial in silico experiment to systematically investigate both the supply of RFDS air medical services and the increased rates of demand for these services for diseases of the respiratory system. Results: The RFDS conducted 291 patient episodes of care for confirmed or suspected COVID-19. This included 288 separate patients, including 136 men and 119 women (sex missing = 33), with a median age of 62.0 years (interquartile range, 43.5-74.9 years). The simulation decision support model we developed is capable of providing dynamic and real-time support for RFDS decision makers in understanding the system's performance under uncertain COVID-19 demand. With increased COVID-19-related demand, the ability of the RFDS to cope will be driven by the number of aircraft available. The simulation model provided each aviation section with estimated numbers of aircraft required to meet a range of anticipated demands. Conclusion: Despite the lack of certainty in the actual level of COVID-19-related demand for RFDS services, modeling demonstrates that the robustness of meeting such demand increases with the number of operational and medically staffed aircraft.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/statistics & numerical data , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surge Capacity , Adult , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21915, 2020 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-862622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with common mental health problems. However, evidence for the association between fear of COVID-19 and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine if fear of negative events affects Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores in the context of a COVID-19-fear-invoking environment. METHODS: All participants were medical university students and voluntarily completed three surveys via smartphone or computer. Survey 1 was conducted on February 8, 2020, following a 2-week-long quarantine period without classes; survey 2 was conducted on March 25, 2020, when participants had been taking online courses for 2 weeks; and survey 3 was conducted on April 28, 2020, when no new cases had been reported for 2 weeks. The surveys comprised the Y-BOCS and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS); additional items included questions on demographics (age, gender, only child vs siblings, enrollment year, major), knowledge of COVID-19, and level of fear pertaining to COVID-19. RESULTS: In survey 1, 11.3% of participants (1519/13,478) scored ≥16 on the Y-BOCS (defined as possible OCD). In surveys 2 and 3, 3.6% (305/8162) and 3.5% (305/8511) of participants had scores indicative of possible OCD, respectively. The Y-BOCS score, anxiety level, quarantine level, and intensity of fear were significantly lower at surveys 2 and 3 than at survey 1 (P<.001 for all). Compared to those with a lower Y-BOCS score (<16), participants with possible OCD expressed greater intensity of fear and had higher SAS standard scores (P<.001). The regression linear analysis indicated that intensity of fear was positively correlated to the rate of possible OCD and the average total scores for the Y-BOCS in each survey (P<.001 for all). Multiple regressions showed that those with a higher intensity of fear, a higher anxiety level, of male gender, with sibling(s), and majoring in a nonmedicine discipline had a greater chance of having a higher Y-BOCS score in all surveys. These results were redemonstrated in the 5827 participants who completed both surveys 1 and 2 and in the 4006 participants who completed all three surveys. Furthermore, in matched participants, the Y-BOCS score was negatively correlated to changes in intensity of fear (r=0.74 for survey 2, P<.001; r=0.63 for survey 3, P=.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that fear of COVID-19 was associated with a greater Y-BOCS score, suggesting that an environment (COVID-19 pandemic) × psychology (fear and/or anxiety) interaction might be involved in OCD and that a fear of negative events might play a role in the etiology of OCD.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Surveys , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Young Adult
5.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 605, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation in COVID-19 often leads to multiple organ failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). Renal replacement therapy (RRT) in combination with sequential extracorporeal blood purification therapies (EBP) might support renal function, attenuate systemic inflammation, and prevent or mitigate multiple organ dysfunctions in COVID-19. AIM: Describe overtime variations of clinical and biochemical features of critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated with EBP with a hemodiafilter characterized by enhanced cytokine adsorption properties. METHODS: An observational prospective study assessing the outcome of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU (February to April 2020) treated with EBP according to local practice. Main endpoints included overtime variation of IL-6 and multiorgan function-scores, mortality, and occurrence of technical complications or adverse events. RESULTS: The study evaluated 37 patients. Median baseline IL-6 was 1230 pg/ml (IQR 895) and decreased overtime (p < 0.001 Kruskal-Wallis test) during the first 72 h of the treatment, with the most significant decrease in the first 24 h (p = 0.001). The reduction in serum IL-6 concentrations correlated with the improvement in organ function, as measured in the decrease of SOFA score (rho = 0.48, p = 0.0003). Median baseline SOFA was 13 (IQR 6) and decreased significantly overtime (p < 0.001 at Kruskal-Wallis test) during the first 72 h of the treatment, with the most significant decrease in the first 48 h (median 8 IQR 5, p = 0.001). Compared to the expected mortality rates, as calculated by APACHE IV, the mean observed rates were 8.3% lower after treatment. The best improvement in mortality rate was observed in patients receiving EBP early on during the ICU stay. Premature clotting (running < 24 h) occurred in patients (18.9% of total) which featured higher effluent dose (median 33.6 ml/kg/h, IQR 9) and higher filtration fraction (median 31%, IQR 7.4). No electrolyte disorders, catheter displacement, circuit disconnection, unexpected bleeding, air, or thromboembolisms due to venous cannulation of EBP were recorded during the treatment. In one case, infection of vascular access occurred during RRT, requiring replacement. CONCLUSIONS: EBP with heparin-coated hemodiafilter featuring cytokine adsorption properties administered to patients with COVID-19 showed to be feasible and with no adverse events. During the treatment, patients experienced serum IL-6 level reduction, attenuation of systemic inflammation, multiorgan dysfunction improvement, and reduction in expected ICU mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Hemodiafiltration/instrumentation , Hemodiafiltration/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e044566, 2020 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse enrolment to interventional trials during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England and describe the barriers to successful recruitment in the circumstance of a further wave or future pandemics. DESIGN: We analysed registered interventional COVID-19 trial data and concurrently did a prospective observational study of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who were being assessed for eligibility to one of the RECOVERY, C19-ACS or SIMPLE trials. SETTING: Interventional COVID-19 trial data were analysed from the clinicaltrials.gov and International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number databases on 12 July 2020. The patient cohort was taken from five centres in a respiratory National Institute for Health Research network. Population and modelling data were taken from published reports from the UK government and Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit. PARTICIPANTS: 2082 consecutive admitted patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 27 March 2020 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions enrolled, and reasons for exclusion from the aforementioned trials. Comparisons of trial recruitment targets with estimated feasible recruitment numbers. RESULTS: Analysis of trial registration data for COVID-19 treatment studies enrolling in England showed that by 12 July 2020, 29 142 participants were needed. In the observational study, 430 (20.7%) proceeded to randomisation. 82 (3.9%) declined participation, 699 (33.6%) were excluded on clinical grounds, 363 (17.4%) were medically fit for discharge and 153 (7.3%) were receiving palliative care. With 111 037 people hospitalised with COVID-19 in England by 12 July 2020, we determine that 22 985 people were potentially suitable for trial enrolment. We estimate a UK hospitalisation rate of 2.38%, and that another 1.25 million infections would be required to meet recruitment targets of ongoing trials. CONCLUSIONS: Feasible recruitment rates, study design and proliferation of trials can limit the number, and size, that will successfully complete recruitment. We consider that fewer, more appropriately designed trials, prioritising cooperation between centres would maximise productivity in a further wave.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Eligibility Determination , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Registries/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(2): 481-487, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829145

ABSTRACT

The rapid progression of corona virus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become an unprecedented global concern. This systemic review aimed at evaluating the available evidence on efficacy, safety to identify any promising role for compassionate use of remdesivir in patient suffered for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) as re-purposeful use. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective case series studies and case reports that evaluated use of remdesivir in COVID-19. The outcomes were mortality, recovery rate, length of hospital stay and clinical outcome. Though the drug remdesivir (RDV) is not approved by the FDA, still the "Emergency Use Authorization" (EUA) for compassionate use in severe cases is endorsed. After vigorous searching, screening and sorting of completed and published scientific evidences in electronic database, there were only 2 randomized control trial (RCT), 2 uncontrolled trials found until April 2020. We also included 3 published case reports to analyze the validity use of RDV because of the scarcity of evidence based reports. Remdesivir was thought to be one of the promising options for treating the patients of COVID-19 based on few laboratory experiments and reports from some compassionate use and case reports. The safety and efficacy of this drug in COVID-19 cases require high-quality evidence from well-designed and adequately-powered clinical trials with proper sample size for precise decision.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28358, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the burden of influenza and seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). METHODS: We used a prospectively collected clinical registry of SCD patients 6 months to 21 years of age to determine the influenza cases per 100 patient-years, vaccination rates, and a test-negative case-control study design to estimate influenza VE against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. Influenza-positive cases were randomly matched to test-negative controls on age and influenza season in 1:1 ratio. We used adjusted logistic regression models to compare odds ratio (OR) of vaccination in cases to controls. We calculated VE as [100% × (1 - adjusted OR)] and computed 95% confidence intervals (CIs) around the estimate. RESULTS: There were 1037 children with SCD who were tested for influenza, 307 children (29.6%) had at least one influenza infection (338 infections, incidence rate 3.7 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 3.4-4.1) and 56.2% of those tested received annual influenza vaccine. Overall VE pooled over five seasons was 22.3% (95% CI, -7.3% to 43.7%). Adjusted VE estimates ranged from 39.7% (95% CI, -70.1% to 78.6%) in 2015/2016 to -5.9% (95% CI, -88.4% to 40.4%) in the 2016/17 seasons. Influenza VE varied by age and was highest in children 1-5 years of age (66.6%; 95% CI, 30.3-84.0). Adjusted VE against acute chest syndrome during influenza infection was 39.4% (95% CI, -113.0 to 82.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza VE in patients with SCD varies by season and age. Multicenter prospective studies are needed to better establish and monitor influenza VE among children with SCD.


Subject(s)
Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Prospective Studies
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 74-83, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to describe the etiological profile and clinical characteristics of pneumonia among children hospitalized in Thimphu, Bhutan. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled children aged 2-59 months admitted to the Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined clinical pneumonia. Demographic and clinico-radiological data were collected through questionnaires, physical examination, and chest radiography. Blood samples and nasopharyngeal washing were collected for microbiological analysis including culture and molecular methods. RESULTS: From July 2017 to June 2018, 189 children were enrolled, of which 53.4% were infants. Pneumonia-related admissions were less frequent over the winter. Chest radiographies were obtained in 149 children; endpoints included pneumonia in 39 cases (26.2%), other infiltrates in 31 (20.8%), and were normal in 79 children (53.0%). Non-contaminated bacterial growth was detected in 8/152 (5.3%) blood cultures, with only two cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Viral detection in upper respiratory secretions was common, with at least one virus detected in 103/115 (89.6%). The three most-commonly isolated viruses were respiratory syncytial virus (52/115; 45.2%), rhinovirus (42/115; 36.5%), and human parainfluenza virus (19/115; 16.5%). A third of patients with viral infections showed mixed infections. Case fatality rate was 3.2% (6/189). CONCLUSION: Respiratory viral infections predominated among this cohort of WHO-defined clinical pneumonia cases, whereas bacterial aetiologies were uncommon, highlighting the epidemiologic transition that Bhutan seems to have reached.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bhutan/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 257, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814265

ABSTRACT

Since asymptomatic infections as "covert transmitter", and some patients can progress rapidly in the short term, it is essential to pay attention to the diagnosis and surveillance of asymptomatic patients with SARS-COV2 infection. CT scan has great value in screening and detecting patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the highly suspected or probable asymptomatic cases with negative RT-PCR for SARS-COV2. This study aimed to detect incidentally COVID-19 pneumonia on medical imaging for patients consulting for other reasons.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , Brain Injuries/complications , Chest Pain/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidental Findings , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tunisia/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(8): 812-816, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Guidance aiming at limiting the entry and spread of the COVID-19 have been widely communicated to Long-term Care Facilities (LTCFs). However, no clinical research has investigated their relevance. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the guidance applied for the prevention of the COVID-19 epidemic between the LTCFs having been contaminated by COVID-19 and LTCFs having not been contaminated. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent and systematically accompanied by phone call to the 132 LTCFs of Haute-Garonne (Occitania region, South-West of France). The questionnaire focused on the preventive measures implemented before March 23, 2020 (first LTCFs contaminated in this area). The questionnaire focused on physician support, implementation of usual guidance (eg, masks, hydro-alcoholic solute used), training on hygiene, containment in residents' rooms and other distancing measures, use of temporary workers, compartmentalization within zones of residents and staff and a self-assessment analogic scale on the quality of the application of the preventive measures. We compared implementation of the guidance between the LTCFs with at least one case of COVID-19 among residents and/or health care professionals and LTCFs without COVID-19 case (between March 23rd and May 6th). RESULTS: 124 LTCFs participated (93.9%). 30 LTCFs (24.19%) were contaminated with COVID-19. Large heterogeneity of the application of the guidance was observed. Public LTCFs (OR= 0.39 (0.20-0.73), LTCFs which organized staff compartmentalization within zones (OR= 0.19 (0.07-0.48)), and LTCF with a staff who self-assessed a higher quality implementation of the preventive measures (OR= 0.65 (0.43-0.98)) were significantly more likely to avoid contamination by the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the relevance of guidance to prevent the entry of COVID-19, in particular the staff compartmentalization within zones, as well as the perception of the staff regarding the quality of implementation of those measures in LTCFs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Facility Administration/methods , Long-Term Care/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Primary Prevention/methods , Betacoronavirus , France , Health Facilities , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239646, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793642

ABSTRACT

The study aims to determine the level of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) related to COVID-19 preventive health habits and perception of fear towards COVID-19 in subjects living in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional survey of (n = 2157) male and female subjects, 13-88 years of age, living in Bangladesh. METHODS: Ethical approval and trial registration were obtained before the commencement of the study. Subjects who volunteered to participate and signed the informed consent were enrolled in the study and completed the structured questionnaire on KAP and Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S). RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent (28.69%) of subjects reported one or more COVID-19 symptoms, and 21.4% of subjects reported one or more co-morbidities. Knowledge scores were slightly higher in males (8.75± 1.58) than females (8.66± 1.70). Knowledge was significantly correlated with age (p < .005), an education level (p < .001), attitude (p < .001), and urban location (p < .001). Knowledge scores showed an inverse correlation with fear scores (p < .001). Eighty-three percent (83.7%) of subjects with COVID-19 symptoms reported wearing a mask in public, and 75.4% of subjects reported staying away from crowded places. Subjects with one or more symptoms reported higher fear compared to subjects without (18.73± 4.6; 18.45± 5.1). CONCLUSION: Bangladeshis reported a high prevalence of self-isolation, positive preventive health behaviors related to COVID-19, and moderate to high fear levels. Higher knowledge and Practice were found in males, higher education levels, older age, and urban location. Fear of COVID-19 was more prevalent in female and elderly subjects. A positive attitude was reported for the majority of subjects, reflecting the belief that COVID-19 was controllable and containable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fear , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239573, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793324

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 has caused a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). High-density lipoproteins (HDLs), particles chiefly known for their reverse cholesterol transport function, also display pleiotropic properties, including anti-inflammatory or antioxidant functions. HDLs and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) can neutralize lipopolysaccharides and increase bacterial clearance. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decrease during bacterial sepsis, and an association has been reported between low lipoprotein levels and poor patient outcomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the lipoprotein profiles of severe ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia and to assess their changes during bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) superinfection. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a university hospital ICU. All consecutive patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia were included. Lipoprotein levels were assessed at admission and daily thereafter. The assessed outcomes were survival at 28 days and the incidence of VAP. RESULTS: A total of 48 patients were included. Upon admission, lipoprotein concentrations were low, typically under the reference values ([HDL-C] = 0.7[0.5-0.9] mmol/L; [LDL-C] = 1.8[1.3-2.3] mmol/L). A statistically significant increase in HDL-C and LDL-C over time during the ICU stay was found. There was no relationship between HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations and mortality on day 28 (log-rank p = 0.554 and p = 0.083, respectively). A comparison of alive and dead patients on day 28 did not reveal any differences in HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations over time. Bacterial VAP was frequent (64%). An association was observed between HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations on the day of the first VAP diagnosis and mortality ([HDL-C] = 0.6[0.5-0.9] mmol/L in survivors vs. [HDL-C] = 0.5[0.3-0.6] mmol/L in nonsurvivors, p = 0.036; [LDL-C] = 2.2[1.9-3.0] mmol/L in survivors vs. [LDL-C] = 1.3[0.9-2.0] mmol/L in nonsurvivors, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations upon ICU admission are low in severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients but are not associated with poor outcomes. However, low lipoprotein concentrations in the case of bacterial superinfection during ICU hospitalization are associated with mortality, which reinforces the potential role of these particles during bacterial sepsis.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Bacterial/blood , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Superinfection/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , France , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/mortality , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prospective Studies
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