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1.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 16(4): 955-961, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization of persons with diabetes in an inpatient diabetes unit is challenging, notably for patients having different profiles. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and the benefit of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) telemetry system to control glucose excursions in hospitalized patients with diabetes, according to their diabetes type and the reasons for their hospitalization. METHOD: A prospective pilot study was conducted in 53 insulin-requiring diabetes patients hospitalized in the general ward. Glucose was monitored using Guardian Connect (GC, Medtronic) to adopt insulin therapy. The time in range (TIR, target 70-180 mg/dL), the time below range (TBR), and the time above range (TAR) were recorded by GC between the start of hospitalization (SH) and end of hospitalization (EH), and analyzed according to the diabetes type (type 1 diabetes n = 28, type 2 diabetes n = 25) and the reasons for hospitalization (acute complications n = 35, therapeutic education n = 18). Patient and caregiver satisfaction was also assessed. RESULTS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and those hospitalized for acute complications, TIR significantly increased between the SH and EH, from 75.7% (95%CI 48.5-84.6) to 82.2% (95%CI 63.2-91.8) P = 0.043 and from 58.3% (95%CI 46.3-69.7) to 66.4% (95%CI 55.6-75.5) P = 0.031, respectively, and TAR significantly decreased, with no change in TBR. In patients with diabetes hospitalized for therapeutic education, TBR significantly decreased from 3.4% (95%CI 0-9.4) to 0% (95%CI 0-3.8) P = 0.037. Finally, 94% of patients and caregivers deemed the GC system useful. CONCLUSIONS: CGM telemetry system use is feasible and well accepted in patients hospitalized in diabetes care unit and could be useful to improve therapeutic education and metabolic control, especially for specific homogenous populations with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Inpatients , Insulin/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Telemetry
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25951, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191012

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During outbreaks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries adopted quarantine to slow the spread of the virus of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quarantine will cause isolation from families, friends, and the public, which consequently leads to serious psychological pressure with potentially long-lasting effects on the quarantined population. Experience of specific practices to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population was limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of mandatory quarantine, and evaluate the effect of psychological intervention on the quarantined population.We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess and manage the psychological status of a mandatory quarantined population in Beijing, China. A total of 638 individuals completed 2 questionnaires and were enrolled in this study, of which 372 participants accepted designed psychological intervention while other 266 participants refused it. The SCL-90 questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychological status and its change before and after the intervention. The differences of SCL-90 factor scores between participants and the national norm group were assessed by 2 samples t test. While the SCL-90 factor scores before and after intervention were compared with 2 paired samples t test.Compared with the Chinese norms of SCL-90, the participants had higher SCL-90 factor scores in most items of the SCL-90 inventory. The SCL-90 factor scores of participants with psychological intervention significantly decreased in somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. In contrast, most factor scores of the SCL-90 inventory changed little without statistical significance in participants without psychological intervention.Psychological problems should be emphasized in the quarantined individuals and professional psychological intervention was a feasible approach to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population in the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 68(4): 111-116, 2022 Apr 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a disease that has a negative systemic effect on the human body, including the male gonads. Therefore, the androgenic status in men with COVID-19 needs to be studied. AIM: To evaluate the levels of total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and free testosterone in men in the acute phase of COVID-19 and during convalescence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A continuous dynamic prospective study of 70 men with moderate to severe COVID-19 at the age of 50[44; 64] years. During the study, the levels of total testosterone, SHBG were determined with further calculation of the level of free testosterone by Vermeullen. The data were collected twice - at the patient's hospitalization and at his discharge. The differences between the groups were considered statistically significant at p <0.05. RESULTS: At the time of hospitalization for COVID-19, hypogonadism syndrome was observed in 61 people - 87%. Patients with hypogonadism did not statistically significant differ in age and severity of COVID-19 disease compared to men without hypogonadism. Inpatient treatment lasting 12[10;14] days resulted in a statistically significant increase in the levels of total testosterone from 4,7[2,96;8,48] to 12,85[8,62;19,2] nmol/l, p<0,001; SHBG from 27,87[20,78;36,57] to 33,76[26,27;52,60] nmol/l, p<0,001 and free testosterone from 107[65;174] to 235[162;337] pmol/l, p<0,001. This led to the elimination of hypogonadism in 28 patients - 40%. Patients with persistent hypogonadism were statistically significantly older than men with normalized testosterone, there were no statistically significant differences in the initial levels of total testosterone, SHBG and free testosterone, and there were also no differences in the prevalence of severe COVID-19 (3,97[2,86;7,46] vs 4,26[2,93;5,96] nmol/l, p=0,100; 28,76[20,78;48,59] vs 24,63[18,85;31,70] nmol/l, р=0,994; 100[58;118] vs 96[64;143] pmol/l, p=0,522; 24 против 18%, p=0,754, respectively). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has a pronounced negative effect on the production of testosterone in men, leading to the development of laboratoric hypogonadism, which is potentially reversible. The reversibility of laboratoric hypogonadism is typical for younger patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypogonadism , Androgens , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hypogonadism/complications , Hypogonadism/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Testosterone
4.
J Perinat Med ; 50(6): 653-659, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Data collected worldwide on stillbirth (SB) rates during the Covid-19 pandemic are contradictory. Variations may be due to methodological differences or population characteristics. The aim of the study is to assess the changes in SB rate, risk factors, causes of death and quality of antenatal care during the pandemic compared to the control periods. METHODS: This prospective study is based on the information collected by the Emilia-Romagna Surveillance system database. We conducted a descriptive analysis of SB rate, risk factors, causes of death and quality of cares, comparing data of the pandemic (March 2020-June 2021) with the 16 months before. RESULTS: During the pandemic, the SB rate was 3.45/1,000 births, a value in line with the rates of previous control periods. Neonatal weight >90th centile was the only risk factor for SB that significantly changed during the pandemic (2.2% vs. 8.0%; p-value: 0.024). No significant differences were found in the distribution of the causes of death groups. Concerning quality of antenatal cares, cases evaluated with suboptimal care (5.2%) did not change significantly compared to the control period (12.0%), as well as the cases with less than recommended obstetric (12.6% vs. 14%) and ultrasound evaluations (0% vs. 2.7%). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, no significant differences in SB rates were found in an area that maintained an adequate level of antenatal care. Thus, eventual associations between SB rate and the COVID-19 infection are explained by an indirect impact of the virus, rather than its direct effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stillbirth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Prospective Studies , Stillbirth/epidemiology
5.
CMAJ ; 194(46): E1578-E1586, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197233

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: La forme grave de COVID-19 semble affecter de manière disproportionnée les gens immunovulnérables, même si les données canadiennes dans ce contexte sont limitées. Nous avons voulu déterminer quels facteurs sont associés aux paramètres de la forme grave de COVID-19 chez les receveurs de transplantations au Canada. MÉTHODES: Nous avons procédé à une étude de cohorte multicentrique prospective regroupant tous les receveurs d'une transplantation d'organe plein ayant reçu un diagnostic de COVID-19 suivis dans 9 programmes de transplantation au Canada entre mars 2020 et novembre 2021. Les données ont été analysées afin de dégager les facteurs de risque à l'égard du recours à l'oxygénothérapie et autres critères de la gravité de la maladie. Nous avons comparé les paramètres selon le type d'organe transplanté et suivi l'évolution des paramètres au fil du temps. Nous avons procédé à une analyse multivariée pour déterminer quelles variables sont associées au recours à l'oxygénothérapie. RÉSULTATS: En tout, 509 patients ayant reçu une transplantation d'organe plein ont contracté la COVID-19 durant la période de l'étude. Les facteurs de risque associés au recours à l'oxygénothérapie (n = 190) ou non (n = 319) incluaient l'âge (âge médian 62,6 ans, intervalle interquartile [II] 52,5­69,5 ans c. âge médian 55,5 ans, II 47,5­66,5; p < 0,001) et le nombre de comorbidités (nombre médian 3, II 2­3 c. nombre médian 2, II 1­3; p < 0,001), de même que les paramètres concernant l'immunosuppression. Les receveurs d'une transplantation pulmonaire (n = 48) étaient plus susceptibles de souffrir d'une forme grave de la maladie, avec un taux de mortalité élevé (n = 15, 31,3 %) comparativement aux receveurs d'autres organes, y compris le rein (n = 48, 14,8 %), le cœur (n = 1, 4,4 %), le foie (n = 9, 11,4 %) et le rein­pancréas (n = 3, 12,0 %) (p = 0,02). Les facteurs protecteurs contre le recours à l'oxygénothérapie incluaient le fait d'avoir subi une transplantation hépatique et de recevoir de l'azathioprine. Le fait d'avoir reçu 2 doses de vaccin anti-SRAS-CoV-2 n'a pas eu d'influence appréciable sur le recours à l'oxygénothérapie. L'analyse multivariée a montré que l'âge avancé (rapport des cotes [RC] 1,04, intervalle de confiance [IC] de 95 % 1,02­1,07) et le nombre de comorbidités (RC 1,63, IC de 95 % 1,30­2,04), entre autres facteurs, étaient associés au recours à l'oxygénothérapie. La gravité de la maladie n'a pas considérablement diminué au fil du temps. INTERPRÉTATION : Malgré les progrès thérapeutiques et la vaccination des receveurs d'une transplantation d'organe plein, les signes de gravité accrue de la COVID-19, en particulier chez les receveurs d'une transplantation pulmonaire, justifient le maintien des mesures de santé publique pour protéger ces personnes à risque, et l'utilisation hâtive de traitements contre la COVID-19 chez les receveurs d'une transplantation d'organe plein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Prospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Canada
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The adalimumab biosimilars FKB327 and GP2017 were approved for the therapy of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Relatively few prospective studies with biosimilar adalimumab in patients with IBD have been published. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the biosimilar adalimumab. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adalimumab biosimilars FKB327 (Hulio®) and GP2017 (Hyrimoz®) were indicated to 50 naive patients in terms of biological therapy with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Effectiveness of therapy was evaluated via the Crohn's Disease Activity Index [CDAI] or the Mayo Scoring System [MSS] in patients with CD or UC, respectively, before and after 12 weeks. Additional goals were to evaluate weight changes, laboratory tests and complications or adverse events of this therapy. RESULTS: In CD patients, remission (CDAI <150) was achieved in 73.5% of cases, partial response (≥70-point decrease in CDAI score from baseline) in 11.8%, no response in 11.8% and 2.9% patients discontinued therapy. In UC patients, remission (total score on partial Mayo index ≤2 points) was achieved only in 18.8% of cases, partial response (≥2-point decrease in partial Mayo score from baseline) in 43.8%, no response in 25.0% and 12.5% patients discontinued therapy. There were statistically significant improvements in CDAI, MSS, haemoglobin, fecal calprotectin, albumin and CRP serum levels after 12 weeks of therapy. Seven adverse events were identified, three of which resulted in therapy being discontinued. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective observational study proved the effectiveness of the adalimumab biosimilars FKB327 and GP2017 in IBD.


Subject(s)
Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adalimumab/adverse effects , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Remission Induction , Treatment Outcome
7.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1003979, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. In this study we set out to investigate, for the vaccines currently approved in the Netherlands, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in PLWH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH without prior COVID-19, and compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response, and reactogenicity. Between 14 February and 7 September 2021, 1,154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60] years, 85.5% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53] years, 28.6% male) were included in the final analysis. Of the PLWH, 884 received BNT162b2, 100 received mRNA-1273, 150 received ChAdOx1-S, and 20 received Ad26.COV2.S. In the group of PLWH, 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 97.7% were virally suppressed, and the median CD4+ T-cell count was 710 cells/µL (IQR 520-913). Of the controls, 247 received mRNA-1273, 94 received BNT162b2, 26 received ChAdOx1-S, and 73 received Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean antibody concentration was 1,418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95% CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95% CI 0.508-0.725, p < 0.001). All controls receiving an mRNA vaccine had an adequate response, defined as >300 BAU/mL, whilst in PLWH this response rate was 93.6%. In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+ T-cell count 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95% CI 1.876-4.314, p < 0.001) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95% CI 1.961-4.394, p < 0.001), whilst a viral load > 50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95% CI 0.286-0.720, p = 0.001). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+ T-cell, and CD8+ T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation-induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild, without vaccine-related serious adverse events. Due to the control of vaccine provision by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, there were some differences between vaccine groups in the age, sex, and CD4+ T-cell counts of recipients. CONCLUSIONS: After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH compared to HIV-negative controls. To reach and maintain the same serological responses as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL9214). https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9214.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 753, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus infectious pandemic makes outdoors rehabilitation a potential hazard. Patient education to perform simple home-based exercises seems to be an interesting and sometimes a mandatory option. This study provides a comparison between the conventional and home-based virtual rehabilitation after surgical repair of medial meniscus root tears. METHODS: In this prospective study, all patients who underwent medial meniscus posterior root repair with a modified trans-tibial pull-out technique from March 2019 to March 2021 were evaluated. Those who underwent surgery after December 2019 were trained to perform self-rehabilitation. The rest had undergone outdoors specialized rehabilitation according to a unified protocol and these were used as a historical control group. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 year after surgery. Final Lysholm scores were utilized to compare functional outcomes after considering the effect of age, body mass index and time from surgery by multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Forty-three consecutive patients with medial meniscal root tears were studied. Thirty-nine (90.7%) were women and 4 (9.3%) were men. The mean age of participants was 53.2 ± 8.1 years. The total Lysholm knee score, and all its items were significantly improved in both groups at a two-year follow-up (p < 0.05), except the "Using cane or crutches" item (p = 0.065). Nevertheless, the final Lysholm knee score improvement was higher in patients who performed outdoors specialized rehabilitation and in patients with shorter time-to-surgery. CONCLUSION: Regardless of age and gender, home-based rehabilitation after meniscal root repair with the modified trans-tibial pull-out technique improved the patients' function at a two-year follow-up. Nonetheless, this effect was still significantly lower than that of the outdoors specialized rehabilitation. Future work is required to clarify basic protocols for home-based tele-rehabilitation programs and determine clinical, radiological and functional results. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic, historically controlled study.


Subject(s)
Cartilage Diseases , Knee Injuries , Tibial Meniscus Injuries , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Arthroscopy/methods , Female , Humans , Knee Injuries/surgery , Male , Menisci, Tibial/surgery , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Tibial Meniscus Injuries/surgery
9.
Urogynecology (Hagerstown) ; 28(12): 872-878, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191224

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Surgeons must individualize postoperative pain management while also reducing the amount of unused prescribed opioids. OBJECTIVES: This study compared postoperative opioid use in younger versus older women following urogynecologic surgery. We also assessed the likelihood of women returning unused opioids for safe disposal. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective study of women undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery divided into 2 cohorts: younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years). Our primary outcome was total opioid use, measured in morphine milligram equivalents (MME). We also assessed the average pain score during the first week after surgery measured by a numerical pain scale (range, 0-10). Our secondary outcome was the rate of return of unused prescribed opioids at the 6-week postoperative visit utilizing a disposable drug deactivation system. RESULTS: From April 2019 to September 2021, 152 participants were enrolled: 92 (61%) in the younger cohort (mean age, 51 ± 8 years) and 60 (39%) in the older cohort (mean age, 72 ± 6 years). For our primary outcome, younger women used significantly more opioids during the first postoperative week compared with older women (49 ± 71 vs 28 ± 40 MME, respectively, P = 0.04), despite no difference in average pain scores (4 ± 2 younger vs 3 ± 2 older, P = 0.05). For our secondary outcome, 23% of participants returned their opioids for disposal with the drug deactivation system. CONCLUSIONS: Younger women had higher postoperative opioid use despite similar pain scores after urogynecologic surgery. Among those prescribed opioids, a quarter of participants returned their opioids for disposal at their postoperative visit.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Opioid-Related Disorders , Female , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
10.
Oncologist ; 27(6): 512-515, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190095

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to assess gynecologic cancer survivor preferences for telehealth cancer care. Gynecologic cancer survivors participating in a prospective cohort study were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey regarding their experience with and preferences for telehealth. Of 188 participants, 48.9% had undergone a telehealth visit since March 2020, and 53.7% reported a preference for exclusively in-person visits for their cancer care and surveillance. Furthermore, 80.5% of participants were satisfied with the telehealth care they received and 54.8% would recommend telehealth services to patients with similar conditions. Most participants thought a physical examination was critical to detecting recurrence, and concern that their provider may miss something during telehealth visits was greater among those who preferred in-person visits. With many gynecologic cancer survivors preferring in-person care, building a future care model that includes telehealth elements will require adaptations, careful evaluation of patient concerns, as well as patient education on telehealth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , Prospective Studies , Survivors
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e403-e409, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is an antiviral used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which improves some clinical outcomes. Dexamethasone has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality. It has been hypothesized that combination of these two drugs can improve mortality. We evaluated the effect of combination on mortality of COVID-19 patients requiring O2 therapy. METHODS: A prospective quasi-experimental study, including two independent, sequential controlled cohorts, one received remdesivir-dexamethasone and the other dexamethasone alone, was designed. All COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental O2 therapy were enrolled consecutively. The sample size to power mortality was a priori calculated. The primary endpoints were 30-day mortality and viral clearance differences. Secondary endpoints were differences in hospitalization times, improvement in respiratory failure (PO2/FiO2) and inflammatory indices (fibrinogen, CRP, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, D-Dimer). Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test were used to evaluate significant differences in mortality between groups. RESULTS: In total, 151 COVID-19 patients were enrolled (remdesivir/dexamethasone group, 76, and dexamethasone alone, 75). No differences in demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics were observed between the 2 groups at baseline. Faster viral clearance occurred in the remdesivir/dexamethasone group compared to dexamethasone alone (median 6 vs 16 days; P < .001). The 30-day mortality in the remdesivir/dexamethasone group was 1.3%, whereas in dexamethasone alone was 16% (P < .005). In the remdesivir/dexamethasone group compared to dexamethasone alone there was a reduction in hospitalization days (P < .0001) and a faster improvement in both respiratory function and inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir/dexamethasone treatment is associated with significant reduction in mortality, length of hospitalization, and faster SARS-CoV-2 clearance, compared to dexamethasone alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Lancet ; 400(10350): 441-451, 2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is an endolumenal, organ-sparing therapy for obesity, with wide global adoption. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ESG with lifestyle modifications compared with lifestyle modifications alone. METHODS: We conducted a randomised clinical trial at nine US centres, enrolling individuals aged 21-65 years with class 1 or class 2 obesity and who agreed to comply with lifelong dietary restrictions. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1·5; with stratified permuted blocks) to ESG with lifestyle modifications (ESG group) or lifestyle modifications alone (control group), with potential retightening or crossover to ESG, respectively, at 52 weeks. Lifestyle modifications included a low-calorie diet and physical activity. Participants in the primary ESG group were followed up for 104 weeks. The primary endpoint at 52 weeks was the percentage of excess weight loss (EWL), with excess weight being that over the ideal weight for a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Secondary endpoints included change in metabolic comorbidities between the groups. We used multiple imputed intention-to-treat analyses with mixed-effects models. Our analyses were done on a per-protocol basis and a modified intention-to-treat basis. The safety population was defined as all participants who underwent ESG (both primary and crossover ESG) up to 52 weeks. FINDINGS: Between Dec 20, 2017, and June 14, 2019, 209 participants were randomly assigned to ESG (n=85) or to control (n=124). At 52 weeks, the primary endpoint of mean percentage of EWL was 49·2% (SD 32·0) for the ESG group and 3·2% (18·6) for the control group (p<0·0001). Mean percentage of total bodyweight loss was 13·6% (8·0) for the ESG group and 0·8% (5·0) for the control group (p<0·0001), and 59 (77%) of 77 participants in the ESG group reached 25% or more of EWL at 52 weeks compared with 13 (12%) of 110 in the control group (p<0·0001). At 52 weeks, 41 (80%) of 51 participants in the ESG group had an improvement in one or more metabolic comorbidities, whereas six (12%) worsened, compared with the control group in which 28 (45%) of 62 participants had similar improvement, whereas 31 (50%) worsened. At 104 weeks, 41 (68%) of 60 participants in the ESG group maintained 25% or more of EWL. ESG-related serious adverse events occurred in three (2%) of 131 participants, without mortality or need for intensive care or surgery. INTERPRETATION: ESG is a safe intervention that resulted in significant weight loss, maintained at 104 weeks, with important improvements in metabolic comorbidities. ESG should be considered as a synergistic weight loss intervention for patients with class 1 or class 2 obesity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03406975. FUNDING: Apollo Endosurgery, Mayo Clinic.


Subject(s)
Gastroplasty , Gastroplasty/adverse effects , Gastroplasty/methods , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/surgery , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
13.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 144: 106975, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is implicated by active endotheliitis, and cardiovascular morbidity. The long-COVID-19 syndrome implications in atherosclerosis have not been elucidated yet. We assessed the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of COVID-19 on endothelial function. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at the medical ward or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were enrolled and followed up to 6 months post-hospital discharge. Medical history and laboratory examinations were performed while the endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Comparison with propensity score-matched cohort (control group) was performed at the acute (upon hospital admission) and follow-up (1 and 6 months) stages. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (37% admitted in ICU) were recruited. FMD was significantly (p < 0.001) impaired in the COVID-19 group (1.65 ± 2.31%) compared to the control (6.51 ± 2.91%). ICU-treated subjects presented significantly impaired (p = 0.001) FMD (0.48 ± 1.01%) compared to those treated in the medical ward (2.33 ± 2.57%). During hospitalization, FMD was inversely associated with Interleukin-6 and Troponin I (p < 0.05 for all). Although, a significant improvement in FMD was noted during the follow-up (acute: 1.75 ± 2.19% vs. 1 month: 4.23 ± 2.02%, vs. 6 months: 5.24 ± 1.62%; p = 0.001), FMD remained impaired compared to control (6.48 ± 3.08%) at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 6 months (p = 0.01) post-hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients develop a notable endothelial dysfunction, which is progressively improved over a 6-month follow-up but remains impaired compared to healthy controls subjects. Whether chronic dysregulation of endothelial function following COVID-19 could be accompanied by a residual risk for cardiovascular and thrombotic events merits further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Prospective Studies , Vasodilation/physiology
14.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 129(1): 27-34, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the existing literature for several promising minimally invasive tests to measure disease activity in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). DATA SOURCES: Literature searches were performed using PubMed. Keyword combinations included eosinophilic esophagitis and minimally invasive techniques, including the esophageal string test, Cytosponge, transnasal endoscopy, technetium-labeled heparin, and noninvasive biomarkers. STUDY SELECTIONS: Retrospective and prospective observational studies, peer-reviewed reviews, and systematic reviews were selected. Data were reviewed and summarized. RESULTS: Various techniques have been developed in recent years to measure disease activity in EoE without the need for conventional endoscopy. Our review summarizes the data on these techniques, the benefits and limitations, and future directions for implementation in both research and clinical care. CONCLUSION: Tremendous progress has been made toward developing minimally invasive techniques to measure disease activity in EoE. Each of the techniques mentioned in this review has advantages and disadvantages, and some are closer to widespread use than others.


Subject(s)
Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Biomarkers , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
15.
Dermatol Surg ; 48(7): 720-725, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suture removal after surgery is low risk; however, it is often performed by a medical provider. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced providers to assess means of reducing in-person contact. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients undergoing Mohs surgery are willing and successful with home suture removal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed with patients undergoing Mohs surgery. Before their surgery, patients were assessed for their willingness to remove sutures before and after viewing educational material. Patients who were willing to attempt removal were contacted after expected suture removal date to verify success and assess their experience. RESULTS: One hundred fifty patients were enrolled in the study. 90.1% were willing to attempt home suture removal. Patients were more willing ( p = .003), more confident ( p = .024), and had lower anxiety ( p = .049) with removal after viewing educational resources. Patients with a history of suture removal were more likely to attempt removal after their procedure ( p = .036). Ninety-seven percent of patients who were willing to attempt suture removal were successful. There were no major complications with removal. CONCLUSION: Patients were overwhelmingly successful with suture removal after an educational intervention. Providers should consider providing this option after surgical procedures when clinically appropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mohs Surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mohs Surgery/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Suture Techniques , Sutures
16.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 35(4): 404-412, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160364

ABSTRACT

Vascular research questions can be answered using various study designs. Observational studies are used frequently to address a wide range of clinical questions when randomized clinical trials are not feasible or practical. One of the powerful vascular research tools is the cohort study. The cohort study is a reliable observational study design in which individuals who share a common characteristic (a cohort) are followed over time and their outcomes are assessed at various intervals. This review focuses on the essential characteristics, design, implementation, bias, validity, and clinical significance of cohort studies and provides illustrative examples. A cohort study can be either a prospective or a retrospective study, depending on whether the outcome occurred before or after the enrollment of the cohort. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages. Confounding, selection, and information biases can all occur in cohort studies. Applications of the cohort study design include studying the natural history of a disease, describing a condition's frequency, and investigating multiple outcomes simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Research Design , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Humans , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Observational Studies as Topic
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 941742, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154719

ABSTRACT

Background: Thromboinflammation may influence disease outcome in COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate complement and endothelial cell activation in patients with confirmed COVID-19 compared to controls with clinically suspected but excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: In a prospective, observational, single-center study, patients presenting with clinically suspected COVID-19 were recruited in the emergency department. Blood samples on presentation were obtained for analysis of C5a, sC5b-9, E-selectin, Galectin-3, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Results: 153 cases and 166 controls (suffering mainly from non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viral infections, non-infectious inflammatory conditions and bacterial pneumonia) were included. Hospital admission occurred in 62% and 45% of cases and controls, respectively. C5a and VCAM-1 concentrations were significantly elevated and E-selectin concentrations decreased in COVID-19 out- and inpatients compared to the respective controls. However, relative differences in outpatients vs. inpatients in most biomarkers were comparable between cases and controls. Elevated concentrations of C5a, Galectin-3, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on presentation were associated with the composite outcome of ICU- admission or 30-day mortality in COVID-19 and controls, yet more pronounced in COVID-19. C5a and sC5b-9 concentrations were significantly higher in COVID-19 males vs. females, which was not observed in the control group. Conclusions: Our data indicate an activation of the complement cascade and endothelium in COVID-19 beyond a nonspecific inflammatory trigger as observed in controls (i.e., "over"-activation).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers , Complement System Proteins , E-Selectin , Endothelial Cells , Female , Galectin 3 , Humans , Inflammation , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
18.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 26, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has a high acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prevalence, and to our knowledge, there are no data on the status of secondary prevention in children with RHD. This study describes the status of secondary RHD prevention. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective study was performed on children aged 5-17 years with RHD in Ethiopia. Good adherence was defined as at least 80% completion of benzathine penicillin (BPG) or oral Amoxicillin within the previous year. The primary outcome measure was adherence to prophylaxis, expressed as a proportion. Socio-demographics, severity of RHD, and ARF recurrence were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 337 children with a mean age of 12.9 ± 2.6 years were included. The majority (73%) had severe aortic/mitral disease. Participants were on BPG (80%) or Amoxicillin (20%) prophylaxis. Female sex (P = 0.04) use of BPG (0.03) and shorter mean duration of prophylaxis in months (48.5 ± 31.5 vs. 60.7 ± 33, respectively, P < 0.008) predicted good adherence. Running out of medications (35%), interrupted follow-up (27%), and the COVID-19 pandemic (26%) were the most common reasons for missing prophylaxis. Recurrence of ARF was higher in participants on Amoxicillin compared with BPG (40% vs. 16%, P < 0.001) and in those with poor adherence compared with good adherence (36.8% vs. 17.9%, respectively, P = 0.005). Type and duration of prophylaxis (OR 0.5, CI = 0.24, 0.9, P = 0.02; OR = 1.1, CI = 1.1, 1.2, P = 0.04, respectively), and sex (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.1, 3.4, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of poor adherence. CONCLUSION: Poor adherence is prevalent in Ethiopian children living with RHD. Amoxicillin is a suboptimal option for prophylaxis as its use is associated with lower adherence and a higher rate of ARF recurrence.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Penicillin G Benzathine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Heart Disease/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Rheumatic Heart Disease/diagnosis , Rheumatic Heart Disease/epidemiology , Rheumatic Heart Disease/microbiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(7): e451-e452, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1913348
20.
J Diabetes ; 14(11): 758-766, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are sparse. This study aimed to investigate the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and T1DM. METHODS: Data from the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up (DPV) Registry were analyzed for diabetes patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Luxembourg during January 2020-June 2021, using Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests for continuous and dichotomous variables, adjusted for multiple testing. RESULTS: Data analysis of 1855 pediatric T1DM patients revealed no differences between asymptomatic/symptomatic infected and SARS-CoV-2 negative/positive patients regarding age, new-onset diabetes, diabetes duration, and body mass index. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) rate were not elevated in SARS-CoV-2-positive vs. -negative patients. The COVID-19 manifestation index was 37.5% in individuals with known T1DM, but 57.1% in individuals with new-onset diabetes. 68.8% of positively tested patients were managed as outpatients/telemedically. Data analysis of 240 adult T1MD patients revealed no differences between positively and negatively tested patients except lower HbA1c. Of these patients, 83.3% had symptomatic infections; 35.7% of positively tested patients were hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate low morbidity in SARS-CoV-2-infected pediatric T1DM patients. Most patients with known T1DM and SARS-CoV-2 infections could be managed as outpatients. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection was usually symptomatic if it coincided with new-onset diabetes. In adult patients, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization were associated with age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adult , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Prospective Studies
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