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2.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(3)2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: TMPRSS2, a cell surface protease regulated by androgens and commonly upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa), is a necessary component for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry into respiratory epithelial cells. Previous reports suggested a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 among PCa patients on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). However, the impact of ADT on severe COVID-19 illness is poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a multicenter study across 7 US medical centers and evaluated patients with PCa and SARS-CoV-2 detected by polymerase-chain-reaction between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020. PCa patients were considered on ADT if they had received appropriate ADT treatment within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis. We used multivariable logistic and Cox proportional-hazard regression models for analysis. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: We identified 465 PCa patients (median age = 71 years) with a median follow-up of 60 days. Age, body mass index, cardiovascular comorbidity, and PCa clinical disease state adjusted overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68 to 1.98, P = .59), hospitalization status (HR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.77, P = .90), supplemental oxygenation (HR 1.14, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.99, P = .64), and use of mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.25 to 2.66, P = .73) were similar between ADT and non-ADT cohorts. Similarly, the addition of androgen receptor-directed therapy within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis to ADT vs ADT alone did not statistically significantly affect overall survival (androgen receptor-directed therapy: HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.69 to 2.32, P = .44). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective cohort of PCa patients, the use of ADT was not demonstrated to influence severe COVID-19 outcomes, as defined by hospitalization, supplemental oxygen use, or death. Age 70 years and older was statistically significantly associated with a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Androgen/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(4): 587-597, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835530

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the inhibition effects of matairesinol, pregnanolone, hamamelitannin, secoisolariciresinol, and secoisolariciresinol diglicoside compounds on HMG-CoA reductase and urease enzymes. We have obtained results for the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme at the millimolar level, and for the urease enzyme at the micromolar level. Molecular docking calculations were made for their biological activities were compared. In docking calculations, proteins of experimentally used enzymes, activities of SARS-CoV-2 virus against RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein, and anti-oxidant protein were compared. Then, ADME/T calculations were made to use the molecules as drugs. Cytotoxicity potential of these complexes against human breast and prostate cancers demonstrated that these compounds had good cytotoxic effects. There is growing attention to phenolic molecules and their presumed role in avoiding diverse degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular and cancer diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Humans , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 872411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809372

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has swept the world and become a new virus threatening the health of all mankind. The survey found that prostate cancer accounts for one in three male cancer patients infected with COVID-19. This undoubtedly makes prostate cancer patients face a more difficult situation. Prostate cancer is the second most harmful malignant tumor in men because of its insidious onset, easy metastasis, and easy development into castration-resistant prostate cancer even after treatment. Due to its high immunogenicity and a small number of specific infiltrating T cells with tumor-associated antigens in the tissue, it is difficult to obtain a good therapeutic effect with immune checkpoint blocking therapy alone. Therefore, in the current study, we developed a platform carrying Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded black phosphate nanometer combined with photothermal therapy (PTT) and found this drug combination stimulated the immungentic cell death (ICD) process in PC-3 cells and DC maturation. More importantly, zinc ions have a good immunomodulatory function against infectious diseases, and can improve the killing ability of the nanosystem against prostate cancer cells. The introduction of Aptamer (Apt) enhances the targeting of the entire nanomedicine. We hope that this excellent combination will lead to effective treatment strategies for prostate cancer patients infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Male , Phosphorus , Photothermal Therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Zinc
5.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 25(2): 370-372, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795806

ABSTRACT

According to current studies, COVID-19 might have an impact on semen quality. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 may affect other traits of male reproductive system, including the prostate. Thus, we recruited patients who experienced COVID-19 infection in-between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy and compared prostate samples inflammation, measured with IRANI score, to those who did not. Indeed, we recruited 20 patients, aged 69 (62-73) years, finding no difference between the 10 patients with COVID-19 infection and the others in IRANI score and all its sub-scores. Hence, according to our exploratory and limited results, COVID-19 infection might have no gross effect on prostate inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatitis , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Prostate/pathology , Prostate/surgery , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatitis/complications , Prostatitis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen Analysis
6.
Nat Rev Urol ; 19(6): 344-356, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795727

ABSTRACT

On 11 March 2020, the WHO declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic and COVID-19 emerged as one of the biggest challenges in public health and economy in the twenty-first century. The respiratory tract has been the centre of attention, but COVID-19-associated complications affecting the genitourinary tract are reported frequently, raising concerns about possible long-term damage in these organs. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which has a central role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invasion, is highly expressed in the genitourinary tract, indicating that these organs could be at a high risk of cell damage. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 in urine and semen is very rare; however, COVID-19 can manifest through urological symptoms and complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with poor survival, severe structural changes in testes and impairment of spermatogenesis, and hormonal imbalances (mostly secondary hypogonadism). The effect of altered total testosterone levels or androgen deprivation therapy on survival of patients with COVID-19 was intensively debated at the beginning of the pandemic; however, androgen inhibition did not show any effect in preventing or treating COVID-19 in a clinical study. Thus, urologists have a crucial role in detecting and managing damage of the genitourinary tract caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists , Androgens , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologists
7.
Radiat Oncol ; 17(1): 75, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Normofractionated radiation regimes for definitive prostate cancer treatment usually extend over 7-8 weeks. Recently, moderate hypofractionation with doses per fraction between 2.2 and 4 Gy has been shown to be safe and feasible with oncologic non-inferiority compared to normofractionation. Radiobiologic considerations lead to the assumption that prostate cancer might benefit in particular from hypofractionation in terms of tumor control and toxicity. First data related to ultrahypofractionation demonstrate that the overall treatment time can be reduced to 5-7 fractions with single doses > 6 Gy safely, even with simultaneous focal boosting of macroscopic tumor(s). With MR-guided linear accelerators (MR-linacs) entering clinical routine, invasive fiducial implantations become unnecessary. The aim of the multicentric SMILE study is to evaluate the use of MRI-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer in 5 fractions regarding safety and feasibility. METHODS: The study is designed as a prospective, one-armed, two-stage, multi-center phase-II-trial with 68 patients planned. Low- and intermediate-risk localized prostate cancer patients will be eligible for the study as well as early high-risk patients (cT3a and/or Gleason Score ≤ 8 and/or PSA ≤ 20 ng/ml) according to d'Amico. All patients will receive definitive MRI-guided stereotactic radiation therapy with a total dose of 37.5 Gy in 5 fractions (single dose 7.5 Gy) on alternating days. A focal simultaneous integrated boost to MRI-defined tumor(s) up to 40 Gy can optionally be applied. The primary composite endpoint includes the assessment of urogenital or gastrointestinal toxicity ≥ grade 2 or treatment-related discontinuation of therapy. The use of MRI-guided radiotherapy enables online plan adaptation and intrafractional gating to ensure optimal target volume coverage and protection of organs at risk. DISCUSSION: With moderate hypofractionation being the standard in definitive radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer at many institutions, ultrahypofractionation could be the next step towards reducing treatment time without compromising oncologic outcomes and toxicities. MRI-guided radiotherapy could qualify as an advantageous tool as no invasive procedures have to precede in therapeutic workflows. Furthermore, MRI guidance combined with gating and plan adaptation might be essential in order to increase treatment effectivity and reduce toxicity at the same time.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Prospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Radiosurgery/methods
9.
Curr Oncol ; 29(4): 2768-2775, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792786

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess whether the ongoing course of the COVID-19 epidemic has been associated with an increased risk of adverse pathology (AP) findings in prostate cancer (PC) patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). We performed a retrospective data analysis which included 408 consecutive, non-metastatic, previously untreated PC patients who underwent RP in our institution between March 2020 and September 2021. Patients were divided into two equally numbered groups in regard to the median surgery date (Early Epidemic [EE] and Late Epidemic [LE]) and compared. Adverse pathology was defined as either grade group (GG) ≥ 4, pT ≥ 3a or pN+ at RP. Patients in the LE group demonstrated significantly higher rates of AP than in the EE group (61 vs. 43% overall and 50 vs. 27% in preoperative non-high-risk subgroup, both p < 0.001), mainly due to higher rates of upgrading. On multivariable analysis, consecutive epidemic week (odds ratio: 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.03, p = 0.009) as well as biopsy GG ≥ 2 and a larger prostate volume (mL) were associated with AP in non-high-risk patients. The study serves as a warning call for increased awareness of risk underassessment in contemporarily treated PC patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate/pathology , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
11.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 184: 110157, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787999

ABSTRACT

According to the National Institute of Public Health, prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer death in Mexican men, highly associated with aggressiveness, resistance to treatment, and metastatic spread (Bharti et al., 2019) mediated by activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of HIF-1α activation in the radiobiological response of the human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line LNCaP, describing the phenomena with a mathematical model. Four groups were formed under different exposure conditions, including hypoxic cells treated with CoCl2 (300 µM for 22 h) with or without hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor (150 nM chetomin for 4 h added after an incubation period of 18 h with CoCl2, just before completing the incubation period of 22 h). They were exposed to a source of 60Co in a dose range between 2 and 10 Gy to obtain survival curves that are fitted to a mathematical model. CoCl2 or chetomin treatments do not affect the viability of LNCaP cells that remained unchanged after irradiation. CoCl2 induced hypoxia reduces the survivability of LNCaP, and obstruction of HIF-1α signaling with chetomine produces a slight radioprotective effect. As others report, the genetic reprogramming induced by HIF-1α activation acts as an intrinsic agent that selects cells with more aggressive behavior (Pressley et al., 2017), while chetomin protects cells from death due to its scavenger properties. Interestingly, treatment with chetomin of cells induced to hypoxia (HIF-1 activation with CoCl2) produces a significant reduction in the radioresistance of LNCaP cells, demonstrating that the simultaneous use of chetomin and gamma radiation is an effective option for the treatment of hypoxic prostate cancer. At the molecular level, we suggest that the selective force exerted by HIF-1α depends on the production of free radicals by radiation. The proposed mathematical model showed that the rate of change in cell survival as a function of radiation dose is proportional to the product of two functions, one that describes cell death and the other that describes natural or artificial resistance to radiation.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Signal Transduction , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Humans , Hypoxia , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/pharmacology , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy
12.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 23(4): e13546, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782551

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study introduced an A-mode portable ultrasound bladder scanner, the Lilium® α-200 (here after Lilium; Lilium Otsuka, Kanagawa, Japan), for the treatment of prostate cancer patients with hypofractionated volumetric modulated arc therapy to improve the reproducibility of bladder volume (BV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were advised to maintain full BV prior to computed tomography (CT) simulation and daily treatment. Among these, the BV of 15 patients was measured using Lilium until a BV of 80% in the simulation was achieved (with the Lilium group). Daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) was performed for treatment. The correlation between BV measured by CBCT and Lilium was assessed. The differences in the BV and dosimetric parameters of the bladder in the CBCT versus planning CT were compared between the groups with and without Lilium. RESULTS: There was a significantly strong relationship (r = 0.796, p < 0.05) between the BVs measured using CBCT and Lilium. The relative BV ratios to simulation CT < 0.5 and > 2 were observed in 10.3% and 12.7%, respectively, of treatment sessions without Lilium group, while these ratios were 1% and 2.8%, respectively, in the Lilium group. The mean absolute difference in the range of V30Gy to V40Gy without Lilium sessions was significantly larger (p < 0.05) than that in the Lilium group. CONCLUSION: The use of the A-mode portable ultrasound bladder scanner significantly improved the reproducibility of the BV, resulting in few variations in the dosimetric parameters for the bladder.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography , Urinary Bladder/diagnostic imaging
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(6): 914-918, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777509

ABSTRACT

Importance: Several studies have assessed the negative effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer screening and diagnosis rates. However, this has not been evaluated for prostate biopsy and prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis in an equal-access health care system. Objective: To determine the association of the pandemic with prostate biopsy and PC diagnosis rates among Black vs White patients in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VAHCS). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included a retrospective analysis of all prostate biopsies performed on patients in the VAHCS without a preexisting PC diagnosis between January 2018 and March 2021. The base population included all living male patients who had at least 1 visit to the VAHCS during the 3 years prior to each month of the study. Exposure: The COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the number of prostate biopsies and PC diagnoses by month. The influence of the pandemic on prostate biopsy volume and the incidence of PC diagnoses was modeled using an interrupted time-series analysis. Poisson generalized linear models were fitted to project the expected number of prostate biopsies and PC diagnoses had there been no pandemic interruption. Additional models were used to test for differences by race. Results: Prior to the pandemic (January 2018 through February 2020), monthly biopsy numbers among 51 606 included men ranged between 1230 and 1695, of which 56% to 60% of results were positive for PC. The estimated number of missed PC diagnoses from March 2020 through March 2021 ranged from 97 cases (October 2020: 752 cases expected, 655 cases observed) to 573 cases (April 2020: 794 cases expected, 221 cases observed). Prior to the pandemic, biopsy rates were statistically significantly higher among Black vs White men (incidence rate ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 2.06-2.46; P < .001). There was no change in biopsy rates associated with race at the onset of the pandemic nor during the recovery period from March 2020 to March 2021. Similar trends were observed for PC diagnosis rates. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cohort study demonstrate that during the COVID-19 pandemic, prostate biopsy and PC diagnosis rates decreased, particularly during the peak of the pandemic. However, there were no statistically significant changes in rates by race.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Veterans , Biopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
14.
J Hosp Infect ; 125: 44-47, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773503

ABSTRACT

Transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsy of the prostate is associated with increased risk of post-procedural sepsis with associated morbidity, mortality, re-admission to hospital, and increased healthcare costs. In the study institution, active surveillance of post-procedural infection complications is performed by clinical nurse specialists for prostate cancer under the guidance of the infection prevention and control team. To protect hospital services for acute medical admissions related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, TRUS biopsy services were reduced nationally, with exceptions only for those patients at high risk of prostate cancer. In the study institution, this change prompted a complete move to transperineal (TP) prostate biopsy performed in outpatients under local anaesthetic. TP biopsies eliminated the risk of post-procedural sepsis and, consequently, sepsis-related admission while maintaining a service for prostate cancer diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Sepsis , Anesthetics, Local , Biopsy/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/prevention & control , Ultrasonography, Interventional/adverse effects
15.
Eur Urol ; 82(1): 6-11, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768076

ABSTRACT

Patients with advanced prostate cancer (APC) may be at greater risk for severe illness, hospitalisation, or death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to male gender, older age, potential immunosuppressive treatments, or comorbidities. Thus, the optimal management of APC patients during the COVID-19 pandemic is complex. In October 2021, during the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2021, the 73 voting members of the panel members discussed and voted on 13 questions on this topic that could help clinicians make treatment choices during the pandemic. There was a consensus for full COVID-19 vaccination and booster injection in APC patients. Furthermore, the voting results indicate that the expert's treatment recommendations are influenced by the vaccination status: the COVID-19 pandemic altered management of APC patients for 70% of the panellists before the vaccination was available but only for 25% of panellists for fully vaccinated patients. Most experts (71%) were less likely to use docetaxel and abiraterone in unvaccinated patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. For fully vaccinated patients with high-risk localised prostate cancer, there was a consensus (77%) to follow the usual treatment schedule, whereas in unvaccinated patients, 55% of the panel members voted for deferring radiation therapy. Finally, there was a strong consensus for the use of telemedicine for monitoring APC patients. PATIENT SUMMARY: In the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference 2021, the panellists reached a consensus regarding the recommendation of the COVID-19 vaccine in prostate cancer patients and use of telemedicine for monitoring these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
16.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 31: 100553, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768026

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 outbreak has affected care for non-COVID diseases like cancer. We evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on prostate cancer care in the Netherlands. METHODS: Prostate cancer diagnoses per month in 2020-2021 versus 2018-2019 were compared based on preliminary data of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) and nationwide pathology network. Detailed data was retrieved from the NCR for the cohorts diagnosed from March-May 2020 (first COVID-19 wave) and March-May 2018-2019 (reference). Changes in number of diagnoses, age, disease stage and first-line treatment were compared. RESULTS: An initial decline of 17% in prostate cancer diagnoses during the first COVID-19 wave was observed. From May onwards the number of diagnoses started to restore to approximately 95% of the expected number by the end of 2020. Stage at diagnosis remainedstable over time. In low-risk localised prostate cancer radical prostatectomy was conducted more often in week 9-12 (21% versus 12% in the reference period; OR=1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.1) and less active surveillance was applied (67% versus 78%; OR=0.6, 95% CI; 0.4-0.9). In the intermediate-risk group, a similar change was observed in week 13-16. Radical prostatectomy volumes in 2020 were comparable to 2018-2019. CONCLUSION: During the first COVID-19 wave the number of prostate cancer diagnoses declined. In the second half of 2020 this largely restored although the number remained lower than expected. Changes in treatment were temporary and compliant with adapted guidelines. Although delayed diagnoses could result in a less favourable stage distribution, possibly affecting survival, this seems not very likely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy
18.
ESMO Open ; 7(2): 100448, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with cognitive decline, but results are conflicting. This study describes changes in cognitive performance in patients with prostate cancer, according to ADT, during the first year after prostate cancer diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with prostate cancer treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto (n = 366) were evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), before treatment and after 1 year. All baseline evaluations were performed before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and 69.7% of the 1-year assessments were completed after the first lockdown. Cognitive decline was defined as the decrease in MoCA from baseline to the 1-year evaluation below 1.5 standard deviations of the distribution of changes in the whole cohort. Participants scoring below age- and education-specific normative reference values in the MoCA were considered to have cognitive impairment. Age- and education-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed for the association between ADT and cognitive outcomes. RESULTS: Mean MoCA scores increased from baseline to the 1-year evaluation (22.3 versus 22.8, P < 0.001). Cognitive decline was more frequent in the ADT group, and even more after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (aOR 6.81 versus 1.93, P for interaction = 0.233). The 1-year cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment was 6.9% (9.1% before and 3.7% after the pandemic onset), which was higher among patients receiving ADT, but only after the pandemic (aOR 5.53 versus 0.49, P for interaction = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: ADT was associated with worse cognitive performance of patients with prostate cancer, mostly among those evaluated after the first COVID-19 lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgens , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Neon , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
19.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 89-93, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proportion of published imaging studies relative to incidence and mortality rate per cancer type. METHODS: From a random sample of 2500 articles published in 2019 by the top 25 imaging-related journals, we included cancer imaging studies. The publication-to-incidence and publication-to-mortality ratios (defined as the publication rate divided by the proportional incidence and mortality rate, respectively) were calculated per cancer type. Ratios >1 indicate a higher publication rate compared to the relative incidence or mortality rate of a specific cancer. Ratios <1 indicate a lower publication rate compared to the relative incidence or mortality rate of a specific cancer. RESULTS: 620 original cancer imaging studies were included. Female breast cancer (20.2%), prostate cancer (13.0%), liver cancer (12.9%), lung cancer (8.8%), and cancers in the central nervous system (8.1%) comprised the top 5 of cancers investigated. Cancers in the central nervous system and liver had publication-to-incidence ratios >2, whereas nonmelanoma of the skin, leukemia, stomach cancer, and laryngeal cancer had publication-to-incidence ratios <0.2. Cancers in the prostate, central nervous system, female breast, and kidney had publication-to-mortality ratios >2, whereas esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, laryngeal cancer, and leukemia had publication-to-mortality ratios <0.2. CONCLUSION: This overview of published cancer imaging research may be informative and useful to all stakeholders in the field of cancer imaging. The potential causes of disproportionality between the publication rate vs. incidence and mortality rates of some cancer types are multifactorial and need to be further elucidated.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms , Stomach Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Incidence , Male , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications
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