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1.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 89-93, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proportion of published imaging studies relative to incidence and mortality rate per cancer type. METHODS: From a random sample of 2500 articles published in 2019 by the top 25 imaging-related journals, we included cancer imaging studies. The publication-to-incidence and publication-to-mortality ratios (defined as the publication rate divided by the proportional incidence and mortality rate, respectively) were calculated per cancer type. Ratios >1 indicate a higher publication rate compared to the relative incidence or mortality rate of a specific cancer. Ratios <1 indicate a lower publication rate compared to the relative incidence or mortality rate of a specific cancer. RESULTS: 620 original cancer imaging studies were included. Female breast cancer (20.2%), prostate cancer (13.0%), liver cancer (12.9%), lung cancer (8.8%), and cancers in the central nervous system (8.1%) comprised the top 5 of cancers investigated. Cancers in the central nervous system and liver had publication-to-incidence ratios >2, whereas nonmelanoma of the skin, leukemia, stomach cancer, and laryngeal cancer had publication-to-incidence ratios <0.2. Cancers in the prostate, central nervous system, female breast, and kidney had publication-to-mortality ratios >2, whereas esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, laryngeal cancer, and leukemia had publication-to-mortality ratios <0.2. CONCLUSION: This overview of published cancer imaging research may be informative and useful to all stakeholders in the field of cancer imaging. The potential causes of disproportionality between the publication rate vs. incidence and mortality rates of some cancer types are multifactorial and need to be further elucidated.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms , Stomach Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Incidence , Male , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications
2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(1): 9-23, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Indirect evidence suggests that the effects of testosterone on fat mass in men are dependent on aromatization to estradiol (E2). However, no controlled study has assessed the effects of E2 in the absence of testosterone. DESIGN: Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with the hypothesis that men randomized to E2 would reduce their fat mass. METHODS: Seventy-eight participants receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to 0.9 mg of 0.1% E2 gel per day, or matched placebo. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The primary outcome was total fat mass. RESULTS: Serum E2 increased in the estradiol group over 6 months compared to placebo, and mean-adjusted difference (MAD) was 207 pmol/L (95% CI: 123-292), P < 0.001. E2 treatment changed total fat mass, MAD 1007 g (95% CI: 124-1891), but not significantly, so P = 0.09. There were other consistent non-significant trends toward increased proportional fat mass, MAD 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0-1.6), P= 0.15; gynoid fat, MAD 147 g (95% CI: 2-293), P = 0.08; visceral fat, 53 g (95% CI: 1-105) P = 0.13; and subcutaneous fat, MAD 65 g (95% CI: 5-125), P = 0.11. Android fat increased, MAD 164 g (95% CI: 41-286), P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, we provide suggestive evidence that E2 acting in the absence of testosterone, may increase total and regional fat mass in men. Given the premature closure of clinical trials due to the COVID pandemic, this potentially important observation should encourage additional studies to confirm or refute whether E2 promotes fat expansion in the absence of testosterone.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Estradiol/pharmacology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Australia , Body Composition/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
3.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 167: 103491, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505718

ABSTRACT

Real-world data suggest a possible interplay between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and susceptibility to and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As ADT is the backbone of prostate cancer treatment, various authors have evaluated different patient cohorts but the evidence provided is conflicting. The aim of this review is to assess the available publications concerning the role of ADT in preventing or reducing the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. After a literature search we identified four full papers, five letters, and four meeting abstracts, but these used different search methods and the quality of the evidence varied. They frequently had different endpoints, did not report the status of the prostate cancer patients and evaluated heterogeneous populations. The available data do not support the view that ADT protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Larger and more precise studies are warranted, considering variables that affect infection outcomes as these significantly influence the reliability of the findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(1): 9-23, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484899

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Indirect evidence suggests that the effects of testosterone on fat mass in men are dependent on aromatization to estradiol (E2). However, no controlled study has assessed the effects of E2 in the absence of testosterone. DESIGN: Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with the hypothesis that men randomized to E2 would reduce their fat mass. METHODS: Seventy-eight participants receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to 0.9 mg of 0.1% E2 gel per day, or matched placebo. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The primary outcome was total fat mass. RESULTS: Serum E2 increased in the estradiol group over 6 months compared to placebo, and mean-adjusted difference (MAD) was 207 pmol/L (95% CI: 123-292), P < 0.001. E2 treatment changed total fat mass, MAD 1007 g (95% CI: 124-1891), but not significantly, so P = 0.09. There were other consistent non-significant trends toward increased proportional fat mass, MAD 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0-1.6), P= 0.15; gynoid fat, MAD 147 g (95% CI: 2-293), P = 0.08; visceral fat, 53 g (95% CI: 1-105) P = 0.13; and subcutaneous fat, MAD 65 g (95% CI: 5-125), P = 0.11. Android fat increased, MAD 164 g (95% CI: 41-286), P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, we provide suggestive evidence that E2 acting in the absence of testosterone, may increase total and regional fat mass in men. Given the premature closure of clinical trials due to the COVID pandemic, this potentially important observation should encourage additional studies to confirm or refute whether E2 promotes fat expansion in the absence of testosterone.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Estradiol/pharmacology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Australia , Body Composition/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
5.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(3): 650-656, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly and patients with cancer have been considered as a vulnerable group for this infection. This study aimed to examine the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in tumor tissues of six common cancer types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tumors and control samples were obtained from online databases. Survival prognosis and biological functions of these genes were investigated for each tumor type. RESULTS: There was the overexpression of ACE2 in colon and stomach adenocarcinomas compared to controls, meanwhile colon and prostate adenocarcinomas showed a significantly higher expression of TMPRSS2. Additionally, survival prognosis analysis has demonstrated that upregulation of ACE2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.016) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; p=0.007), while overexpression of TMPRSS2 was associated with a 26% reduced risk of death in lung adenocarcinoma (p=0.047) but 50% increased risk of death in breast invasive carcinoma (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: There is a need to take extra precautions for COVID-19 in patients with colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer. Further information on other types of cancer at different stages should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Databases as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
6.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14278, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319297

ABSTRACT

AIM: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anxiety and depression status of prostate cancer (PCa) patients whose planned operations in the urology clinic of our hospital, which is serving as a pandemic hospital in Turkey have been postponed because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: This survey study was conducted at urology clinic of Ankara City Hospital between March 1 and June 1, 2020, and included 24 male patients who agreed to answer the questionnaires (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] I and II and Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]). Demographical and clinical data (age, time since diagnosis, total serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, risk groups according to the D'Amico classification system, smoking, alcohol habitus, major surgical history and comorbidities) of the patients were collected from hospital software. RESULTS: The mean STAI-I score of the patients (46.7 ± 1.4 [44-49]) was significantly higher than their STAI-II score (41.7 ± 2.4 [39-47]) (P < .001). The negative correlation between the decrease in age and STAI-I score was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.439, P < .05). The mean BDI score of the patients was 4.3 ± 3.2 (0-13), which was compatible with mild depression. There was no statistically significant difference among the time elapsed from diagnosis, PSA levels, smoking and alcohol habitus, major surgical history and comorbidity status and STAI-I, STAI-II and BDI scores (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer patients with postponed operations should be guided properly in order to manage their anxiety status especially young patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey
7.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 25(1): 27-38, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the potential mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in targeting the prostate gland, leading to exacerbation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms and greater risks of BPH complications such as acute urinary retention. METHODS: A categorized and comprehensive search in the literature has been conducted by 10 April 2021 using international databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library in line with the PRISMA guidelines recommendations. PICO strategy was used to formulate the research question. The following terms were used: urology, COVID-19, coronavirus, BPH, inflammation, androgen receptors, LUTS, IPSS, PSA, and SARS-CoV-2 or a combination of them. Studies with irrelevant purposes and duplicates were excluded. The selected studies were performed on humans and published in English. RESULTS: The research revealed 89 articles. After title screening and considering exclusion criteria, 52 papers were included for the systematic review. BPH is a common condition affecting older men. SARS-CoV-2 infects the host cell by binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). A hyperactivated RAS system during infection with SARS-CoV-2 may lead to activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and increased cytokine release. Thus, this virus can lead to exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and trigger inflammatory processes in the prostate gland. Since androgen receptors (AR) play an important role in the BPH pathophysiology and infection with SARS-CoV-2 may be androgen-mediated, BPH progression and its related symptoms can be a complication of COVID-19 through AR involvement and metabolic disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current findings, SARS-CoV-2 can possibly damage the prostate and worsen BPH and its related LUTS through ACE2 signaling, AR-related mechanisms, inflammation, and metabolic derangement. We encourage future studies to investigate the possible role of COVID-19 in the progression of BPH-related LUTS and examine the prostatic status in susceptible patients with relevant available questionnaires (e.g., IPSS) and serum biomarkers (e.g., PSA).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/epidemiology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/etiology , Male , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia/complications , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Receptors, Androgen , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 878-884, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206733

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led to sharp declines in cancer screening. However, the total deficit in screening in the US associated with the pandemic and the differential impact on individuals in different geographic regions and by socioeconomic status (SES) index have yet to be fully characterized. Objectives: To quantify the screening rates for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in different geographic regions and for individuals in different SES index quartiles and estimate the overall cancer screening deficit in 2020 across the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study uses the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, which comprises single-payer administrative claims data and enrollment information covering approximately 60 million people in Medicare Advantage and commercial health plans from across geographically diverse regions of the US. Participants were individuals in the database in January through July of 2018, 2019, and 2020 without diagnosis of the cancer of interest prior to the analytic index month. Exposures: Analytic index month and year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. Results: Screening for all 3 cancers declined sharply in March through May of 2020 compared with 2019, with the sharpest decline in April (breast, -90.8%; colorectal, -79.3%; prostate, -63.4%) and near complete recovery of monthly screening rates by July for breast and prostate cancers. The absolute deficit across the US population in screening associated with the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated to be 3.9 million (breast), 3.8 million (colorectal), and 1.6 million (prostate). Geographic differences were observed: the Northeast experienced the sharpest declines in screening, while the West had a slower recovery compared with the Midwest and South. For example, percentage change in breast cancer screening rate (2020 vs 2019) for the month of April ranged from -87.3% (95% CI, -87.9% to -86.7%) in the West to -94.5% (95% CI, -94.9% to -94.1%) in the Northeast (decline). For the month of July, it ranged from -0.3% (95% CI, -2.1% to 1.5%) in the Midwest to -10.6% (-12.6% to -8.4%) in the West (recovery). By SES, the largest screening decline was observed in individuals in the highest SES index quartile, leading to a narrowing in the disparity in cancer screening by SES in 2020. For example, prostate cancer screening rates per 100 000 enrollees for individuals in the lowest and highest SES index quartiles, respectively, were 3525 (95% CI, 3444 to 3607) and 4329 (95% CI, 4271 to 4386) in April 2019 compared with 1535 (95% CI, 1480 to 1589) and 1338 (95% CI, 1306 to 1370) in April 2020. Multivariable analysis showed that telehealth use was associated with higher cancer screening. Conclusions and Relevance: Public health efforts are needed to address the large cancer screening deficit associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including increased use of screening modalities that do not require a procedure.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Male , Medicare , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Class , Telemedicine , United States
9.
Infect Genet Evol ; 88: 104669, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065472

ABSTRACT

Members of Coronaviridae family have been the source of respiratory illnesses. The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 that produced a severe lung disease in afflicted patients in China and other countries was the reason for the incredible attention paid toward this viral infection. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 is dependent on TMPRSS2 activity for entrance and subsequent infection of the host cells and TMPRSS2 is a host cell molecule that is important for the spread of viruses such as coronaviruses. Different factors can increase the risk of prostate cancer, including older age, a family history of the disease. Androgen receptor (AR) initiates a transcriptional cascade which plays a serious role in both normal and malignant prostate tissues. TMPRSS2 protein is highly expressed in prostate secretory epithelial cells, and its expression is dependent on androgen signals. One of the molecular signs of prostate cancer is TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. In TMPRSS2-ERG-positive prostate cancers different patterns of changed gene expression can be detected. The possible molecular relation between fusion positive prostate cancer patients and the increased risk of lethal respiratory viral infections especially SARS-CoV-2 can candidate TMPRSS2 as an attractive drug target. The studies show that some molecules such as nicotinamide, PARP1, ETS and IL-1R can be studied deeper in order to control SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in prostate cancer patients. This review attempts to investigate the possible relation between the gene expression pattern that is produced through TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive prostate cancer and the possible influence of these fluctuations on the pathogenesis and development of viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dihydrotestosterone/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , Receptors, Androgen/genetics , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Virus Internalization
12.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 963689721991477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058182

ABSTRACT

TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: No prophylactic treatments for COVID-19 have been clearly proven and found. In this pandemic context, cancer patients constitute a particularly fragile population that would benefit the best from such treatments, a present unmet need. TMPRSS2 is essential for COVID-19 replication cycle and it is under androgen control. Estrogen and androgen receptor dependent cues converge on TMPRSS2 regulation through different mechanisms of action that can be blocked by the use of hormonal therapies. We believe that there is enough body of evidence to foresee a prophylactic use of hormonal therapies against COVID-19 and this hypothesis can be easily tested on cohorts of breast and prostate cancer patients who follow those regimens. In case of pandemic, if the protective effect of hormonal therapies will be proven on cancer patients, the use of specific hormonal therapies could be extended to other oncological groups and to healthy individuals to decrease the overall risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2.Given the COVID-19 coronavirus emergency, a special focus is needed on the impact of this rapidly spreading viral infection on cancer patients. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling in the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) regulation is emerging as an important determinant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility. In our study, we analyzed AR and TMPRSS2 expression in 17,352 normal and 9,556 cancer tissues from public repositories and stratified data according to sex and age. The emerging picture is that some patient groups may be particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and may benefit from antiandrogen- or tamoxifen-based therapies. These findings are relevant to choose proper treatments in order to protect cancer patients from concomitant SARS-CoV-2 contagion and related symptoms and put forward the idea that hormonal therapies could be used as prophylactic agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Androgen Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , Estrogen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Androgen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/analysis , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tamoxifen/pharmacology
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22591, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933920

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is now a global pandemic. Although there are very few studies describing the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with prostate cancer, these patients are likely to be more susceptible to COVID-19 than healthy people because of their immunosuppressed state. However, there is no evidence that prostate cancer is a risk factor for COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the Wanfang database, the China Science Journal Citation Report (VIP database), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for studies related to the topic. We designed a standardized data extraction sheet and used Epidata software 3.1 for data extraction. In accordance with the Cochrane 5.1.0 standard, both a quality assessment and a risk assessment were carried out for the research meeting the inclusion criteria. The data were analyzed using Revman 5.3 and Stata 13.0 software. RESULTS: The study integrated existing research findings and a meta-analysis of the data to investigate the prevalence of prostate cancer in males infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the adverse clinical outcomes in male patients with or without COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results of this research may provide a basis for judging if prostate cancer is a risk factor for males infected with SARS-CoV-2, and the findings can effectively help to prevent COVID-19 in patients with prostate cancer. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this systematic review as it will involve the collection and analysis of secondary data. The results of the review will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals PRORPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:: CRD42020194071.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Global Health , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
In Vivo ; 34(6): 3723-3730, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Influenza viruses, corona viruses and related pneumotropic viruses cause sickness and death partly by inducing cytokine storm, a hyper-proinflammatory host response by immune cells and cytokines in the host airway. Based on our in vivo experience with digitoxin as an inhibitor of TNFα-driven NFĸB signaling for cytokine expression in prostate cancer in rats and in cystic fibrosis in humans, we hypothesize that this drug will also block a virally-activated cytokine storm. Materials Methods: Digitoxin was administered intraperitoneally to cotton rats, followed by intranasal infection with 107TCID50/100 g of cotton rat with influenza strain A/Wuhan/H3N2/359/95. Daily digitoxin treatment continued until harvest on day 4 of the experiment. RESULTS: The cardiac glycoside digitoxin significantly and differentially suppressed levels of the cytokines TNFα, GRO/KC, MIP2, MCP1, and IFNγ, in the cotton rat lung in the presence of influenza virus. CONCLUSION: Since cytokine storm is a host response, we suggest that digitoxin may have a therapeutic potential not only for influenza and but also for coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Digitoxin/pharmacology , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , NF-kappa B/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
16.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(12): 1032-1033, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873161

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old man with prostate adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by transrectal biopsy, with Gleason of 4 + 5 and initial PSA of 225 ng/mL since March 2020. Ga-PSMA PET/CT was performed as part of initial staging. The images showed an enlarged prostate with focal PSMA uptake in both lobes. Retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes with moderate uptake of PSMA were shown. Another finding was a moderate PSMA uptake in the both lung parenchymas associated with opacities in CT. The patient denied any symptoms of coronavirus disease and was referred to the emergency department for RT-PCR COVID-19, and the result was positive.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gallium Isotopes , Gallium Radioisotopes , Humans , Incidental Findings , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins , Organometallic Compounds , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110748, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753903

ABSTRACT

The severe form of COVID-19 has significant sex disparities, with high fatalities commonly reported among males than females. The incidence of COVID-19 has also been higher in males compared with their female counterparts. This trend could be attributed to a better responsive and robust immune system in females. Cytokine storm is one of the pathophysiological features of severe COVID-19, and it occurs as a result of over-activation of immune cells leading to severe inflammation and tissue damage. Nevertheless, it is well modulated in females compared to their male counterparts. Severe inflammation in males is reported to facilitate progression of mild to severe COVID-19. The sex hormones, estrogens and androgens which exist in varying functional levels respectively in females and males are cited as the underlying cause for the differential immune response to COVID-19. Evidence abounds that estrogen modulate the immune system to protect females from severe inflammation and for that matter severe COVID-19. On the contrary, androgen has been implicated in over-activation of immune cells, cytokine storm and the attendant severe inflammation, which perhaps predispose males to severe COVID-19. In this review efforts are made to expand understanding and explain the possible roles of the immune system, the sex hormones and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) systems in male bias to severe COVID-19. Also, this review explores possible therapeutic avenues including androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), estrogen-based therapy, and ACE inhibitors for consideration in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Androgen Antagonists/pharmacology , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Disulfide-Isomerases/physiology , Receptors, Cell Surface/physiology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Smoking/adverse effects , Young Adult
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