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1.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(3)2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: TMPRSS2, a cell surface protease regulated by androgens and commonly upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa), is a necessary component for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry into respiratory epithelial cells. Previous reports suggested a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 among PCa patients on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). However, the impact of ADT on severe COVID-19 illness is poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a multicenter study across 7 US medical centers and evaluated patients with PCa and SARS-CoV-2 detected by polymerase-chain-reaction between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020. PCa patients were considered on ADT if they had received appropriate ADT treatment within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis. We used multivariable logistic and Cox proportional-hazard regression models for analysis. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: We identified 465 PCa patients (median age = 71 years) with a median follow-up of 60 days. Age, body mass index, cardiovascular comorbidity, and PCa clinical disease state adjusted overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68 to 1.98, P = .59), hospitalization status (HR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.77, P = .90), supplemental oxygenation (HR 1.14, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.99, P = .64), and use of mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.25 to 2.66, P = .73) were similar between ADT and non-ADT cohorts. Similarly, the addition of androgen receptor-directed therapy within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis to ADT vs ADT alone did not statistically significantly affect overall survival (androgen receptor-directed therapy: HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.69 to 2.32, P = .44). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective cohort of PCa patients, the use of ADT was not demonstrated to influence severe COVID-19 outcomes, as defined by hospitalization, supplemental oxygen use, or death. Age 70 years and older was statistically significantly associated with a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Androgen/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(4): 587-597, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835530

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the inhibition effects of matairesinol, pregnanolone, hamamelitannin, secoisolariciresinol, and secoisolariciresinol diglicoside compounds on HMG-CoA reductase and urease enzymes. We have obtained results for the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme at the millimolar level, and for the urease enzyme at the micromolar level. Molecular docking calculations were made for their biological activities were compared. In docking calculations, proteins of experimentally used enzymes, activities of SARS-CoV-2 virus against RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein, and anti-oxidant protein were compared. Then, ADME/T calculations were made to use the molecules as drugs. Cytotoxicity potential of these complexes against human breast and prostate cancers demonstrated that these compounds had good cytotoxic effects. There is growing attention to phenolic molecules and their presumed role in avoiding diverse degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular and cancer diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Humans , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
ESMO Open ; 7(2): 100448, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with cognitive decline, but results are conflicting. This study describes changes in cognitive performance in patients with prostate cancer, according to ADT, during the first year after prostate cancer diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with prostate cancer treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto (n = 366) were evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), before treatment and after 1 year. All baseline evaluations were performed before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and 69.7% of the 1-year assessments were completed after the first lockdown. Cognitive decline was defined as the decrease in MoCA from baseline to the 1-year evaluation below 1.5 standard deviations of the distribution of changes in the whole cohort. Participants scoring below age- and education-specific normative reference values in the MoCA were considered to have cognitive impairment. Age- and education-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed for the association between ADT and cognitive outcomes. RESULTS: Mean MoCA scores increased from baseline to the 1-year evaluation (22.3 versus 22.8, P < 0.001). Cognitive decline was more frequent in the ADT group, and even more after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (aOR 6.81 versus 1.93, P for interaction = 0.233). The 1-year cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment was 6.9% (9.1% before and 3.7% after the pandemic onset), which was higher among patients receiving ADT, but only after the pandemic (aOR 5.53 versus 0.49, P for interaction = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: ADT was associated with worse cognitive performance of patients with prostate cancer, mostly among those evaluated after the first COVID-19 lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgens , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Neon , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 802447, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699427

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious epidemic, characterized by potential mutation and can bring about poor vaccine efficiency. It is evidenced that patients with malignancies, including prostate cancer (PC), may be highly vulnerable to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, there are no existing drugs that can cure PC and COVID-19. Luteolin can potentially be employed for COVID-19 treatment and serve as a potent anticancer agent. Our present study was conducted to discover the possible drug target and curative mechanism of luteolin to serve as treatment for PC and COVID-19. The differential gene expression of PC cases was determined via RNA sequencing. The application of network pharmacology and molecular docking aimed to exhibit the drug targets and pharmacological mechanisms of luteolin. In this study, we found the top 20 up- and downregulated gene expressions in PC patients. Enrichment data demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects, where improvement of metabolism and enhancement of immunity were the main functions and mechanism of luteolin in treating PC and COVID-19, characterized by associated signaling pathways. Additional core drug targets, including MPO and FOS genes, were computationally identified accordingly. In conclusion, luteolin may be a promising treatment for PC and COVID-19 based on bioinformatics findings, prior to future clinical validation and application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Luteolin/pharmacology , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(1): 9-23, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Indirect evidence suggests that the effects of testosterone on fat mass in men are dependent on aromatization to estradiol (E2). However, no controlled study has assessed the effects of E2 in the absence of testosterone. DESIGN: Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with the hypothesis that men randomized to E2 would reduce their fat mass. METHODS: Seventy-eight participants receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to 0.9 mg of 0.1% E2 gel per day, or matched placebo. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The primary outcome was total fat mass. RESULTS: Serum E2 increased in the estradiol group over 6 months compared to placebo, and mean-adjusted difference (MAD) was 207 pmol/L (95% CI: 123-292), P < 0.001. E2 treatment changed total fat mass, MAD 1007 g (95% CI: 124-1891), but not significantly, so P = 0.09. There were other consistent non-significant trends toward increased proportional fat mass, MAD 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0-1.6), P= 0.15; gynoid fat, MAD 147 g (95% CI: 2-293), P = 0.08; visceral fat, 53 g (95% CI: 1-105) P = 0.13; and subcutaneous fat, MAD 65 g (95% CI: 5-125), P = 0.11. Android fat increased, MAD 164 g (95% CI: 41-286), P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, we provide suggestive evidence that E2 acting in the absence of testosterone, may increase total and regional fat mass in men. Given the premature closure of clinical trials due to the COVID pandemic, this potentially important observation should encourage additional studies to confirm or refute whether E2 promotes fat expansion in the absence of testosterone.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Estradiol/pharmacology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Australia , Body Composition/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
6.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 20(2): 123-131, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), which delivers high-dose precision treatment in ≤5 fractions, is a shorter, more convenient, and less expensive alternative to conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CRFT; ∼44 fractions) or moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy (MFRT; 20-28 fractions). SBRT has not been widely adopted but may have radiobiologic advantages over CFRT/MFRT. We hypothesized that SBRT would be associated with improved overall survival (OS) versus CFRT or MFRT ± androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for unfavorable-intermediate-risk prostate cancer (UIR-PCa). METHODS: Men with UIR-PCa treated with SBRT (35-40Gy in ≤5 fractions) or biologically equivalent doses of CFRT (72-86.4Gy in 1.8-2.0Gy/fraction) or MRFT (≥60Gy in 2.4-3.2Gy/fraction; biologically effective doses ≥120) were identified in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Unweighted and propensity-weighted multivariable Cox analysis (MVA) was used to compare OS hazard ratios. RESULTS: Of 28,028 men with UIR-PCa who received CFRT with (n = 12,872) or without ADT (n = 12,984); MFRT with (n = 251) or without ADT (n = 281); and SBRT with (n = 212) or without ADT (n = 1,428) were identified. Relative to CFRT without ADT, CFRT+ ADT (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97, P = .002) and SBRT without ADT (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.89, P = .002) were both associated with improved OS on MVA. Relative to CFRT+ADT, SBRT without ADT correlated with improved OS on MVA (HR:0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.99, P = .04). Propensity-weighted MVA demonstrated that SBRT (HR:0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, P = .036) and ADT (HR:0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.97, P = .002) correlated with improved OS. SBRT was not associated with improved OS versus MFRT. CONCLUSION: SBRT, which offers a cheaper and shorter treatment course that mitigates COVID-19 exposure, was associated with improved OS versus CFRT for UIR-PCa. These results confirm guideline-based recommendations that SBRT is a viable option for UIR prostate cancer. The results from this large retrospective study require further validation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Radiosurgery/methods , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
7.
Scand J Urol ; 56(2): 104-111, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Androgens facilitate entrance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into respiratory epithelial cells, and male sex is associated with a higher risk of death from corona virus disease (COVID-19). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) could possibly improve COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) RAPID 2019, we evaluated the association between ADT and COVID-19 as registered cause of death in men with prostate cancer. Each case was matched to 50 controls by region. We used conditional logistic regression to adjust for confounders and also evaluated potential impact of residual confounding. RESULTS: We identified 474 men who died from COVID-19 in March-December 2020. In crude analyses, ADT exposure was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 death (odds ratio [OR] 5.05, 95% CI: 4.18-6.10); however, the OR was substantially attenuated after adjustment for age, comorbidity, prostate cancer characteristics at diagnosis, recent healthcare use, and indicators of advanced cancer (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI: 0.95-1.65). If adjustment has accounted for at least 85% of confounding, then the true effect could be no more than a 5% reduction of the odds for COVID-19 death. CONCLUSIONS: The increased mortality from COVID-19 in men with prostate cancer treated with ADT was mainly related to high age, comorbidity, and more advanced prostate cancer. There was no evidence to support the hypothesis that ADT is associated with improved COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134330, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513769

ABSTRACT

Importance: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been theorized to decrease the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with prostate cancer owing to a potential decrease in the tissue-based expression of the SARS-CoV-2 coreceptor transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Objective: To examine whether ADT is associated with a decreased rate of 30-day mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed patient data recorded in the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry between March 17, 2020, and February 11, 2021. The consortium maintains a centralized multi-institution registry of patients with a current or past diagnosis of cancer who developed COVID-19. Data were collected and managed using REDCap software hosted at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee. Initially, 1228 patients aged 18 years or older with prostate cancer listed as their primary malignant neoplasm were included; 122 patients with a second malignant neoplasm, insufficient follow-up, or low-quality data were excluded. Propensity matching was performed using the nearest-neighbor method with a 1:3 ratio of treated units to control units, adjusted for age, body mass index, race and ethnicity, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score, smoking status, comorbidities (cardiovascular, pulmonary, kidney disease, and diabetes), cancer status, baseline steroid use, COVID-19 treatment, and presence of metastatic disease. Exposures: Androgen deprivation therapy use was defined as prior bilateral orchiectomy or pharmacologic ADT administered within the prior 3 months of presentation with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the rate of all-cause 30-day mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis for patients receiving ADT compared with patients not receiving ADT after propensity matching. Results: After exclusions, 1106 patients with prostate cancer (before propensity score matching: median age, 73 years [IQR, 65-79 years]; 561 (51%) self-identified as non-Hispanic White) were included for analysis. Of these patients, 477 were included for propensity score matching (169 who received ADT and 308 who did not receive ADT). After propensity matching, there was no significant difference in the primary end point of the rate of all-cause 30-day mortality (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.42-1.42). Conclusions and Relevance: Findings from this cohort study suggest that ADT use was not associated with decreased mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, large ongoing clinical trials will provide further evidence on the role of ADT or other androgen-targeted therapies in reducing COVID-19 infection severity.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Tennessee/epidemiology
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 167: 103491, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505718

ABSTRACT

Real-world data suggest a possible interplay between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and susceptibility to and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As ADT is the backbone of prostate cancer treatment, various authors have evaluated different patient cohorts but the evidence provided is conflicting. The aim of this review is to assess the available publications concerning the role of ADT in preventing or reducing the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. After a literature search we identified four full papers, five letters, and four meeting abstracts, but these used different search methods and the quality of the evidence varied. They frequently had different endpoints, did not report the status of the prostate cancer patients and evaluated heterogeneous populations. The available data do not support the view that ADT protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Larger and more precise studies are warranted, considering variables that affect infection outcomes as these significantly influence the reliability of the findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(1): 9-23, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484899

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Indirect evidence suggests that the effects of testosterone on fat mass in men are dependent on aromatization to estradiol (E2). However, no controlled study has assessed the effects of E2 in the absence of testosterone. DESIGN: Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with the hypothesis that men randomized to E2 would reduce their fat mass. METHODS: Seventy-eight participants receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to 0.9 mg of 0.1% E2 gel per day, or matched placebo. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The primary outcome was total fat mass. RESULTS: Serum E2 increased in the estradiol group over 6 months compared to placebo, and mean-adjusted difference (MAD) was 207 pmol/L (95% CI: 123-292), P < 0.001. E2 treatment changed total fat mass, MAD 1007 g (95% CI: 124-1891), but not significantly, so P = 0.09. There were other consistent non-significant trends toward increased proportional fat mass, MAD 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0-1.6), P= 0.15; gynoid fat, MAD 147 g (95% CI: 2-293), P = 0.08; visceral fat, 53 g (95% CI: 1-105) P = 0.13; and subcutaneous fat, MAD 65 g (95% CI: 5-125), P = 0.11. Android fat increased, MAD 164 g (95% CI: 41-286), P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, we provide suggestive evidence that E2 acting in the absence of testosterone, may increase total and regional fat mass in men. Given the premature closure of clinical trials due to the COVID pandemic, this potentially important observation should encourage additional studies to confirm or refute whether E2 promotes fat expansion in the absence of testosterone.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Estradiol/pharmacology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Australia , Body Composition/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
11.
Prostate ; 81(16): 1349-1354, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The TMPRSS2 protein has been involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The production is regulated by the androgen receptor (AR). It is speculated that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may protect patients affected by prostate cancer (PC) from SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients treated for COVID-19 in our institution who had a previous diagnosis of PC. We analyzed the influence of exposure of ADT on the presence of severe course of COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 2280 patients were treated in our center for COVID-19 with a worse course of disease in males (higher rates of hospitalization, intense care unit [ICU] admission, and death). Out of 1349 subjects registered in our PC database, 156 were on ADT and 1193 were not. Out of those, 61 (4.52%) PC patients suffered from COVID-19, 11 (18.0%) belonged to the ADT group, and 50 (82.0%) to the non-ADT group. Regarding the influence of ADT on the course of the disease, statistically significant differences were found neither in the death rate (27.3% vs. 34%; p = 0.481), nor in the presence of severe COVID-19: need for intubation or ICU admission (0% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.561) and need for corticoid treatment, interferon beta, or tocilizumab (60% vs. 34.7%; p = 0.128). Multivariate analysis adjusted for clinically relevant comorbidities did not find that ADT was a protective factor for worse clinical evolution (risk ratio [RR] 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-1.83; p = 0.77) or death (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.26-1.74; p = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that COVID-19 is more severe in men. However, the use of ADT in patients with PC was not shown to prevent the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
World J Urol ; 40(4): 907-914, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391851

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Androgen-regulated enzymes such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection process. The expression of TMPRSS2 and its fusion gene, which are increased in the epithelium of the human prostate gland during prostate carcinogenesis, are regulated by androgens. Our goal was to assess the risk of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of the disease in PCa patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines. We queried PubMed and Web of Science databases on 1 July 2021. We used random- and/or fixed-effects meta-analytic models in the presence or absence of heterogeneity according to Cochrane's Q test and I2 statistic, respectively. RESULTS: Six retrospective studies (n = 50,220 patients) were selected after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria for qualitative evidence synthesis. Four retrospective studies were included to assess the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in PCa patients under ADT vs. no ADT and the summarized risk ratio (RR) was 0.8 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.44-1.47). Five retrospective studies were included to assess the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in PCa patients under ADT versus no ADT and the summarized RR was 1.23 (95% CI 0.9-1.68). CONCLUSION: We found a non-significant association between the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity in PCa patients treated with ADT. However, our results suggest that during the COVID-19 pandemic PCa patients can safely undergo ADT as a cancer therapy without worsening COVID-19 risk and trajectory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Urol J ; 18(6): 577-584, 2021 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323503

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry. Androgens regulate this protein and may increase the risk of COVID-19. Therefore, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may protect patients with prostate cancer from SARS-CoV-2 infection or decrease the severity of the disease. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to study the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on COVID-19 in patients with prostate cancer. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane databases. All records underwent a two-step screening process to identify the eligible studies. The registered PROSPERO number of this study was CRD42021228398. We evaluated the effect of ADT on the risk of infection, hospitalization, ICU admission, and mortality. RESULTS: Six studies met inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this study. We performed meta-analysis on four eligible studies. The overall incidence of COVID-19 was 2.65% among patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT. COVID-19 mortality rate was about 22.7% in ADT (+) patients. ADT did not decrease the risk of any of the major outcomes; infection risk (OR= 0.63, 95% CI= 0.27- 1.48, P = 0.29), hospitalization rate (OR= 0.51, 95% CI= 0.10- 2.53, P = 0.41), ICU admission (OR= 1.11, 95% CI= 0.43- 2.90, P = 0.82), and mortality risk (OR= 1.21, 95% CI= 0.34- 4.32, P = 0.77). CONCLUSION: We did not observe a protective effect on the risk of infection, hospitalization, ICU admission, and mortality in patients receiving ADT; therefore, it should not be considered as a prophylactic or treatment for COVID-19. On the other hand, ADT did not increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 and should be considered a safe treatment for patients with prostate cancer during the pandemic. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgens , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12470, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268004

ABSTRACT

Lifestyle interventions involving exercise training offset the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Yet provision of integrated exercise pathways in cancer care is sparse. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of an embedded supervised exercise training intervention into standard prostate cancer care in a single-arm, multicentre prospective cohort study. Feasibility included recruitment, retention, adherence, fidelity and safety. Acceptability of behaviourally informed healthcare and exercise professional training was assessed qualitatively. Despite the imposition of lockdown for the COVID-19 pandemic, referral rates into and adherence to, the intervention was high. Of the 45 men eligible for participation, 79% (n = 36) received the intervention and 47% (n = 21) completed the intervention before a government mandated national lockdown was enforced in the United Kingdom. Patients completed a mean of 27 min of aerobic exercise per session (SD = 3.48), at 77% heart rate maximum (92% of target dose), and 3 sets of 10 reps of 3 resistance exercises twice weekly for 12 weeks, without serious adverse event. The intervention was delivered by 26 healthcare professionals and 16 exercise trainers with moderate to high fidelity, and the intervention was deemed highly acceptable to patients. The impact of societal changes due to the pandemic on the delivery of this face-to-face intervention remain uncertain but positive impacts of embedding exercise provision into prostate cancer care warrant long-term investigation.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Attitude , Cohort Studies , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Resistance Training
15.
Endocrinology ; 162(8)2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259229

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a gender disparity in severity, with men exhibiting higher hospitalization and mortality rates than women. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for COVID-19, infects cells following recognition and attachment of the viral spike glycoprotein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transmembrane protein, followed by spike protein cleavage and activation by cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). In prostate cancer cells, androgen acting on the androgen receptor increases TMPRSS2 expression, which has led to the hypothesis that androgen-dependent expression of TMPRSS2 in the lung may increase men's susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and that, accordingly, suppressing androgen production or action may mitigate COVID-19 severity by reducing SARS-CoV-2 amplification. Several ongoing clinical trials are testing the ability of androgen deprivation therapies or anti-androgens to mitigate COVID-19. This perspective discusses clinical and molecular advances on the rapidly evolving field of androgen receptor (AR) action on cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) expression and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and the potential effect of anti-androgens on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity in male patients. It discusses limitations of current studies and offers insight for future directions.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Androgen/drug effects , Receptors, Androgen/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Sex Factors
18.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 22(6): 47, 2021 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188176

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, and cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in patients with prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy, the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment, has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Emerging data supports decreased cardiovascular risk of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared to agonists. Ongoing clinical trials are assessing the relative safety of different modalities of androgen deprivation therapy. Racial disparities in cardiovascular outcomes in prostate cancer patients are starting to be explored. An intriguing inquiry connects androgen deprivation therapy with reduced risk of COVID-19 infection susceptibility and severity. Recognition of the cardiotoxicity of androgen deprivation therapy and aggressive risk factor modification are crucial for optimal patient care.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Androstenes/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiotoxicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology , Disease Susceptibility , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(10): 2706-2711, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112356

ABSTRACT

The dramatic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an "all hands on deck" approach to find new therapies to improve outcomes in this disease. In addition to causing significant respiratory pathology, infection with SARS-CoV-2 (like infection with other respiratory viruses) directly or indirectly results in abnormal vasculature, which may contribute to hypoxemia. These vascular effects cause significant morbidity and may contribute to mortality from the disease. Given that abnormal vasculature and poor oxygenation are also hallmarks of solid tumors, lessons from the treatment of cancer may help identify drugs that can be repurposed to treat COVID-19. Although the mechanisms that result in vascular abnormalities in COVID-19 are not fully understood, it is possible that there is dysregulation of many of the same angiogenic and thrombotic pathways as seen in patients with cancer. Many anticancer therapeutics, including androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and immune checkpoint blockers (ICB), result in vascular normalization in addition to their direct effects on tumor cells. Therefore, these therapies, which have been extensively explored in clinical trials of patients with cancer, may have beneficial effects on the vasculature of patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, these drugs may have additional effects on the disease course, as some ADTs may impact viral entry, and ICBs may accelerate T-cell-mediated viral clearance. These insights from the treatment of cancer may be leveraged to abrogate the vascular pathologies found in COVID-19 and other forms of hypoxemic respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Blood Vessels/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/drug therapy , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Blood Vessels/pathology , Blood Vessels/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Progression , Humans , Male , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/blood supply , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood supply , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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