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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742493

ABSTRACT

Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bone metastases are treated with androgen pathway directed therapy (APDT). However, this treatment invariably fails and the cancer becomes castration resistant. To elucidate resistance mechanisms and to provide a more predictive pre-clinical research platform reflecting tumor heterogeneity, we established organoids from a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of bone metastatic prostate cancer, PCSD1. APDT-resistant PDX-derived organoids (PDOs) emerged when cultured without androgen or with the anti-androgen, enzalutamide. Transcriptomics revealed up-regulation of neurogenic and steroidogenic genes and down-regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle, circadian pathways and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 host viral entry factors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Time course analysis of the cell cycle in live cells revealed that enzalutamide induced a gradual transition into a reversible dormant state as shown here for the first time at the single cell level in the context of multi-cellular, 3D living organoids using the Fucci2BL fluorescent live cell cycle tracker system. We show here a new mechanism of castration resistance in which enzalutamide induced dormancy and novel basal-luminal-like cells in bone metastatic prostate cancer organoids. These PDX organoids can be used to develop therapies targeting dormant APDT-resistant cells and host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Organoids/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/genetics , Androgens/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , Bone Neoplasms/metabolism , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mice , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transplantation, Heterologous , Virus Internalization
2.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(3): 650-656, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly and patients with cancer have been considered as a vulnerable group for this infection. This study aimed to examine the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in tumor tissues of six common cancer types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tumors and control samples were obtained from online databases. Survival prognosis and biological functions of these genes were investigated for each tumor type. RESULTS: There was the overexpression of ACE2 in colon and stomach adenocarcinomas compared to controls, meanwhile colon and prostate adenocarcinomas showed a significantly higher expression of TMPRSS2. Additionally, survival prognosis analysis has demonstrated that upregulation of ACE2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.016) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; p=0.007), while overexpression of TMPRSS2 was associated with a 26% reduced risk of death in lung adenocarcinoma (p=0.047) but 50% increased risk of death in breast invasive carcinoma (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: There is a need to take extra precautions for COVID-19 in patients with colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer. Further information on other types of cancer at different stages should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Databases as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
3.
Prostate ; 81(15): 1107-1124, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 27th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held virtually from October 20 to 23, 2020. METHODS: The Annual PCF Scientific Retreat is a global scientific research conference that highlights the most promising and cutting edge advances in prostate cancer basic, translational and clinical research, as well as research from other fields with a strong potential for advancing prostate cancer research. RESULTS: Primary areas of research discussed at the 2020 PCF Retreat included: (i) the intersection between prostate cancer and COVID-19 research; (ii) lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic that may address prostate cancer disparities; (iv) the role of the microbiome in cancer; (v) current challenges in treatment of patients with metastatic prostate cancer; (viii) prostate cancer germline genetics and evolutionary genomics; (ix) advances in circulating DNA methylation biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment selection; (x) advances in the development of MYC-targeting therapeutics; (xi) advances in antibody-drug conjugates for the treatment of cancer; (xii) advances for immunotherapy in prostate cancer; and (xiii) updates from other recent prostate cancer clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: This article summarizes the research presented at the 2020 PCF Scientific Retreat. We hope that dissemination of this knowledge will help to accelerate and direct the next major advances in prostate cancer research and care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , SARS-CoV-2 , Androgens , Animals , Biomarkers, Tumor , Biomedical Research , DNA Methylation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/ethnology , Genomics , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Immunotherapy , Male , Mice , Microbiota , Mutation , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/microbiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy
4.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 159-176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369645

ABSTRACT

The human TMPRSS2 gene is pathogenetically implicated in both coronaviral lung infection and prostate cancer, suggesting its potential as a drug target in both contexts. SARS-COV-2 spike polypeptides are primed by the host transmembrane TMPRSS2 protease, triggering virus fusion with epithelial cell membranes followed by an endocytotic internalisation process that bypasses normal endosomal activation of cathepsin-mediated innate immunity; viral co-opting of TMPRSS2 thus favors microbial survivability by attenuating host inflammatory responses. In contrast, most early hormone-dependent prostate cancers express TMPRSS2:ERG fusion genes arising from deletions that eliminate the TMPRSS2 coding region while juxtaposing its androgen-inducible promoter and the open reading frame of ERG, upregulating pro-inflammatory ERG while functionally disabling TMPRSS2. Moreover, inflammatory oxidative DNA damage selects for TMPRSS2:ERG-fused cancers, whereas patients treated with antiinflammatory drugs develop fewer of these fusion-dependent tumors. These findings imply that TMPRSS2 protects the prostate by enabling endosomal bypass of pathogens which could otherwise trigger inflammation-induced DNA damage that predisposes to TMPRSS2:ERG fusions. Hence, the high oncogenic selectability of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions may reflect a unique pro-inflammatory synergy between androgenic ERG gain-of-function and fusogenic TMPRSS2 loss-of-function, cautioning against the use of TMPRSS2-inhibitory drugs to prevent or treat early prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fertility , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Inflammation/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(8): 4157-4165, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091045

ABSTRACT

TMPRSS2 (OMIM: 602060) is a cellular protease involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and it facilitates entry of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. It is important to predict the prostate's susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients and the disease outcome by assessing TMPRSS2 expression in cancer tissues. In this study, we conducted the expression profiles of the TMPRSS2 gene for COVID-19 in different normal tissues and PRAD (prostate adenocarcinoma) tumour tissues. TMPRSS2 is highly expressed in normal tissues including the small intestine, prostate, pancreas, salivary gland, colon, stomach, seminal vesicle and lung, and is increased in PRAD tissues, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 might attack not only the lungs and other normal organs, but also in PRAD cancer tissues. Hypomethylation of TMPRSS2 promoter may not be the mechanism for TMPRSS2 overexpression in PRAD tissues and PRAD pathogenesis. TMPRSS2 expresses eleven isoforms in PRAD tissues, with the TMPRSS2-001 isoform expressed highest and followed by TMPRSS2-201. Further isoform structures prediction showed that these two highly expressed isoforms have both SRCR_2 and Trypsin (Tryp_SPc) domains, which may be essential for TMPRSS2 functional roles for tumorigenesis and entry for SARS-CoV-2 in PRAD patients. Analyses of functional annotation and enrichment in TMPRSS2 showed that TMPRSS2 is mostly enriched in regulation of viral entry into host cells, protein processing and serine-type peptidase activity. TMPRSS2 is also associated with prostate gland cancer cell expression, different complex(es) formation, human influenza and carcinoma, pathways in prostate cancer, influenza A, and transcriptional misregulation in cancer. Altogether, even though high expression of TMPRSS2 may not be favourable for PRAD patient's survival, increased expression in these patients should play roles in susceptibility of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical severity for COVID-19, highlighting the value of protective actions of PRAD cases by targeting or androgen-mediated therapeutic strategies in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Ontology , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Prostate/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
6.
Infect Genet Evol ; 88: 104669, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065472

ABSTRACT

Members of Coronaviridae family have been the source of respiratory illnesses. The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 that produced a severe lung disease in afflicted patients in China and other countries was the reason for the incredible attention paid toward this viral infection. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 is dependent on TMPRSS2 activity for entrance and subsequent infection of the host cells and TMPRSS2 is a host cell molecule that is important for the spread of viruses such as coronaviruses. Different factors can increase the risk of prostate cancer, including older age, a family history of the disease. Androgen receptor (AR) initiates a transcriptional cascade which plays a serious role in both normal and malignant prostate tissues. TMPRSS2 protein is highly expressed in prostate secretory epithelial cells, and its expression is dependent on androgen signals. One of the molecular signs of prostate cancer is TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. In TMPRSS2-ERG-positive prostate cancers different patterns of changed gene expression can be detected. The possible molecular relation between fusion positive prostate cancer patients and the increased risk of lethal respiratory viral infections especially SARS-CoV-2 can candidate TMPRSS2 as an attractive drug target. The studies show that some molecules such as nicotinamide, PARP1, ETS and IL-1R can be studied deeper in order to control SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in prostate cancer patients. This review attempts to investigate the possible relation between the gene expression pattern that is produced through TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive prostate cancer and the possible influence of these fluctuations on the pathogenesis and development of viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dihydrotestosterone/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , Receptors, Androgen/genetics , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Virus Internalization
7.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(12): 773-776, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740294

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane serine protease 2 is encoded by the TMPRSS2 gene. The gene is widely conserved and has two isoforms, both being autocatalytically activated from the inactive zymogen form. A fusion gene between the TMPRSS2 gene and ERG (erythroblast-specific-related gene), an oncogenic transcription factor, is the most common chromosomal aberration detected in prostate cancer, responsible for driving carcinogenesis. The other key role of TMPRSS2 is in priming the viral spike protein which facilitates viral entry essential for viral infectivity. The protease activates a diverse range of viruses. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 to facilitate entry to cells, but with SARS-CoV-2 human-to-human transmission is much higher than SARS-CoV. As TMPRSS2 is expressed outside of the lung, and can therefore contribute to extrapulmonary spread of viruses, it warrants further exploration as a potential target for limiting viral spread and infectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Virus Internalization , Genetic Markers , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712954

ABSTRACT

To report a multi-institutional case series of patients with advanced microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) prostate adenocarcinoma identified with clinical cell-free DNA (cfDNA) next-generation sequencing (NGS) testing and treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and MSI-H tumor detected by a commercially available cfDNA NGS assay Guardant360 (G360, Guardant Health) at eight different Academic Institutions in the USA, from September 2018 to April 2020. From a total of 14 MSI-H metastatic prostate cancer patients at participating centers, nine patients with mCRPC with 56% bone, 33% nodal, 11% liver and 11% soft-tissue metastases and a median PSA of 29.3 ng/dL, were treated with pembrolizumab after 2 lines of therapy for CRPC. The estimated median time on pembrolizumab was 9.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 18.8) months. Four patients (44%) achieved PSA50 after a median of 4 (3-12) weeks after treatment initiation including three patients with >99% PSA decline. Among the patients evaluable for radiographic response (n=5), the response rate was 60% with one complete response and two partial responses. Best response was observed after a median of 3.3 (1.4-7.6) months. At time of cut-off, four patients were still on pembrolizumab while four patients discontinued therapy due to progressive disease and one due to COVID-19 infection. Half of the patients with PSA50 had both MSI-H and pathogenic alterations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in their G360 assays. The use of liquid biopsy to identify metastatic prostate cancer patients with MSI-H is feasible in clinical practice and may overcome some of the obstacles associated with prostate cancer tumor tissue testing. The robust activity of pembrolizumab in selected patients supports the generalized testing for MSI-H.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Microsatellite Instability , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , BRCA1 Protein/genetics , BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , COVID-19 , Circulating Tumor DNA/blood , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Liquid Biopsy , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
9.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(3): 949-956, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676301

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus­2 (SARS­CoV­2) enters into human host cells via mechanisms facilitated mostly by angiotensin­converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). New loss of smell (anosmia/hyposmia) is now recognized as a COVID­19 related symptom, which may be caused by SARS­CoV­2 infection and damage of the olfactory receptor (OR) cells in the nasal neuro­epithelium and/or central involvement of the olfactory bulb. ORs are also expressed peripherally (e.g., in tissues of the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems) and it is possible that their local functions could also be impaired by SARS­CoV­2 infection of these tissues. Using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, The Cancer Genome Atlas, Genotype­Tissue Expression, cBioPortal and Shiny Methylation Analysis Resource Tool, we highlight the expression of peripheral ORs in both healthy and malignant tissues, and describe their co­expression with key mediators of SARS­CoV­2 infection, such as ACE2 and TMPRSS2, as well as cathepsin L (CTSL; another cellular protease mediating SARS­CoV­2 infection of host cells). A wide expression profile of peripheral ORs was noted, particularly in tissues such as the prostate, testis, thyroid, brain, liver, kidney and bladder, as well as tissues with known involvement in cardio­metabolic disease (e.g., the adipose tissue, pancreas and heart). Among these, OR51E2, in particular, was significantly upregulated in prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD) and co­expressed primarily with TMPRSS2. Functional networks of this OR were further analysed using the GeneMANIA interactive tool, showing that OR51E2 interacts with a plethora of genes related to the prostate. Further in vitro and clinical studies are clearly required to elucidate the role of ORs, both at the olfactory level and the periphery, in the context of COVID­19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Odorant/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Anosmia/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genomics , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome
13.
Cancer Discov ; 10(6): 779-782, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46164

ABSTRACT

TMPRSS2 is both the most frequently altered gene in primary prostate cancer and a critical factor enabling cellular infection by coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The modulation of its expression by sex steroids could contribute to the male predominance of severe infections, and given that TMPRSS2 has no known indispensable functions, and inhibitors are available, it is an appealing target for prevention or treatment of respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Esters , Female , Gabexate/analogs & derivatives , Gabexate/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Guanidines , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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