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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580698

ABSTRACT

In this review, we collected 1765 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) M-pro inhibitors from the bibliography and other sources, such as the COVID Moonshot project and the ChEMBL database. This set of inhibitors includes only those compounds whose inhibitory capacity, mainly expressed as the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value, against M-pro from SARS-CoV-2 has been determined. Several covalent warheads are used to treat covalent and non-covalent inhibitors separately. Chemical space, the variation of the IC50 inhibitory activity when measured by different methods or laboratories, and the influence of 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) are discussed. When available, we have collected the values of inhibition of viral replication measured with a cellular antiviral assay and expressed as half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values, and their possible relationship to inhibitory potency against M-pro is analyzed. Finally, the most potent covalent and non-covalent inhibitors that simultaneously inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 M-pro and the virus replication in vitro are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Enzyme Assays/methods , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 209: 114538, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587172

ABSTRACT

The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential to the virus life cycle and is supposed to be a potential target for the treatment of coronaviral infection. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have played an impressive role in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. The effectiveness of TCM formulations prompts scientists to take continuous effort on searching for bioactive small molecules from the ancient resources. Herein, we developed a native mass spectrometry-based affinity-selection method for rapid screening of active small molecules from crude herbal extracts applied for COVID-19 therapy. Six common herbs named Lonicera japonica, Scutellaria baicalensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Cirsium japonicum, and Andrographis paniculata were investigated. After preliminary separation of the crude extracts, the fractions were incubated with 3CLpro. A native MS-based affinity screening assay was then conducted to search for the protein-ligand complexes. A UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS with UNIFI data acquisition and data processing software was applied to identify the hit compounds. Standard compounds were used to verify the outcomes. Among the 16 hits, three flavonoids, baicalein, scutellarein and ganhuangenin, were identified as potential noncovalent inhibitors against 3CLpro with IC50 values of 0.94, 3.02, and 0.84 µM, respectively. Their binding affinities were further characterized by native MS, with Kd values being 1.43, 3.85, and 1.09 µM, respectively. Overall, we established an efficient native MS-based strategy for discovering 3CLpro ligands from crude mixtures, which supplies a potential strategy of small molecule lead discovery from TCMs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
3.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572568

ABSTRACT

The encapsulation mode of dexamethasone (Dex) into the cavity of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD), as well as its potential as an inhibitor of the COVID-19 main protease, were investigated using density functional theory with the recent dispersion corrections D4 and molecular docking calculations. Independent gradient model and natural bond orbital approaches allowed for the characterization of the host-guest interactions in the studied systems. Structural and energetic computation results revealed that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played significant roles in the stabilization of the formed Dex@ß-CD complex. The complexation energy significantly decreased from -179.50 kJ/mol in the gas phase to -74.14 kJ/mol in the aqueous phase. A molecular docking study was performed to investigate the inhibitory activity of dexamethasone against the COVID-19 target protein (PDB ID: 6LU7). The dexamethasone showed potential therapeutic activity as a SARS CoV-2 main protease inhibitor due to its strong binding to the active sites of the protein target, with predicted free energy of binding values of -29.97 and -32.19 kJ/mol as calculated from AutoDock4 and AutoDock Vina, respectively. This study was intended to explore the potential use of the Dex@ß-CD complex in drug delivery to enhance dexamethasone dissolution, thus improving its bioavailability and reducing its side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , beta-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Carriers/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation
4.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572566

ABSTRACT

This study demonstrates the inhibitory effect of 42 pyrimidonic pharmaceuticals (PPs) on the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease of SARS-CoV-2 (3CLpro) through molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and free binding energies by means of molecular mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) and molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA). Of these tested PPs, 11 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration showed an excellent binding affinity to the catalytic residues of 3CLpro of His41 and Cys145: uracil mustard, cytarabine, floxuridine, trifluridine, stavudine, lamivudine, zalcitabine, telbivudine, tipiracil, citicoline, and uridine triacetate. Their percentage of residues involved in binding at the active sites ranged from 56 to 100, and their binding affinities were in the range from -4.6 ± 0.14 to -7.0 ± 0.19 kcal/mol. The molecular dynamics as determined by a 200 ns simulation run of solvated docked complexes confirmed the stability of PP conformations that bound to the catalytic dyad and the active sites of 3CLpro. The free energy of binding also demonstrates the stability of the PP-3CLpro complexes. Citicoline and uridine triacetate showed free binding energies of -25.53 and -7.07 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, I recommend that they be repurposed for the fight against COVID-19, following proper experimental and clinical validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Repositioning/methods , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Acetates/chemistry , Acetates/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/chemistry , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Uridine/analogs & derivatives , Uridine/chemistry , Uridine/pharmacology
5.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 22(15): 2054-2070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of a pneumonia-like illness, Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating from Wuhan, China, was linked to novel coronavirus, now termed SARS-CoV-2. Unfortunately, no effective drugs or vaccines have been reported yet. The main protease (MPRO) remains the most validated pharmacological target for the design and discovery of inhibitors. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to find a prospective natural scaffold as an inhibitor for MPRO main protease in SARS-CoV-2 and compare it with repurposed antiviral drugs lopinavir and nelfinavir. METHODS: Natural compound libraries were screened for potential scaffold against MPRO main protease. Molecular dynamics simulation, MM-GBSA and principal component analyses of enzyme- ligand complexes were carried out with the top-ranking hits and compared with the repurposed antiviral drugs lopinavir and nelfinavir. RESULTS: The structure-based virtual screening indicated phenylbenzopyrone of flavonoids as one of the top-ranking scaffolds that have the potential to inhibit the main protease with the Oglycosidic form, performing better than the corresponding aglyconic form. Simulation studies indicated that glycosidic form of flavonoid is a more suitable inhibitor with compounds rutin, procyanidin B6, baicalin and galloylquercetin, demonstrating high affinity and stability, and rutin, emerging as one of the best candidate compounds. Interestingly, rutin was reported to have inhibitory activity against similar protease (3Cprotease of enterovirus A71) and implicated in lung fibrosis. CONCLUSION: The present study on flavonoids, possessing a potential scaffold for inhibiting main protease activity for all betacoronavirus is an attempt to provide new and safe drug leads within a reasonably short period.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Prospective Studies , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(13): 4936-4948, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521983

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed to cause the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), an essential enzyme for viral replication, is a valid target to combat SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. In this work, we present a structure-based study to identify potential covalent inhibitors containing a variety of chemical warheads. The targeted Asinex Focused Covalent (AFCL) library was screened based on different reaction types and potential covalent inhibitors were identified. In addition, we screened FDA-approved protease inhibitors to find candidates to be repurposed against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. A number of compounds with significant covalent docking scores were identified. These compounds were able to establish a covalent bond (C-S) with the reactive thiol group of Cys145 and to form favorable interactions with residues lining the substrate-binding site. Moreover, paritaprevir and simeprevir from FDA-approved protease inhibitors were identified as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The mechanism and dynamic stability of binding between the identified compounds and SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro were characterized by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The identified compounds are potential inhibitors worthy of further development as COVID-19 drugs. Importantly, the identified FDA-approved anti-hepatitis-C virus (HCV) drugs paritaprevir and simeprevir could be ready for clinical trials to treat infected patients and help curb COVID-19. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(13): 4659-4670, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521979

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) pandemic and phenomenal spread to every nook and cranny of the world has raised major apprehensions about the modern public health care system. So far as a result of this epidemic, 4,434,653 confirmed cases and 302,169 deaths are reported. The growing infection rate and death toll demand the use of all possible approaches to design novel drugs and vaccines to curb this disease. In this study, we combined drugs repurposing and virtual drug screening strategies to target 3CLpro, which has an essential role in viral maturation and replication. A total of 31 FDA approved anti-HIV drugs, and Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) database were screened to find potential inhibitors. As a result, Saquinavir, and five drugs (TCM5280805, TCM5280445, TCM5280343, TCM5280863, and TCM5458190) from the TCM database were found as promising hits. Furthermore, results from molecular dynamics simulation and total binding free energy revealed that Saquinavir and TCM5280805 target the catalytic dyad (His41 and Cys145) and possess stable dynamics behavior. Thus, we suggest that these compounds should be tested experimentally against the SARS-COV-2 as Saquinavir has been reported to inhibit HIV protease experimentally. Considering the intensity of coronavirus dissemination, the present research is in line with the idea of discovering the latest inhibitors against the coronavirus essential pathways to accelerate the drug development cycle.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488678

ABSTRACT

Papain-like protease is an essential enzyme in the proteolytic processing required for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, such an enzyme is an important target for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents which may reduce the mortality associated with outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2. A set of 69 semi-synthesized molecules that exhibited the structural features of SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease inhibitors (PLPI) were docked against the coronavirus papain-like protease (PLpro) enzyme (PDB ID: (4OW0). Docking studies showed that derivatives 34 and 58 were better than the co-crystallized ligand while derivatives 17, 28, 31, 40, 41, 43, 47, 54, and 65 exhibited good binding modes and binding free energies. The pharmacokinetic profiling study was conducted according to the four principles of the Lipinski rules and excluded derivative 31. Furthermore, ADMET and toxicity studies showed that derivatives 28, 34, and 47 have the potential to be drugs and have been demonstrated as safe when assessed via seven toxicity models. Finally, comparing the molecular orbital energies and the molecular electrostatic potential maps of 28, 34, and 47 against the co-crystallized ligand in a DFT study indicated that 28 is the most promising candidate to interact with the target receptor (PLpro).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(11): 5708-5718, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483076

ABSTRACT

The biggest challenge in medical management and control of the COVID-19 pandemic is the nonavailability of the treatment molecules. While vaccines and other biotherapeutic products for managing COVID-19 have reached the market, a small-molecule cure is yet to be developed. This is relevant because the cost of production, storage, and ease of distribution of a small-molecule drug are significantly more favorable than those of biologics. In this paper, we present a multicompound approach, where two drug molecules are administered concurrently to offer an effective therapy for COVID-19. The co-action of the two compounds, each derived from natural origins, has been demonstrated against the 3CL protease, already recognized as a potential drug target for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. The pair of compounds pursued in this study are flavonoid and naphthalene scaffold. Individually, they offer ∼30 to 35% inhibition at 10 µM. Comprehensive docking and molecular dynamics simulations elucidate that these compounds exhibit excellent binding in the process, which however quickly deteriorates, and the ligand is separated from the binding site. This suggests that while the ligands initially bind with the protease, they are unable to maintain it for an extended period. However, the simulation showed that a simultaneous docked complex of both the compounds together with the protein boosts the stronger binding for a sufficient time. The enzyme assay exhibited 97 and 85% inhibition activity when both compounds were used together at 100 and 50 µM, respectively. Later, a multiconcentration assay was used to determine the coinhibitory activity, and it was observed that the compounds have ∼20 to 30% inhibition activity even at lower concentrations of 0.5 and 1 µM. Surface plasmon resonance was used to measure the binding of the compounds, and when used together, the compounds had a 10-fold greater binding affinity. Thus, the results demonstrate a synergistic mechanism between the two compounds that enhances the inhibition activity against SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 976-987, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474606

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is a crucial target for treating coronavirus diseases including COVID-19. Our preliminary screening showed that Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (AGE) displayed potent SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activity, but the key constituents with SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory effect and their mechanisms were unrevealed. Herein, a practical strategy via integrating bioactivity-guided fractionation and purification, mass spectrometry-based peptide profiling and time-dependent biochemical assay, was applied to identify the crucial constituents in AGE and to uncover their inhibitory mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the flavonoid-rich fractions (10-17.5 min) displayed strong SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities, while the constituents in these fractions were isolated and their SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities were investigated. Among all isolated flavonoids, dihydromyricetin, isodihydromyricetin and myricetin strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in a time-dependent manner. Further investigations demonstrated that myricetin could covalently bind on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro at Cys300 and Cys44, while dihydromyricetin and isodihydromyricetin covalently bound at Cys300. Covalent docking coupling with molecular dynamics simulations showed the detailed interactions between the orthoquinone form of myricetin and two covalent binding sites (surrounding Cys300 and Cys44) of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Collectively, the flavonoids in AGE strongly and time-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, while the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors in AGE offer promising lead compounds for developing novel antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
3C Viral Proteases/chemistry , 3C Viral Proteases/metabolism , Ampelopsis/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites/drug effects , Cysteine/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonols/chemistry , Flavonols/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Conformation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20295, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467129

ABSTRACT

Novel SARS-CoV-2, an etiological factor of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), poses a great challenge to the public health care system. Among other druggable targets of SARS-Cov-2, the main protease (Mpro) is regarded as a prominent enzyme target for drug developments owing to its crucial role in virus replication and transcription. We pursued a computational investigation to identify Mpro inhibitors from a compiled library of natural compounds with proven antiviral activities using a hierarchical workflow of molecular docking, ADMET assessment, dynamic simulations and binding free-energy calculations. Five natural compounds, Withanosides V and VI, Racemosides A and B, and Shatavarin IX, obtained better binding affinity and attained stable interactions with Mpro key pocket residues. These intermolecular key interactions were also retained profoundly in the simulation trajectory of 100 ns time scale indicating tight receptor binding. Free energy calculations prioritized Withanosides V and VI as the top candidates that can act as effective SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/ultrastructure , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/drug effects , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 21(16): 1429-1438, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468281

ABSTRACT

As a part of the efforts to quickly develop pharmaceutical treatments for COVID-19 through repurposing existing drugs, some researchers around the world have combined the recently released crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in complex with a covalently bonded inhibitor with virtual screening procedures employing molecular docking approaches. In this context, protease inhibitors (PIs) clinically available and currently used to treat infectious diseases, particularly viral ones, are relevant sources of promising drug candidates to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, a key viral enzyme involved in crucial events during its life cycle. In the present perspective, we summarized the published studies showing the promising use of HIV and HCV PIs as potential repurposing drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus M Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Repositioning , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus M Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus M Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thermodynamics
13.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(33): 3577-3589, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 has caused high mortality and enormous economic loss. Rapid development of new drug molecules is the need of hour to fight COVID-19. However, the conventional approaches of drug development are time consuming and expensive. Here, we have adopted a computational approach to identify lead molecules from nature. Ligands from natural compounds library available at Selleck Inc (L1400) have been screened for their ability to bind and inhibit the main protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The natural compounds library of Selleck Inc. (Catalog No. L1400) were retrieved from www.selleckchem.com. It contains 2230 compounds in sdf format, curated from natural sources. Prior to molecular docking, all the ligands were prepared by adding hydrogen atoms and merging them with non-polar hydrogen atoms. Gasteiger partial charges were added, rotatable bonds were defined, and the energies were minimized using MMFF94 forcefield (11,12). The three-dimensional coordinates of the main protease (Mpro), also known as 3C-like protein (3CLpro), was downloaded from the protein databank available at https://www.rcsb.org/structure/6LU7. The structure was solved to a resolution of 2.16 Å and is bound with a peptide-like inhibitor (N3)(8). The structure of target was prepared for molecular docking by adding hydrogen atoms, Kollman united atom type charges and solvation parameters using AutoDock Tool (ADT) (13). RESULTS: We found that Kaempferol, Quercetin, and Rutin were bound at the substrate binding pocket of 3CLpro with high affinity (105-106 M-1) and interact with the active site residues such as His41 and Cys145 through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. In fact, the binding affinity of Rutin (~106 M-1) was much higher than Chloroquine (~103 M-1) and Hydroxychloroquine (~104 M-1), and the reference drug Remdesivir (~105 M-1). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that natural compounds such as flavonoids have the potential to be developed as novel inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 with a comparable/higher potency as that of Remdesivir. However, their clinical usage on COVID-19 patients is a subject of further investigations and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
14.
Phytochemistry ; 193: 112984, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466835

ABSTRACT

Papain-like protease (PLpro) is a key enzyme encoded by SARS-CoV-2 that is essential for viral replication and immune evasion. Significant suppression of viral spread and promotion of antiviral immunity can be achieved by inhibition of PLpro, revealing an inspiring strategy for COVID-19 treatment. This study aimed to discover PLpro inhibitors by investigating the national compound library of traditional Chinese medicines (NCLTCMs), a phytochemical library comprising over 9000 TCM-derived compounds. Through virtual screening and enzymatic evaluations, nine natural biflavones were confirmed to be effective PLpro inhibitors with IC50 values ranging from 9.5 to 43.2 µM. Pro-ISG15 cleavage assays further demonstrated that several biflavones exhibited potent inhibitory effects against PLpro-mediated deISGylation, a key process involved in viral immune evasion. Herein, we report the discovery, antiviral evaluation, structure-activity relationship elucidation and molecular docking investigation of biflavones as potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463771

ABSTRACT

3CL-Pro is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro). It acts as a homodimer to cleave the large polyprotein 1ab transcript into proteins that are necessary for viral growth and replication. 3CL-Pro has been one of the most studied SARS-CoV-2 proteins and a main target of therapeutics. A number of drug candidates have been reported, including natural products. Here, we employ elaborate computational methods to explore the dimerization of the 3CL-Pro protein, and we formulate a computational context to identify potential inhibitors of this process. We report that fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside), a natural flavonoid O-glycoside, and its structural analogs are potent inhibitors of 3CL-Pro dimerization, inhibiting viral plaque formation in vitro. We thus propose a novel basis for the search of pharmaceuticals as well as dietary supplements in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells
16.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463770

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak prompts an urgent need for efficient therapeutics, and repurposing of known drugs has been extensively used in an attempt to get to anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents in the shortest possible time. The glycoside rutin shows manifold pharmacological activities and, despite its use being limited by its poor solubility in water, it is the active principle of many pharmaceutical preparations. We herein report our in silico and experimental investigations of rutin as a SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor and of its water solubility improvement obtained by mixing it with l-arginine. Tests of the rutin/l-arginine mixture in a cellular model of SARS-CoV-2 infection highlighted that the mixture still suffers from unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, but nonetheless, the results of this study suggest that rutin might be a good starting point for hit optimization.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Rutin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Solubility
17.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(6): 40, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460532

ABSTRACT

The highly infectious disease COVID-19 is induced by SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread rapidly around the globe and was announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 binds to the host cell's angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor through the viral surface spike glycoprotein (S-protein). ACE2 is expressed in the oral mucosa and can therefore constitute an essential route for entry of SARS-CoV-2 into hosts through the tongue and lung epithelial cells. At present, no effective treatments for SARS-CoV-2 are yet in place. Blocking entry of the virus by inhibiting ACE2 is more advantageous than inhibiting the subsequent stages of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Based on current published evidence, we have summarized the different in silico based studies and repurposing of anti-viral drugs to target ACE2, SARS-CoV-2 S-Protein: ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD: ACE2. This review will be useful to researchers looking to effectively recognize and deal with SARS-CoV-2, and in the development of repurposed ACE2 inhibitors against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Repositioning , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Humans
18.
Antiviral Res ; 195: 105183, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458592

ABSTRACT

The likelihood of continued circulation of COVID-19 and its variants, and novel coronaviruses due to future zoonotic transmissions, combined with the current paucity of coronavirus antivirals, emphasize the need for improved screening in developing effective antivirals for the treatment of infection by SARS-CoV-2 (CoV2) and other coronaviruses. Here we report the development of a live-cell based assay for evaluating the intracellular function of the critical, highly-conserved CoV2 target, the Main 3C-like protease (Mpro). This assay is based on expression of native wild-type mature CoV2 Mpro, the function of which is quantitatively evaluated in living cells through cleavage of a biosensor leading to loss of fluorescence. Evaluation does not require cell harvesting, allowing for multiple measurements from the same cells facilitating quantification of Mpro inhibition, as well as recovery of function upon removal of inhibitory drugs. The pan-coronavirus Mpro inhibitor, GC376, was utilized in this assay and effective inhibition of intracellular CoV2 Mpro was found to be consistent with levels required to inhibit CoV2 infection of human lung cells. We demonstrate that GC376 is an effective inhibitor of intracellular CoV2 Mpro at low micromolar levels, while other predicted Mpro inhibitors, bepridil and alverine, are not. Results indicate this system can provide a highly effective high-throughput coronavirus Mpro screening system.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Fluorescence , HEK293 Cells , Humans
19.
J Mol Graph Model ; 110: 108050, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458690

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. With some notable exceptions, safe and effective vaccines, which are now being widely distributed globally, have largely begun to stabilise the situation. However, emerging variants of concern and vaccine hesitancy are apparent obstacles to eradication. Therefore, the need for the development of potent antivirals is still of importance. In this context, the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is a critical target and numerous clinical trials, predominantly in the private domain, are currently in progress. Here, our aim was to extend our previous studies, with hypericin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Firstly, we performed all-atom microsecond molecular dynamics simulations, which highlight the stability of the ligands in the Mpro active site over the duration of the trajectories. We also invoked PELE Monte Carlo simulations which indicate that both hypericin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside preferentially interact with the Mpro active site and known allosteric sites. For further validation, we performed an in vitro enzymatic activity assay that demonstrated that hypericin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside inhibit Mpro activity in a dose-dependent manner at biologically relevant (µM) concentrations. However, both ligands are much less potent than the well-known covalent antiviral GC376, which was used as a positive control in our experiments. Nevertheless, the biologically relevant activity of hypericin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside is encouraging. In particular, a synthetic version of hypericin has FDA orphan drug designation, which could simplify potential clinical evaluation in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Monte Carlo Method , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Mol Model ; 27(11): 312, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446166

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome is rapidly spreading worldwide. The international health authorities are putting all their efforts on quick diagnosis and placing the patients in quarantine. Although different vaccines have come for quick use as prophylactics, drug repurposing seems to be of paramount importance because of inefficient therapeutic options and clinical trial limitations. Here, we used structure-based drug designing approach to find and check the efficacy of the possible drug that can inhibit coronavirus main protease which is involved in polypeptide processing to functional protein. We performed virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations of the FDA-approved drugs against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Using well-defined computational methods, we identified amprenavir, cefoperazone, riboflavin, diosmin, nadide and troxerutin approved for human therapeutic uses, as COVID-19 main protease inhibitors. These drugs bind to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease conserved residues of substrate-binding pocket and formed a remarkable number of non-covalent interactions. We have found diosmin as an inhibitor which binds covalently to the COVID-19 main protease. This study provides enough evidences for therapeutic use of these drugs in controlling COVID-19 after experimental validation and clinical demonstration.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Drug Approval , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
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