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1.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(7): 614-625, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550333

ABSTRACT

p97 processes ubiquitinated substrates and plays a central role in cellular protein homeostasis. Here, we report a series of cryo-EM structures of the substrate-engaged human p97 complex with resolutions ranging from 2.9 to 3.8 Å that captured 'power-stroke'-like motions of both the D1 and D2 ATPase rings of p97. A key feature of these structures is the critical conformational changes of the intersubunit signaling (ISS) motifs, which tighten the binding of nucleotides and neighboring subunits and contribute to the spiral staircase conformation of the D1 and D2 rings. In addition, we determined the cryo-EM structure of human p97 in complex with NMS-873, a potent p97 inhibitor, at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structures showed that NMS-873 binds at a cryptic groove in the D2 domain and interacts with the ISS motif, preventing its conformational change and thus blocking substrate translocation allosterically.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/chemistry , Protein Folding , Proteostasis/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Valosin Containing Protein/metabolism , Acetanilides/pharmacology , Animals , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/physiology , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Ubiquitinated Proteins/metabolism , Valosin Containing Protein/antagonists & inhibitors
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 17): 484, 2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously introduced PCPS (Proteasome Cleavage Prediction Server), a web-based tool to predict proteasome cleavage sites using n-grams. Here, we evaluated the ability of PCPS immunoproteasome cleavage model to discriminate CD8+ T cell epitopes. RESULTS: We first assembled an epitope dataset consisting of 844 unique virus-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes and their source proteins. We then analyzed cleavage predictions by PCPS immunoproteasome cleavage model on this dataset and compared them with those provided by a related method implemented by NetChop web server. PCPS was clearly superior to NetChop in term of sensitivity (0.89 vs. 0.79) but somewhat inferior with regard to specificity (0.55 vs. 0.60). Judging by the Mathew's Correlation Coefficient, PCPS predictions were overall superior to those provided by NetChop (0.46 vs. 0.39). We next analyzed the power of C-terminal cleavage predictions provided by the same PCPS model to discriminate CD8+ T cell epitopes, finding that they could be discriminated from random peptides with an accuracy of 0.74. Following these results, we tuned the PCPS web server to predict CD8+ T cell epitopes and predicted the entire SARS-CoV-2 epitope space. CONCLUSIONS: We report an improved version of PCPS named iPCPS for predicting proteasome cleavage sites and peptides with CD8+ T cell epitope features. iPCPS is available for free public use at https://imed.med.ucm.es/Tools/pcps/ .


Subject(s)
Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Humans , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Software , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
4.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373669

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 2/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Proteolysis/drug effects , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/deficiency , Animals , Cell Line , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Inflammation/chemically induced , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitination
5.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358361

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Catalysis , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , Protein Stability , Proteolysis/drug effects , RNA/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 339-357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353665

ABSTRACT

Posttranslational modifications of targeted substrates alter their cellular fate. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved and ubiquitous covalent modifier protein that tags substrates with a single molecule or with a polyubiquitin chain. Monoubiquitination affects trafficking and signaling patterns of modified proteins. In contrast, polyubiquitination, particularly K48-linked polyubiquitination, targets the protein for degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) resulting in a committed fate through irreversible inactivation of substrate. Given the diversity of cellular functions impacted by ubiquitination, it is no surprise that the wily pathogenic viruses have co-opted the UPS in myriad ways to ensure their survival. In this review, I describe viral exploitation of nondegradative ubiquitin signaling pathways to effect entry, replication, and egress. Additionally, viruses also harness the UPS to degrade antiviral cellular host factors. Finally, I describe how we can exploit the same proteolytic machinery to enable PROTACs (Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras) to degrade essential viral proteins. Successful implementation of this modality will add to the arsenal of emerging antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Ubiquitin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
7.
Sci Signal ; 14(690)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299215

ABSTRACT

Inorganic polyphosphates (polyPs) are linear polymers composed of repeated phosphate (PO4 3-) units linked together by multiple high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. In addition to being a source of energy, polyPs have cytoprotective and antiviral activities. Here, we investigated the antiviral activities of long-chain polyPs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In molecular docking analyses, polyPs interacted with several conserved amino acid residues in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the host receptor that facilitates virus entry, and in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). ELISA and limited proteolysis assays using nano- LC-MS/MS mapped polyP120 binding to ACE2, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed interactions between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and identified the specific amino acid residues involved. PolyP120 enhanced the proteasomal degradation of both ACE2 and RdRp, thus impairing replication of the British B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant. We thus tested polyPs for functional interactions with the virus in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 and Caco2 cells and in primary human nasal epithelial cells. Delivery of a nebulized form of polyP120 reduced the amounts of viral positive-sense genomic and subgenomic RNAs, of RNA transcripts encoding proinflammatory cytokines, and of viral structural proteins, thereby presenting SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells in vitro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Models, Biological , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Polyphosphates/administration & dosage , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Proteolysis/drug effects , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 529(2): 251-256, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220683

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid protein is significant in the formation of viral RNA of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), accounting for the largest proportion of viral structural proteins. Here, we report for the first time that the 11S proteasomal activator PA28γ regulates the intracellular abundance of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein (nCoV N). Furthermore, we have identified proteasome activator PA28γ as a nCoV N binding protein by co-immunoprecipitation assay. As a result of their interaction, nCoV N could be degraded by PA28γ-20S in vitro degradation assay. This was also demonstrated by blocking de novo protein synthesis with cycloheximide. The stability of nCoV N in PA28γ-knockout cells was greater than in PA28γ-wildtype cells. Notably, immunofluorescence staining revealed that knockout of the PA28γ gene in cells led to the transport of nCoV N from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Overexpression of PA28γ enhanced proteolysis of nCoV N compared to that in PA28γ-N151Y cells containing a dominant-negative PA28γ mutation, which reduced this process. These results suggest that PA28γ binding is important in regulating 20S proteasome activity, which in turn regulates levels of the critical nCoV N nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, furthering our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoantigens/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteolysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , HEK293 Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Stability , Protein Transport , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 215: 113267, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111592

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of the proteasome have been extensively studied for their applications in the treatment of human diseases such as hematologic malignancies, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Many of the proteasome inhibitors reported in the literature target the non-primed site of proteasome's substrate binding pocket. In this study, we designed, synthesized and characterized a series of novel α-keto phenylamide derivatives aimed at both the primed and non-primed sites of the proteasome. In these derivatives, different substituted phenyl groups at the head group targeting the primed site were incorporated in order to investigate their structure-activity relationship and optimize the potency of α-keto phenylamides. In addition, the biological effects of modifications at the cap moiety, P1, P2 and P3 side chain positions were explored. Many derivatives displayed highly potent biological activities in proteasome inhibition and anticancer activity against a panel of six cancer cell lines, which were further rationalized by molecular modeling analyses. Furthermore, a representative α-ketoamide derivative was tested and found to be active in inhibiting the cellular infection of SARS-CoV-2 which causes the COVID-19 pandemic. These results demonstrate that this new class of α-ketoamide derivatives are potent anticancer agents and provide experimental evidence of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect by one of them, thus suggesting a possible new lead to develop antiviral therapeutics for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Ketones/pharmacology , Proteasome Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amides/chemical synthesis , Amides/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , Calpain/chemistry , Calpain/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Humans , Ketones/chemical synthesis , Ketones/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/chemistry , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteasome Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Proteasome Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(4): 379-388, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-783270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections can increase the risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation, but the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we determined whether symptomatic respiratory viral infections after lung transplantation induce circulating exosomes that contain lung-associated self-antigens and assessed whether these exosomes activate immune responses to self-antigens. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from lung transplant recipients with symptomatic lower- and upper-tract respiratory viral infections and from non-symptomatic stable recipients. Exosomes were isolated via ultracentrifugation; purity was determined using sucrose cushion; and presence of lung self-antigens, 20S proteasome, and viral antigens for rhinovirus, coronavirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were determined using immunoblot. Mice were immunized with circulating exosomes from each group and resulting differential immune responses and lung histology were analyzed. RESULTS: Exosomes containing self-antigens, 20S proteasome, and viral antigens were detected at significantly higher levels (p < 0.05) in serum of recipients with symptomatic respiratory viral infections (n = 35) as compared with stable controls (n = 32). Mice immunized with exosomes from recipients with respiratory viral infections developed immune responses to self-antigens, fibrosis, small airway occlusion, and significant cellular infiltration; mice immunized with exosomes from controls did not (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating exosomes isolated from lung transplant recipients diagnosed with respiratory viral infections contained lung self-antigens, viral antigens, and 20S proteasome and elicited immune responses to lung self-antigens that resulted in development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction in immunized mice.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/metabolism , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/metabolism , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Aged , Animals , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Autoantigens/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Female , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/complications
11.
Cells ; 10(1)2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000241

ABSTRACT

Protein homeostasis is maintained by removing misfolded, damaged, or excess proteins and damaged organelles from the cell by three major pathways; the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, and the endo-lysosomal pathway. The requirement for ubiquitin provides a link between all three pathways. Sorting nexins are a highly conserved and diverse family of membrane-associated proteins that not only traffic proteins throughout the cells but also provide a second common thread between protein homeostasis pathways. In this review, we will discuss the connections between sorting nexins, ubiquitin, and the interconnected roles they play in maintaining protein quality control mechanisms. Underlying their importance, genetic defects in sorting nexins are linked with a variety of human diseases including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases, viral infections, and cancer. This serves to emphasize the critical roles sorting nexins play in many aspects of cellular function.


Subject(s)
Endosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteostasis , Sorting Nexins , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Autophagy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Sorting Nexins/genetics , Sorting Nexins/physiology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Yeasts
12.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 715, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940863

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has elicited a global health crisis of catastrophic proportions. With only a few vaccines approved for early or limited use, there is a critical need for effective antiviral strategies. In this study, we report a unique antiviral platform, through computational design of ACE2-derived peptides which both target the viral spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and recruit E3 ubiquitin ligases for subsequent intracellular degradation of SARS-CoV-2 in the proteasome. Our engineered peptide fusions demonstrate robust RBD degradation capabilities in human cells and are capable of inhibiting infection-competent viral production, thus prompting their further experimental characterization and therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pandemics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering/methods , Proteolysis , Receptors, Virus , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Virus Attachment
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 250: 108853, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779738

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) is showing obvious interspecies transmission, such as the SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Here, the emerging porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) strain, isolated from Shanghai, China, broadly infects porcine, human and chicken cells in vitro. Previously studies by our group and others have confirmed that PDCoV nucleocapsid (N) protein performs an important role in antagonizing retinoic acid-induced gene I-like receptor (RLR) activation. However, the mechanism of PDCoV N protein suppressing porcine type I IFN production remains unclear, especially the downstream of porcine RLR signaling pathway. In the present study, porcine IRF7 (poIRF7) was identified as the interaction protein of PDCoV N protein through LC-MS/MS. The poIRF7 (268-487aa) was the key region of binding PDCoV N protein. Although IRF7 is a conserved functional protein in species, the PDCoV N protein has been confirmed to interact with only poIRF7 and significantly decrease poIRF7-induced type I IFN production, but not human or chicken IRF7. Furthermore, PDCoV N protein can promote poIRF7 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which directly increased the K6, K11, and K29-linked polyubiquitination of poIRF7. Lysine 359 of poIRF7 was a key site in PDCoV N protein inducing poIRF7 degradation. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism that PDCoV N protein could species-specifically interact with poIRF7 and then promote its degradation to suppress porcine type I IFN production. The novel findings provide a new insight into PDCoV and other zoonotic coronavirus evading the innate immune response of different species.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/chemistry , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Chickens , China , Chromatography, Liquid , Coronavirus/classification , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Interferons/immunology , LLC-PK1 Cells , Phylogeny , Plasmids , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Species Specificity , Swine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Whole Genome Sequencing/veterinary
14.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 66(3): 221-229, 2020 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603065

ABSTRACT

It can be misleading to think that the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) which has a very strong mutation and adaptation capabilities, uses only the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) pathway to reach target cells. Despite all the precautions taken, the pandemic attack continues and the rapid increase in the number of deaths suggest that this virus has entered the cell through different pathways and caused damage through different mechanisms. The main reason why the ACE2 pathway comes to the fore in all scientific studies is that this receptor is located at the entry point of basic mechanisms that provide alveolo-capillary homeostasis. SARS-CoV-2 has to use nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB), caveloae, clathrin, lipoxin, serine protease and proteasome pathways in addition to ACE2 to enter the target cell and initiate damage. For this reason, while new drug development studies are continuing, in order to be beneficial to patients in their acute period, it is imperative that we are able to come up with drugs that activate or inhibit these pathways and are currently in clinical use. It is also critical that we adopt these new pathways to the treatment of pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2, based on the scientific data we use to treat the general population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Lipoxins/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Off-Label Use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Proteasome Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Virus Internalization
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