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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010660, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993526

ABSTRACT

Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever, which is featured by its ability to replicate in acid vacuoles resembling the lysosomal network. One key virulence determinant of C. burnetii is the Dot/Icm system that transfers more than 150 effector proteins into host cells. These effectors function to construct the lysosome-like compartment permissive for bacterial replication, but the functions of most of these effectors remain elusive. In this study, we used an affinity tag purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach to generate a C. burnetii-human protein-protein interaction (PPI) map involving 53 C. burnetii effectors and 3480 host proteins. This PPI map revealed that the C. burnetii effector CBU0425 (designated CirB) interacts with most subunits of the 20S core proteasome. We found that ectopically expressed CirB inhibits hydrolytic activity of the proteasome. In addition, overexpression of CirB in C. burnetii caused dramatic inhibition of proteasome activity in host cells, while knocking down CirB expression alleviated such inhibitory effects. Moreover, we showed that a region of CirB that spans residues 91-120 binds to the proteasome subunit PSMB5 (beta 5). Finally, PSMB5 knockdown promotes C. burnetii virulence, highlighting the importance of proteasome activity modulation during the course of C. burnetii infection.


Subject(s)
Coxiella burnetii , Q Fever , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/genetics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Q Fever/metabolism , Vacuoles/metabolism
2.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0074122, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992937

ABSTRACT

Within the past 2 decades, three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses have emerged, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The health threats and economic burden posed by these tremendously severe coronaviruses have paved the way for research on their etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Compared to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV genome encoded fewer accessory proteins, among which the ORF4b protein had anti-immunity ability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our work for the first time revealed that ORF4b protein was unstable in the host cells and could be degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system. After extensive screenings, it was found that UBR5 (ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 5), a member of the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, specifically regulated the ubiquitination and degradation of ORF4b. Similar to ORF4b, UBR5 can also translocate into the nucleus through its nuclear localization signal, enabling it to regulate ORF4b stability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Through further experiments, lysine 36 was identified as the ubiquitination site on the ORF4b protein, and this residue was highly conserved in various MERS-CoV strains isolated from different regions. When UBR5 was knocked down, the ability of ORF4b to suppress innate immunity was enhanced and MERS-CoV replication was stronger. As an anti-MERS-CoV host protein, UBR5 targets and degrades ORF4b protein through the ubiquitin proteasome system, thereby attenuating the anti-immunity ability of ORF4b and ultimately inhibiting MERS-CoV immune escape, which is a novel antagonistic mechanism of the host against MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE ORF4b was an accessory protein unique to MERS-CoV and was not present in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 which can also cause severe respiratory disease. Moreover, ORF4b inhibited the production of antiviral cytokines in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, which was likely to be associated with the high lethality of MERS-CoV. However, whether the host proteins regulate the function of ORF4b is unknown. Our study first determined that UBR5, a host E3 ligase, was a potential host anti-MERS-CoV protein that could reduce the protein level of ORF4b and diminish its anti-immunity ability by inducing ubiquitination and degradation. Based on the discovery of ORF4b-UBR5, a critical molecular target, further increasing the degradation of ORF4b caused by UBR5 could provide a new strategy for the clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Host Microbial Interactions , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
3.
J Med Chem ; 65(16): 11058-11065, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972507

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and is ranked as the second killer infectious disease after COVID-19. Proteasome accessory factor A (PafA) is considered an attractive target because of its low sequence conservation in humans and its role in virulence. In this study, we designed a mutant of Mtb PafA that enabled large-scale purification of active PafA. Using a devised high-throughput screening assay, two PafA inhibitors were discovered. ST1926 inhibited Mtb PafA by binding in the Pup binding groove, but it was less active against Corynebacterium glutamicum PafA because the ST1926-binding residues are not conserved. Bithionol bound to the conserved ATP-binding pocket, thereby, inhibits PafA in an ATP-competitive manner. Both ST1926 and bithionol inhibited the growth of an attenuated Mtb strain (H37Ra) at micromolar concentrations. Our work thus provides new tools for tuberculosis research and a foundation for future PafA-targeted drug development for treating tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Proteasome Inhibitors , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bithionol/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteasome Inhibitors/chemistry , Proteasome Inhibitors/pharmacology
4.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917275

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin is a small protein that is conjugated to target proteins to signal a great number of critical biological processes. Impaired ubiquitin signaling and defects in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) surveillance are implicated in many human diseases, including cancer. Characterization of the physiological roles of UPS components and their regulatory mechanisms is therefore vital for the identification of therapeutic targets and the development of tools and paradigms to better understand and treat human diseases. In this Special Issue, we assembled seven original research and review articles to provide insights on the multifaceted role of the UPS in pathogenesis and disease, covering the areas of molecular and cellular mechanisms of UPS enzymes, biochemical and biophysical characterization strategies, drug development, and targeted protein degradation.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Ubiquitin , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2442, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890176

ABSTRACT

Interferon restricts SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture, but only a handful of Interferon Stimulated Genes with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 have been identified. Here, we describe a functional CRISPR/Cas9 screen aiming at identifying SARS-CoV-2 restriction factors. We identify DAXX, a scaffold protein residing in PML nuclear bodies known to limit the replication of DNA viruses and retroviruses, as a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in human cells. Basal expression of DAXX is sufficient to limit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, and DAXX over-expression further restricts infection. DAXX restricts an early, post-entry step of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. DAXX-mediated restriction of SARS-CoV-2 is independent of the SUMOylation pathway but dependent on its D/E domain, also necessary for its protein-folding activity. SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers the re-localization of DAXX to cytoplasmic sites and promotes its degradation. Mechanistically, this process is mediated by the viral papain-like protease (PLpro) and the proteasome. Together, these results demonstrate that DAXX restricts SARS-CoV-2, which in turn has evolved a mechanism to counteract its action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Co-Repressor Proteins/genetics , Co-Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Molecular Chaperones/genetics , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism
6.
Phytomedicine ; 103: 154215, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a global serious pandemic and is responsible for over 4 million human deaths. Currently, although various vaccines have been developed, humans can still get SARS-CoV-2 infection after being vaccinated. Therefore, the blocking of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be potential therapeutic strategies. Ganoderma microsporum immunomodulatory protein (GMI), a small fungal protein, is cloned from Ganoderma microsporum. It exhibits anti-cancer and immunomodulatory functions. Currently, it is still unclear whether GMI involves in interfering with viral infection. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential functions and mechanisms of GMI on inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. METHODS: The effects of GMI were examined in vitro on ACE2 overexpressing HEK293T (HEK293T/ACE2) cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 Spike lentiviral pseudovirus encoding a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. The infection efficacy was determined using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The protein level of ACE2 was verified by Western blot. The effects of GMI on cell viability of HEK293T/ACE2 and lung epithelial WI38-2RA cells were determined by MTT assay. Mice received GMI via nebulizer. RESULTS: GMI did not affect the cell viability of HEK293T/ACE2, WI38-2RA and macrophages. Functional studies showed that GMI inhibited GFP expressing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus from infecting HEK293T/ACE2 cells. GMI slightly interfered the interaction between ACE2 and Spike protein. GMI interacted with S2 domain of Spike protein. Specifically, GMI dramatically reduced ACE2 expression in HEK293T/ACE2 and WI38-2RA cells. Mechanistically, GMI induced ACE2 degradation via activating protein degradation system, including proteasome and lysosome. Abolishing proteasome and lysosome by MG132 and bafilomycin A1, respectively, rescued GMI-reduced ACE2 levels. In addition, GMI triggered dynamin and lipid raft-mediated ACE2 endocytosis. ACE2 levels were downregulated in the lung tissue after the mice inhaling GMI. CONCLUSIONS: GMI prevents SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection via induction of ACE2 degradation in host cells. Our findings suggest that GMI will be a potential prevention agent to alleviate SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ganoderma , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Pseudotyping
7.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1510(1): 79-99, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822055

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation is critical for proper cellular function and development. Protein degradation pathways, such as the ubiquitin proteasomes system, autophagy, and endosome-lysosome pathway, must be tightly regulated to ensure proper elimination of misfolded and aggregated proteins and regulate changing protein levels during cellular differentiation, while ensuring that normal proteins remain unscathed. Protein degradation pathways have also garnered interest as a means to selectively eliminate target proteins that may be difficult to inhibit via other mechanisms. On June 7 and 8, 2021, several experts in protein degradation pathways met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Targeting protein degradation: from small molecules to complex organelles." The event brought together researchers working in different protein degradation pathways in an effort to begin to develop a holistic, integrated vision of protein degradation that incorporates all the major pathways to understand how changes in them can lead to disease pathology and, alternatively, how they can be leveraged for novel therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Ubiquitin , Autophagy/physiology , Humans , Organelles , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin/metabolism
8.
Mol Microbiol ; 118(4): 309-320, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794603

ABSTRACT

Adenoviruses (AdVs) are widespread in vertebrates. They infect the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, the eyes, heart, liver, and kidney, and are lethal to immunosuppressed people. Mastadenoviruses infecting mammals comprise several hundred different types, and many specifically infect humans. Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in clinical applications, including cancer treatment and COVID-19 vaccination. AdV vectors are physically and genetically stable and generally safe in humans. The particles have an icosahedral coat and a nucleoprotein core with a DNA genome. We describe the concept of AdV cell entry and highlight recent advances in cytoplasmic transport, uncoating, and nuclear import of the viral DNA. We highlight a recently discovered "linchpin" function of the virion protein V ensuring cytoplasmic particle stability, which is relaxed at the nuclear pore complex by cues from the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mind bomb 1 (MIB1) and the proteasome triggering disruption. Capsid disruption by kinesin motor proteins and microtubules exposes the linchpin and renders protein V a target for MIB1 ubiquitination, which dissociates V from viral DNA and enhances DNA nuclear import. These advances uncover mechanisms controlling capsid stability and premature uncoating and provide insight into nuclear transport of nucleic acids.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/metabolism , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Kinesins , COVID-19 Vaccines , Nuclear Pore/genetics , Nuclear Pore/metabolism , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Nucleoproteins/metabolism , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism
9.
Biomolecules ; 12(3)2022 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742313

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease leads to hypoxemia, inflammation and lymphopenia. Viral infection induces cellular stress and causes the activation of the innate immune response. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is highly implicated in viral immune response regulation. The main function of the proteasome is protein degradation in its active form, which recognises and binds to ubiquitylated proteins. Some proteasome subunits have been reported to be upregulated under hypoxic and hyperinflammatory conditions. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients (n = 44) and age-and sex-matched controls (n = 20). In this study, we suggested that hypoxia could induce the overexpression of certain genes encoding for subunits from the α and ß core of the 20S proteasome and from regulatory particles (19S and 11S) in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the gene expression of proteasome subunits was associated with lymphocyte count reduction and positively correlated with inflammatory molecular and clinical markers. Given the importance of the proteasome in maintaining cellular homeostasis, including the regulation of the apoptotic and pyroptotic pathways, these results provide a potential link between COVID-19 complications and proteasome gene expression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Hypoxia , Inflammation/genetics , Lymphopenia/genetics , Prospective Studies , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/genetics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism
10.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732625

ABSTRACT

Inflammasomes are cytosolic innate immune sensors of pathogen infection and cellular damage that induce caspase-1-mediated inflammation upon activation. Although inflammation is protective, uncontrolled excessive inflammation can cause inflammatory diseases and can be detrimental, such as in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the underlying mechanisms that control inflammasome activation are incompletely understood. Here we report that the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein ribonuclease inhibitor (RNH1), which shares homology with LRRs of NLRP (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain containing) proteins, attenuates inflammasome activation. Deletion of RNH1 in macrophages increases interleukin (IL)-1ß production and caspase-1 activation in response to inflammasome stimulation. Mechanistically, RNH1 decreases pro-IL-1ß expression and induces proteasome-mediated caspase-1 degradation. Corroborating this, mouse models of monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia, which are dependent on caspase-1, respectively, show increased neutrophil infiltration and lethality in Rnh1 -/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, RNH1 protein levels were negatively related with disease severity and inflammation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We propose that RNH1 is a new inflammasome regulator with relevance to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Patient Acuity , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615843

ABSTRACT

Virus infection of eukaryotes triggers cellular innate immune response, a major arm of which is the type I interferon (IFN) family of cytokines. Binding of IFN to cell surface receptors triggers a signaling cascade in which the signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) plays a key role, ultimately leading to an antiviral state of the cell. In retaliation, many viruses counteract the immune response, often by the destruction and/or inactivation of STAT2, promoted by specific viral proteins that do not possess protease activities of their own. This review offers a summary of viral mechanisms of STAT2 subversion with emphasis on degradation. Some viruses also destroy STAT1, another major member of the STAT family, but most viruses are selective in targeting either STAT2 or STAT1. Interestingly, degradation of STAT2 by a few viruses requires the presence of both STAT proteins. Available evidence suggests a mechanism in which multiple sites and domains of STAT2 are required for engagement and degradation by a multi-subunit degradative complex, comprising viral and cellular proteins, including the ubiquitin-proteasomal system. However, the exact molecular nature of this complex and the alternative degradation mechanisms remain largely unknown, as critically presented here with prospective directions of future study.


Subject(s)
Proteolysis , STAT2 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Humans , Models, Biological , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , STAT2 Transcription Factor/chemistry , STAT2 Transcription Factor/ultrastructure , Ubiquitin/metabolism
12.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(7): 614-625, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550333

ABSTRACT

p97 processes ubiquitinated substrates and plays a central role in cellular protein homeostasis. Here, we report a series of cryo-EM structures of the substrate-engaged human p97 complex with resolutions ranging from 2.9 to 3.8 Å that captured 'power-stroke'-like motions of both the D1 and D2 ATPase rings of p97. A key feature of these structures is the critical conformational changes of the intersubunit signaling (ISS) motifs, which tighten the binding of nucleotides and neighboring subunits and contribute to the spiral staircase conformation of the D1 and D2 rings. In addition, we determined the cryo-EM structure of human p97 in complex with NMS-873, a potent p97 inhibitor, at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structures showed that NMS-873 binds at a cryptic groove in the D2 domain and interacts with the ISS motif, preventing its conformational change and thus blocking substrate translocation allosterically.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/chemistry , Protein Folding , Proteostasis/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Valosin Containing Protein/metabolism , Acetanilides/pharmacology , Animals , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/physiology , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Ubiquitinated Proteins/metabolism , Valosin Containing Protein/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(1): 67-78, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541184

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused severe morbidity and mortality in humans. It is urgent to understand the function of viral genes. However, the function of open reading frame 10 (ORF10), which is uniquely expressed by SARS-CoV-2, remains unclear. In this study, we showed that overexpression of ORF10 markedly suppressed the expression of type I interferon (IFN-I) genes and IFN-stimulated genes. Then, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) was identified as the target via which ORF10 suppresses the IFN-I signaling pathway, and MAVS was found to be degraded through the ORF10-induced autophagy pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of ORF10 promoted the accumulation of LC3 in mitochondria and induced mitophagy. Mechanistically, ORF10 was translocated to mitochondria by interacting with the mitophagy receptor Nip3-like protein X (NIX) and induced mitophagy through its interaction with both NIX and LC3B. Moreover, knockdown of NIX expression blocked mitophagy activation, MAVS degradation, and IFN-I signaling pathway inhibition by ORF10. Consistent with our observations, in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, ORF10 inhibited MAVS expression and facilitated viral replication. In brief, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 inhibits the innate immune response; that is, ORF10 induces mitophagy-mediated MAVS degradation by binding to NIX.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Autophagy/immunology , Gene Silencing , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitophagy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
14.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438506

ABSTRACT

The majority of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis develop ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) characterized by loss of muscle mass, reduction in myofiber size and decreased muscle strength leading to persisting physical impairment. This phenotype results from a dysregulated protein homeostasis with increased protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis, eventually causing a decrease in muscle structural proteins. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the predominant protein-degrading system in muscle that is activated during diverse muscle atrophy conditions, e.g., inflammation. The specificity of UPS-mediated protein degradation is assured by E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as atrogin-1 and MuRF1, which target structural and contractile proteins, proteins involved in energy metabolism and transcription factors for UPS-dependent degradation. Although the regulation of activity and function of E3 ubiquitin ligases in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy is well perceived, the contribution of the proteasome to muscle atrophy during inflammation is still elusive. During inflammation, a shift from standard- to immunoproteasome was described; however, to which extent this contributes to muscle wasting and whether this changes targeting of specific muscular proteins is not well described. This review summarizes the function of the main proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase response proteins and their signaling pathways in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy with a focus on UPS-mediated protein degradation in muscle during sepsis. The regulation and target-specificity of the main E3 ubiquitin ligases in muscle atrophy and their mode of action on myofibrillar proteins will be reported. The function of the standard- and immunoproteasome in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy will be described and the effects of proteasome-inhibitors as treatment strategies will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Proteolysis
16.
J Cell Biochem ; 123(2): 161-182, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405827

ABSTRACT

Viruses are known to cause various diseases in human and also infect other species such as animal plants, fungi, and bacteria. Replication of viruses depends upon their interaction with hosts. Human cells are prone to such unwanted viral infections. Disintegration and reconstitution require host machinery and various macromolecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins are invaded by viral particles. E3 ubiquitin ligases are known for their specific function, that is, recognition of their respective substrates for intracellular degradation. Still, we do not understand how ubiquitin proteasome system-based enzymes E3 ubiquitin ligases do their functional interaction with different viruses. Whether E3 ubiquitin ligases help in the elimination of viral components or viruses utilize their molecular capabilities in their intracellular propagation is not clear. The first time our current article comprehends fundamental concepts and new insights on the different viruses and their interaction with various E3 Ubiquitin Ligases. In this review, we highlight the molecular pathomechanism of viruses linked with E3 Ubiquitin Ligases dependent mechanisms. An enhanced understanding of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase-mediated removal of viral proteins may open new therapeutic strategies against viral infections.


Subject(s)
Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/physiology , Viral Proteins/physiology , Virus Diseases/enzymology , Virus Replication/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Transformation, Viral/physiology , Cullin Proteins/physiology , Endosomes/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/enzymology , Inflammation/virology , Neoplasms/enzymology , Neoplasms/virology , Oncogenic Viruses/physiology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteolysis , Tripartite Motif Proteins/physiology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 17): 484, 2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously introduced PCPS (Proteasome Cleavage Prediction Server), a web-based tool to predict proteasome cleavage sites using n-grams. Here, we evaluated the ability of PCPS immunoproteasome cleavage model to discriminate CD8+ T cell epitopes. RESULTS: We first assembled an epitope dataset consisting of 844 unique virus-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes and their source proteins. We then analyzed cleavage predictions by PCPS immunoproteasome cleavage model on this dataset and compared them with those provided by a related method implemented by NetChop web server. PCPS was clearly superior to NetChop in term of sensitivity (0.89 vs. 0.79) but somewhat inferior with regard to specificity (0.55 vs. 0.60). Judging by the Mathew's Correlation Coefficient, PCPS predictions were overall superior to those provided by NetChop (0.46 vs. 0.39). We next analyzed the power of C-terminal cleavage predictions provided by the same PCPS model to discriminate CD8+ T cell epitopes, finding that they could be discriminated from random peptides with an accuracy of 0.74. Following these results, we tuned the PCPS web server to predict CD8+ T cell epitopes and predicted the entire SARS-CoV-2 epitope space. CONCLUSIONS: We report an improved version of PCPS named iPCPS for predicting proteasome cleavage sites and peptides with CD8+ T cell epitope features. iPCPS is available for free public use at https://imed.med.ucm.es/Tools/pcps/ .


Subject(s)
Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Humans , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Software , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
18.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373669

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 2/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Proteolysis/drug effects , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/deficiency , Animals , Cell Line , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Inflammation/chemically induced , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitination
19.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358361

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


TITLE: Dégradation induite des protéines par des molécules PROTAC et stratégies apparentées : développements à visée thérapeutique. ABSTRACT: Alors que, pour la plupart, les médicaments actuels sont de petites molécules inhibant l'action d'une protéine en bloquant un site d'interaction, la dégradation ciblée des protéines, découverte il y a une vingtaine d'années via les petites molécules PROTAC, connaît aujourd'hui un très grand développement, aussi bien au niveau universitaire qu'industriel. Cette dégradation ciblée permet de contrôler la concentration intracellulaire d'une protéine spécifique comme peuvent le faire les techniques basées sur les acides nucléiques (oligonucléotides antisens, ARNsi, CRISPR-Cas9). Les molécules PROTAC sont des chimères hétéro-bifonctionnelles capables de lier simultanément une protéine spécifique devant être dégradée et une E3 ubiquitine ligase. Les PROTAC sont donc capables de provoquer l'ubiquitinylation de la protéine ciblée et sa dégradation par le protéasome 26S. De nature peptidique, puis non peptidique, les PROTAC sont maintenant administrables par voie orale. Ce détournement du système ubiquitine protéasome permet aux molécules PROTAC d'élargir considérablement le champ des applications thérapeutiques puisque l'élimination de protéines dépourvues de poches ou de crevasses bien définies, dites difficiles à cibler, devient possible. Cette technologie versatile a conduit à la dégradation d'une grande variété de protéines comme des facteurs de transcription, des sérine/thréonine/tyrosine kinases, des protéines de structure, des protéines cytosoliques, des lecteurs épigénétiques. Certaines ligases telles que VHL, MDM2, cereblon et IAP sont couramment utilisées pour être recrutées par les PROTAC. Actuellement, le nombre de ligases pouvant être utilisées ainsi que la nature des protéines dégradées sont en constante augmentation. Deux PROTAC sont en étude clinique pour les cancers du sein (ARV471) et de la prostate (ARV110). La dégradation spécifique d'une protéine par le protéasome peut aussi être induite par d'autres types de molécules synthétiques : colles moléculaires, marqueurs hydrophobes, HaloPROTAC, homo-PROTAC. D'autres constituants cellulaires sont aussi éligibles à une dégradation induite : ARN-PROTAC pour les protéines se liant à l'ARN et RIBOTAC pour la dégradation de l'ARN lui-même comme celui du SARS-CoV-2. Des dégradations induites en dehors du protéasome sont aussi connues : LYTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation de protéines extracellulaires vers les lysosomes, et MADTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation par macroautophagie. Plusieurs techniques, en particulier des plates-formes de criblage, la modélisation mathématique et la conception computationnelle sont utilisées pour le développement de nouveaux PROTAC efficaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Catalysis , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , Protein Stability , Proteolysis/drug effects , RNA/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
20.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 20: 100134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356359

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a global health pandemic. COVID-19 severity ranges from an asymptomatic infection to a severe multiorgan disease. Although the inflammatory response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, the exact nature of dysregulation in signaling pathways has not yet been elucidated, underscoring the need for further molecular characterization of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Here, we characterize the host response directly at the point of viral entry through analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs. Multiplexed high-resolution MS-based proteomic analysis of confirmed COVID-19 cases and negative controls identified 7582 proteins and revealed significant upregulation of interferon-mediated antiviral signaling in addition to multiple other proteins that are not encoded by interferon-stimulated genes or well characterized during viral infections. Downregulation of several proteasomal subunits, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and components of protein synthesis machinery was significant upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Targeted proteomics to measure abundance levels of MX1, ISG15, STAT1, RIG-I, and CXCL10 detected proteomic signatures of interferon-mediated antiviral signaling that differentiated COVID-19-positive from COVID-19-negative cases. Phosphoproteomic analysis revealed increased phosphorylation of several proteins with known antiviral properties as well as several proteins involved in ciliary function (CEP131 and CFAP57) that have not previously been implicated in the context of coronavirus infections. In addition, decreased phosphorylation levels of AKT and PKC, which have been shown to play varying roles in different viral infections, were observed in infected individuals relative to controls. These data provide novel insights that add depth to our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper airway and establish a proteomic signature for this viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Proteome/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, Liquid , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Receptors, Opioid/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Ubiquitin/metabolism
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