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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e057021, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596640

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic was making a huge impact on Europe's healthcare systems in the spring of 2020, and most predictive models concurred that pandemic waves were in the offing. Most studies adopted a pathogenic approach to the subject; few used a salutogenic approach. These showed, however, that nurses can retain their health despite a pandemic by mobilising generalised resistance resources. Our study aims to understand how nurses working in Switzerland's hospitals protected their health and workplace well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic by investigating the moderating effects of the health resources they mobilised against the stressors inherent to the situation. The study aims to explore and describe the stressors and the resources nurses used to remain healthy during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: We will use a concurrent mixed-methods panel design with qualitative analyses ancillary to quantitative analyses. Quantitative data will be collected using electronic questionnaires at four time points over 2 years. Qualitative data will be collected using focus groups. Nurses from Switzerland's two main linguistic regions who had direct, indirect or no contact with patients with COVID-19 will be invited to participate. The a priori sample size will be at least 3631 participants at T0 and 1852 at T4. Longitudinal structural equation modelling and knowledge mapping will be used to analyse quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. The results derived from the two data types will then be compared and discussed using a side-by-side approach to determine whether they agree or disagree and how they complement each other to achieve our aims. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Nurses will receive an electronic informed consent form. The data collected will be stored on a secure server at the authors' institution. This research project was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Canton of Vaud (2020-02845).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Switzerland/epidemiology , Workplace
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 846, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pregnant population experienced unique COVID-19 physical and psychosocial stressors such as direct health concerns related to the virus and loss of access to resources since the COVID-19 emerged as a global pandemic in early 2020. Despite these COVID-19-related stress and concerns, the maternal experience of bonding with their unborn children has not been well studied. This work aimed to study the association between mental health history, current mental health symptoms, psychological factors, COVID-19-related worries, and self-reported maternal-fetal bonding of pregnant women. METHODS: This online, survey-based cross-sectional study focused on women pregnant during the pandemic and assessed 686 women using data collected from May 19, 2020 to October 3, 2020. Enrolled respondents completed assessments in which they self-reported maternal-fetal bonding, mental health symptomatology, psychological factors, and COVID-19-related worries regarding health, pregnancy, and resources. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms in pregnant women were associated with lower quality maternal-fetal bonding, while a higher level of anxiety was positively associated with bonding; however, past history of depression or generalized anxiety diagnosis did not appear to be as relevant as active symptomatology. Maternal resilience, but not distress tolerance, appeared to be a protective factor resulting in improved bonding. Higher levels of worry regarding impact of COVID-19 on health were significantly associated with improved bonding, while worries regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the pregnancy or resources were not significantly associated with bonding. The study also found associations between different sociodemographic variables and bonding, including a strong positive association between first time motherhood and bonding and a negative association between higher education and income and bonding. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to report potential protective and risk factors to the maternal-fetal bonding process in women pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unique COVID-19 concerns exist; however, anxiety and COVID-19 concerns do not appear to undermine maternal-fetal bonding while active depressive symptomatology may negatively influence bonding; interventions increasing maternal resilience may be particularly valuable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 767, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to regional or nationwide lockdowns as part of risk mitigation measurements in many countries worldwide. Recent studies suggest an unexpected and unprecedented decrease in preterm births during the initial COVID-19 lockdowns in the first half of 2020. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the two months of the initial national COVID-19 lockdown period on the incidence of very and extremely preterm birth in the Netherlands, stratified by either spontaneous or iatrogenic onset of delivery, in both singleton and multiple pregnancies. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using data from all 10 perinatal centers in the Netherlands on very and extremely preterm births during the initial COVID-19 lockdown from March 15 to May 15, 2020. Incidences of very and extremely preterm birth were calculated using an estimate of the total number of births in the Netherlands in this period. As reference, we used data from the corresponding calendar period in 2015-2018 from the national perinatal registry (Perined). We differentiated between spontaneous versus iatrogenic onset of delivery and between singleton versus multiple pregnancies. RESULTS: The incidence of total preterm birth < 32 weeks in singleton pregnancies was 6.1‰ in the study period in 2020 versus 6.5‰ in the corresponding period in 2015-2018. The decrease in preterm births in singletons was solely due to a significant decrease in iatrogenic preterm births, both < 32 weeks (OR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53 to 0.95) and < 28 weeks (OR 0.53; 95%CI 0.29 to 0.97). For multiple pregnancies, an increase in preterm births < 28 weeks was observed (OR 2.43; 95%CI 1.35 to 4.39). CONCLUSION: This study shows a decrease in iatrogenic preterm births during the initial COVID-19-related lockdown in the Netherlands in singletons. Future studies should focus on the mechanism of action of lockdown measures and reduction of preterm birth and the effects of perinatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Labor, Induced/trends , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/epidemiology , Incidence , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/trends , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 737223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506974

ABSTRACT

Background: The corona pandemic has forced higher education (HE) institutes to transition to online learning, with subsequent implications for student wellbeing. Aims: This study explored influences on student wellbeing throughout the first wave of the corona crisis in the Netherlands by testing serial mediation models of the relationships between perceived academic stress, depression, resilience, and HE support. Methods: The Covid-19 International Student Wellbeing Study (C19 ISWS) was used, with a total sample of 2,480 higher education students studying at InHolland Universities of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands. Student subgroups were created, so that students with low and high perceived academic stress could be assessed, in addition to depressed and non-depressed students. Predictive model fit was tested using Macro PROCESS. Results: A significant serial mediation model for the total student sample was revealed, including protective mediating effects of resilience and HE support on the positive direct effect of perceived academic stress on depression. At subgroup level, significant (partial) predictive effects of resilience on depression scores were noted. A partial serial effect between resilience and HE support was found for students with low perceived stress levels, whereas a parallel partial mediation model was present among highly academically stressed students. Regarding non-depressed students, a full parallel mediation model was found, whereas the model for depressed students inadequately explained the data. Conclusions: Overall, resilience and HE support mediate the predictive effect of academic stress on depressive symptoms among students. In addition, substantial differences in model fit arise when inspecting the students on a subgroup level. These findings contribute to the gap in knowledge regarding student wellbeing during the Covid-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, in addition to providing novel insights on student subgroup dynamics. While Covid-19 restrictions continue to demand online learning, student wellbeing may be enhanced overall by targeting resilience and increasing awareness and availability of HE support services. The current study also highlights the need for differential approaches when examining wellbeing for specific student groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 305: 114254, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487925

ABSTRACT

The spread of the novel coronavirus has led to unprecedented changes in daily living. College students (N = 205) completed a battery of questionnaires in April of 2020, after having completed similar measures 8, 5, and 2 months prior as part of a larger study. A repeated measures ANOVA suggested significantly greater depression and anxiety symptom severity during the pandemic than any other time during the 2019-2020 academic year. Two-thirds reported a level of distress above clinical cutoffs on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Pre-existing depression and anxiety symptom severity was associated with greater psychological distress during the pandemic. One quarter of students reported using substances to cope with the pandemic. Static and modifiable factors associated with psychological distress and controlling for pre-existing psychological distress were examined. Cognitive and behavioral avoidance, online social engagement, and problematic Internet use were associated with greater risk. Women and Latinx participants were more likely to experience elevated distress during the pandemic, even when controlling for distress prior to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1964197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467268

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic exposes individuals to multiple stressors, such as quarantine, physical distancing, job loss, risk of infection, and loss of loved ones. Such a complex array of stressors potentially lead to symptoms of adjustment disorder. Objective: This cross-sectional exploratory study examined relationships between risk and protective factors, stressors, and symptoms of adjustment disorder during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Data from the first wave of the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) longitudinal ADJUST Study were used. N = 15,563 participants aged 18 years and above were recruited in eleven countries (Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden) from June to November 2020. Associations between risk and protective factors (e.g. gender, diagnosis of a mental health disorder), stressors (e.g. fear of infection, restricted face-to-face contact), and symptoms of adjustment disorder (ADNM-8) were examined using multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of self-reported probable adjustment disorder was 18.2%. Risk factors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were female gender, older age, being at risk for severe COVID-19 illness, poorer general health status, current or previous trauma exposure, a current or previous mental health disorder, and longer exposure to COVID-19 news. Protective factors related to lower levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were higher income, being retired, and having more face-to-face contact with loved ones or friends. Pandemic-related stressors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder included fear of infection, governmental crisis management, restricted social contact, work-related problems, restricted activity, and difficult housing conditions. Conclusions: We identified stressors, risk, and protective factors that may help identify individuals at higher risk for adjustment disorder.


Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 expone a las personas a múltiples factores estresantes, como la cuarentena, el distanciamiento físico, la pérdida del trabajo, el riesgo de infección, y la pérdida de seres queridos. Esta compleja serie de factores estresantes puede potencialmente conducir a síntomas del trastorno de adaptación.Objetivo: Este estudio exploratorio transversal examinó las relaciones entre los factores de riesgo y de protección, los factores estresantes, y los síntomas del trastorno de adaptación durante el primer año de la pandemia de COVID-19.Métodos: Se utilizaron datos de la primera ola del estudio longitudinal ADJUST de la Sociedad Europea de Estudios de Estrés Traumático (ESTSS en su sigla en inglés). N = 15.563 participantes de 18 años o más fueron reclutados en once países (Austria, Croacia, Georgia, Alemania, Grecia, Italia, Lituania, Países Bajos, Polonia, Portugal, y Suecia) de junio a noviembre de 2020. Se examinaron mediante regresión lineal multivariante las asociaciones entre los factores de riesgo y de protección (p. ej., género, diagnóstico de un trastorno de salud mental), factores estresantes (p. ej., miedo a la infección, contacto restringido cara a cara), y síntomas del trastorno de adaptación (ADNM-8 en su sigla en inglés).Resultados: La prevalencia del trastorno de adaptación probable autoinformado fue del 18,2%. Los factores de riesgo asociados con niveles más altos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación fueron género femenino, edad avanzada, riesgo de enfermedad grave por COVID-19, peor estado de salud general, exposición a un trauma actual o anterior, un trastorno de salud mental actual o anterior, y una exposición más prolongada a las noticias de COVID-19. Los factores de protección relacionados con niveles más bajos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación fueron mayores ingresos, estar jubilado, y tener más contacto cara a cara con sus seres queridos o amigos. Los factores estresantes relacionados con la pandemia que se asociaron con niveles más altos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación incluyeron miedo a la infección, manejo gubernamental de crisis, contacto social restringido, problemas relacionados con el trabajo, actividad restringida, y condiciones de vivienda difíciles.Conclusiones: Identificamos factores estresantes, de riesgo, y protectores que pueden ayudar a identificar a las personas con mayor riesgo de trastorno de adaptación.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Adjustment Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Protective Factors , Psychological Trauma/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21855-21865, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although it is known that mortality due to COVID-19 increases progressively with age, the probability of dying from this serious infection among the oldest-old population is little known, and controversial data are found in literature. METHODS: We examine the mortality by year and month of birth of Belgians who had turned 100 during the current COVID-19 pandemic and whose birth fell on the years around the end the First World War and the outbreak of the H1N1 "Spanish flu" pandemic. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 mortality of the "older" centenarians is significantly lower than that of "younger" centenarians, and this difference between the two groups reaches a maximum on August 1, 1918 as the discriminating cut-off date of birth. Having excluded the plausible impact of the end of WWI it becomes clear that this date corresponds to the time of reporting the first victims of the Spanish flu pandemic in Belgium. INTERPRETATION: In this study, the striking temporal coincidence between the outbreak of the Spanish flu epidemic and the birth of the cohorts characterized by greater fragility towards COVID-19 in 2020 strongly suggests a link between exposure to 1918 H1N1 pandemic influenza and resistance towards 2020 SARS-Cov-2. It can be speculated that the lifetime persistence of cross-reactive immune mechanisms has enabled centenarians exposed to the Spanish flu to overcome the threat of COVID-19 a century later.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Exposome , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Survival , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium , Disease Outbreaks , Female , History, 20th Century , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Male , Parturition , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , World War I
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 352-357, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431260

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Introduction. The pandemic SARS-Cov-2 outbreak necessitated the implementation of changes in everyday obstetric attendance, which demands continuity of care. Employment of sudden changes in obstetric attendance could have increased anxiety among medical personnel. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the Communication was to analyse the influence of professional experience on the level of anxiety in a group of midwives during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis included 100 midwives: average professional experience: 11.51 years (max. 36; median 7,5; SD: 10.37; p<0.0001). The largest group of respondents was employed in a tertiary referral hospital (n = 40), the smallest in a medical clinic (n = 7). A preliminary study using an online questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7), posted on Internet fora, Facebook fan pages of The Childbirth with Dignity Foundation, and the Foundation for Midwives, using the Snowball sampling method. The Ethics Committee for Research Projects at the Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, approved the research project (Approval No. 35/2020). RESULTS: The average score was 9.390 (max. 21, median 8.5; SD; 5.228). The length of professional experience did not correspond to the level of anxiety (r = -0.0097; p = 0.9237). In 20 respondents, no anxiety was traced, while the smallest group indicated severe anxiety (n = 15). Professional experience did not influence the level of anxiety in either group with different level of anxiety (ANOVA test; p = 0.465). . CONCLUSIONS: Professional experience did not influence the level of anxiety. In order to prevent exacerbation of anxiety symptoms, different factors which may playa vital role in enhancing the level of anxiety must be analysed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Midwifery , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Protective Factors , Severity of Illness Index
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 445, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of depression has risen in the general population during the COVID-19 epidemic. This study was conducted to explore risk and protective factors associated with depression among the general population uninfected by COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,500 representative South Korean citizens aged 19-65 years through an anonymous online survey. Depression was defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of 10 or higher. Other questionnaires included one measuring psycho-behavioural and social changes, and stress, due to COVID-19, a six-item version of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6), and a three-item version of the UCLA loneliness scale. RESULTS: Of the 1492 participants not infected by COVID-19, 312 (20.9%) exhibited depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that depression was positively associated with COVID-19-related stress and psycho-behavioural variables such as disturbances in eating and sleeping, younger age, smoking, underlying mental illness, and loneliness scale scores. In contrast, exercise three or more times per week and GQ-6 scale scores were inversely associated with depression. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, maintaining daily routines including eating, sleeping, and regular exercise and focusing on gratitude may be important for the prevention of depression. In addition, more attention should be paid to vulnerable populations, including young people, those with mental illnesses, and smokers, who might be more susceptible to depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Cytometry A ; 97(9): 882-886, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384154

ABSTRACT

Operating shared resource laboratories (SRLs) in times of pandemic is a challenge for research institutions. In a multiuser, high-turnover working space, the transmission of infectious agents is difficult to control. To address this challenge, imaging core facility managers being members of German BioImaging discussed how shared microscopes could be operated with minimal risk of spreading SARS-CoV-2 between users and staff. Here, we describe the resulting guidelines and explain their rationale, with a focus on separating users in space and time, protective face masks, and keeping surfaces virus-free. These recommendations may prove useful for other types of SRLs. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control , Laboratories/organization & administration , Microscopy , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Cooperative Behavior , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Decontamination , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Germany , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protective Factors , Research Personnel/organization & administration , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Workflow
13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 67, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387235

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not only a threat to physical health but is also having severe impacts on mental health. Although increases in stress-related symptomatology and other adverse psycho-social outcomes, as well as their most important risk factors have been described, hardly anything is known about potential protective factors. Resilience refers to the maintenance of mental health despite adversity. To gain mechanistic insights about the relationship between described psycho-social resilience factors and resilience specifically in the current crisis, we assessed resilience factors, exposure to Corona crisis-specific and general stressors, as well as internalizing symptoms in a cross-sectional online survey conducted in 24 languages during the most intense phase of the lockdown in Europe (22 March to 19 April) in a convenience sample of N = 15,970 adults. Resilience, as an outcome, was conceptualized as good mental health despite stressor exposure and measured as the inverse residual between actual and predicted symptom total score. Preregistered hypotheses (osf.io/r6btn) were tested with multiple regression models and mediation analyses. Results confirmed our primary hypothesis that positive appraisal style (PAS) is positively associated with resilience (p < 0.0001). The resilience factor PAS also partly mediated the positive association between perceived social support and resilience, and its association with resilience was in turn partly mediated by the ability to easily recover from stress (both p < 0.0001). In comparison with other resilience factors, good stress response recovery and positive appraisal specifically of the consequences of the Corona crisis were the strongest factors. Preregistered exploratory subgroup analyses (osf.io/thka9) showed that all tested resilience factors generalize across major socio-demographic categories. This research identifies modifiable protective factors that can be targeted by public mental health efforts in this and in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Resilience, Psychological , Social Factors , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Protective Factors , Regression Analysis , Social Support , Young Adult
16.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211042190, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused considerable stress throughout the world. Little is known about how postpartum women who gave birth during the early months of the pandemic were impacted. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the associations between potential risk, protective factors, and psychological distress among postpartum women who gave birth during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Postpartum women over the age of 18 years who gave birth in the US hospitals between March and July of 2020 and spoke English completed a survey about their experiences. Demographic and health variables were measured via self-report. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale-10. Mastery was measured with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Resilience was measured with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. RESULTS: This study included 885 women. Participants had higher stress and lower resilience relative to pre-pandemic norms. Participants had high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Women who had an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit had more stress. Income, full-time employment, and partnered relationships were associated with lower stress. Resilience and mastery were related to lower stress, depression, and anxiety. Black, Indigenous, or People of Color women showed higher stress and lower resiliency. Single women were likely to report lower levels of mastery than partnered women. CONCLUSION: Stress, depression, and anxiety were high in postpartum women in this study. Income, partnered relationships, and employment security, along with protective traits such as mastery and resilience, may reduce the impact of stress on postpartum women in a pandemic. Care models should be modified to support women during a pandemic. Health disparities exist in postpartum stress. Future interventions should focus on building resiliency and mastery and ensuring appropriate resources are available to postpartum women in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , Psychological Distress , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378264

ABSTRACT

The use of electronic media (EM) by youths has been widely described in the literature, indicating the relevance of understanding the factors that can protect against its risks. We aimed to explore the protective role of participating in extracurricular activities (ECAs) and of parental mediation in the use of EM by young people. A total of 1413 people (729 students, aged between 11 and 17 years old, and one of their parents) participated in this study. Youths who engaged in ECAs spent significantly less time per week on EM and perceived that the use of EM devices had less of a negative impact. When parents and their children presented a congruent notion of how much time youth spent on EM, parents perceived EM to have less of a negative impact on their children compared to dyads with discrepant assessments. The hierarchical regression results indicated that regardless of time spent per week on EM, engaging in ECAs was a significant predictor of perceiving a less negative impact, playing a role as a protective factor regarding the use of EM. The ubiquity of EM reinforces the importance of the focus of this study, and its results contribute to creating specific guidelines for parental education and educational policies.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Educational Status , Electronics , Humans , Protective Factors , Students
18.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(3): 546-559, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373860

ABSTRACT

The current study examined (1) changes in psychosocial adjustment among adolescents completing two surveys before COVID-19 and those completing the final survey during COVID-19 and (2) related risk/protective factors. Participants were 208 US adolescents (Mage  = 15.09, SD = 0.50, 48.8% female, 86.1% White; 40.9% COVID group) who completed longitudinal surveys assessing psychosocial adjustment and related risk/protective factors (e.g., emotion regulation, well-being pursuits). Only adolescents completing Wave 3 during COVID-19 experienced increases in depressive symptoms, negative affect, and isolation and decreases in positive affect and friendship. Several variables served as risk (i.e., dampening) and protective (i.e., eudaimonic and hedonic motives) factors of these changes. Findings highlight the range of factors that are distinctly associated with negative changes in adolescent adjustment during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Female , Friends , Humans , Male , Motivation , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Health Psychol ; 40(7): 428-438, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Italy by specifically looking at the psychosocial response of children/adolescents with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) and their parents, and explored which factors could potentially contribute to increasing or mitigating stress-related behaviors in children/adolescents as well as their parents' stress. METHOD: An online anonymous survey was designed to investigate family demographic characteristics, COVID-19 outbreak and restriction-related variables, children/adolescents' behavioral regulation problems, parental stress, and resilience. Data were collected from 1,472 parents (83.1% mothers) of 1632 NDD children/adolescents (33.7% females). RESULTS: Compared to pre-emergency, parents reported a significant increase in their children's behavioral regulation problems: Anxious/depressed behavior, Attention problems, and Aggressive behavior (p < .001), and they reported feeling more Overwhelmed and Burdened (p < .001) as parents but less Unfulfilled, Numbness, Devastated, and Angry (p < .001). A hierarchical stepwise regression analysis revealed that both behavioral regulation problems in NDD children/adolescents and parental stress are-at least partially-buffered by resilience factors in parents (Perception of self, Planned future, Family cohesion). CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that behavioral regulation problems in children/adolescents with NDD and parental stress increased. However, parental resilience can act as a protective factor, counterbalancing parental difficulties in the care of their NDD children during the emergency. Identifying risk and protective factors impacting the psychosocial response ofchildren/adolescents with NDD and their parents is essential to implement appropriate support interventions both for parents and children/adolescents with NDD during the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(4): 559-568, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fueled anti-Asian racism and xenophobia in the United States, which negatively impact Asian Americans' adjustment. To identify risk and protective factors for Chinese American adolescents' mental health, the present study examined: (1) the associations between Chinese American adolescents' experiences of COVID-19-related racial discrimination and their internalizing difficulties; (2) the moderating roles of: (a) adolescents' bicultural identity integration (BII; harmony and blendedness dimensions separately) and (b) parents' promotion of mistrust ethnic-racial socialization (PMERS); and (c) the interplay between BII and PMERS in the associations between racial discrimination and internalizing difficulties. METHOD: Participants included 211 Chinese American adolescents of 10-18 years old (M age = 13.92, SD = 2.33; 48% girls) and their parents (M age = 46.18 years, SD = 5.17; 81% mothers). RESULTS: Overall, adolescents' experiences of COVID-19-related racial discrimination were associated with more internalizing difficulties, and this association was buffered by BII harmony and blendedness and exacerbated by PMERS. However, a complex interplay among specific BII dimensions and parental PMERS in the associations between racial discrimination and adolescent internalizing problems was revealed. Adolescents with lower levels of BII blendedness were more vulnerable to the negative effects of racial discrimination on their internalizing problems and more susceptible to their parents' PMERS; adolescents who reported higher levels of BII harmony and perceived lower levels of parental PMERS were more protected from the negative effects of racial discrimination on their internalizing problems. CONCLUSION: Both adolescents' and parents' contributions should be considered simultaneously in promoting resilience in Chinese American families. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Adolescent , Asian Americans , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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