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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 738634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142305

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic may result in detrimental consequences for stroke patient's wellbeing. Family functioning and optimism could help stroke patients cope with crises leading to possible improvements in life satisfaction. This study aims to explore the protective effects of family functioning and optimism on life satisfaction among stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A total of 207 stroke inpatients who were receiving pharmacotherapy and rehabilitation in general public hospital of Liaoning province during the COVID-19 pandemic in China were consecutive selected and interviewed by online questionnaires via the WeChat platform effectively from April 8 to 30, 2020. The scales included: Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve (APGAR) Scale and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) analysis was conducted to test the associated factors of life satisfaction. Stroke patient's life satisfaction was at a high level (Mean = 26.46, SD = 6.23) during the pandemic. Stroke patient's residence, duration of stroke, stroke type, and community shut down measures were the strong predictors of life satisfaction. Family functioning and optimism increased life satisfaction among stroke patients. This study contributes to the research on the association between family functioning and optimism on life satisfaction among stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions that improve family functioning and enhance optimism should be provided in order to elevate life satisfaction for stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Satisfaction , Protective Factors , Stroke/epidemiology
2.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 79, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nurses are frequently exposed to chronic stress in the workplace generating harmful effects such as job strain and burnout. On the contrary, resilience has been shown to be a beneficial variable. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between dimensions of the Job Demand Control-Support model, resilience and burnout in nurses, and examine the mediating role of resilience between job strain and burnout. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study reported in line with the STROBE guidelines. Active nurses were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September, 2020. With snowball sampling, 1013 nurses, with a mean age of 34.71, filled out the Job Content Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Resilience Scale. RESULTS: The results showed the existence of four groups of professionals based on job strain. The nurses in the "High Strain" group (high demands and low control) showed higher scores in emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while those in the "Active Job" group scored higher in personal realization and resilience. The findings showed that job strain affects burnout in nurses, and this effect is mediated by resilience. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that a high level of resilience could exert a fundamental role in ensuring well-being and proper job performance by nurses. Nursing managers should see to the personable variables or competencies that provide and favor an opportunity for nurses to widen and improve their practice, in pursuance of satisfying and responding better to people's needs and the systems they work for.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Protective Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Burnout, Professional/psychology
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 536-548, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many research has indicated that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, health care workers are under greatly increased pressure and at increased risk for the development of mental health problems. Furthermore, previous research has indicated that psychiatrists are exposed to a number of unique stressors that may increase their risk for poor mental health. The aims of the present study were to assess the level of COVID-19 related concerns, psychological distress and life satisfaction among psychiatrists and other physicians during the first period of the pandemic and to examine whether individual differences in COVID-19 concerns, psychological flexibility, psychological resilience and coping behaviors account for differences in mental health indicators. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of N=725 physicians, among whom 22.8% were psychiatrists. This study was conducted online during the first lockdown in Croatia and collected data regarding COVID-19 related concerns, coping behaviors and mental health indicators (Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction). RESULTS: Physicians of other specialties had higher scores on a measure of COVID-19 anxiety than psychiatrists (p=0.012). In addition, a number of differences in coping behaviors are evident. Specifically, psychiatrists were less likely than physicians of other specializations to believe that being informed about COVID-19 is an effective coping strategy (p=0.013), but more prone to using sedatives and drugs as a coping strategy (p=0.002; p=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatrists are at special risk for substance abuse. Younger age, psychological inflexibility, low resilience and greater COVID-19 concerns might act as specific risk factors for distress. Our findings highlight the need for promoting a healthy lifestyle and psychological flexibility as universal protective factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Psychiatry , Communicable Disease Control , Croatia , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090194

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses were exposed to many stressors, which may have been associated with some mental health problems. However, most of the studies carried out on nurses' quality of life and workplace wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic took a pathogenic approach. Given that current scientific knowledge in this field presented too many gaps to properly inform preventive and therapeutic action, the aim of this study was to explore whether protective factors (resilience, perceived social support, and professional identification) and stressors (perceived stress and psychosocial risks in the workplace) influenced the quality of life and workplace wellbeing perceived by Portuguese nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data for this cross-sectional study was collected through online self-administered questionnaires. Linear regression models were used to analyze the relationships between variables. Results showed that perceived stress, resilience and job satisfaction were associated with quality of life and workplace wellbeing among Portuguese nurses. The study's findings could serve to inform health policy and should draw the attention of nursing managers to the needs and difficulties reported by nurses, to the importance of providing them with emotional support, and to the relevance of promoting a good work environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workplace/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Protective Factors , Portugal/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained hospitals and healthcare workers engaged in combating the virus with limited knowledge and resources. Intensive care unit (ICU) nurses are among the healthcare workers most affected by the pandemic and are at risk for developing burnout syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to explore burnout symptoms prevalence among ICU nurses and to identify the individual, organizational, and contextual risk, and protective factors of burnout in ICU nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted by searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Only papers with empirical data and referred to ICU nurses were included. A total of 350 initial results were yielded, and 40 full texts were screened. Twelve papers constituted the final sample in the analysis. RESULTS: High levels of symptoms of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) were registered among ICU nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased workload, lack of equipment, social stigma, and fear of contagion emerged as key risk factors. Social support from leaders and colleagues, professional recognition, use of personal protective tools, and witnessing patients' successful recovery emerged as major protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results may inform the development of timely actions to counter burnout in ICU nurses during this COVID-19 pandemic and in a post-COVID-19 scenario.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Protective Factors
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20220196, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk and protective factors to the development of children under three years of age during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out in three early childhood education centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in October 2020. The data were collected with an online questionnaire. Risk and protection factors were measured with the Primeira Infância Para Adultos Saudáveis (Early Childhood For Healthy Adults) instrument and the children's development status was measured using the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments - CREDI. RESULTS: The study included 108 parents and guardians of children up to three years of age. Living with grandparents and participating in cash transfer programs were protective factors for child development. The family being headed by a woman posed a significant risk factor for child development. CONCLUSION: Intersectoral actions to support families headed by women and access to cash transfer programs are essential for promoting equity opportunities for the development in early childhood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Development , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Protective Factors
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043698

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic was a fertile ground for nurses' exposure to self- and other-Potentially Morally Injurious Events (PMIEs). Our study explored the effects of nurses' memories of self- and other-PMIEs on occupational wellbeing and turnover intentions. Using an experimental design on a convenience sample of 634 Romanian nurses, we tested a conceptual model with PLS-SEM, finding adequate explanatory and predictive power. Memories of self- and other-PMIEs were uniquely associated with work engagement, burnout, and turnover intentions, compared to a control group. These relationships were mediated by the three basic psychological needs. Relatedness was more thwarted for memories of other-PMIEs, while competence and autonomy were more thwarted for memories of self-PMIEs. Perceived supervisor support weakened the indirect effect between type of PMIE and turnover intentions, through autonomy satisfaction, but not through burnout. Self-disclosure weakened the indirect effect between type of PMIE and turnover intentions, through autonomy satisfaction, and both burnout and work engagement. Our findings emphasize the need for different strategies in addressing the negative long-term effects of nurses' exposure to self- and other-PMIEs, according to the basic psychological need satisfaction and type of wellbeing indicator.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Nurses , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pandemics , Protective Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e056326, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms among healthcare workers and possible factors associated with this outcome (resilience, spirituality, social support, quality of life, among other individual variables). Our hypothesis is that some of these factors can have a protective effect on depressive symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Participants were recruited online from 16 April to 23 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 1043 healthcare workers, predominantly Brazilians, aged 18 years or older. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Depression was the primary outcome, measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Possible protective factors were measured in the following ways: social support was assessed by the modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (mMOS-SS); spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs (SRPB) were evaluated using the 9-item SRPB module of the brief WHO Quality of Life instrument (WHOQoL-SRPB-bref); quality of life was assessed using the brief EUROHIS instrument for Quality of Life (EUROHIS-QoL 8-item); resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10). RESULTS: 23% met the criteria for depression according to the PHQ-9 scale. Quality of life (B=-3.87 (-4.30 to -3.43), ß=-0.37, p<0.001), social support (B=-0.32 (-0.59 to -0.05), ß=-0.04, p=0.022), resilience (B=-0.19 (-0.23 to -0.15), ß=-0.20, p<0.001), SRPB (B=-0.03 (-0.05 to -0.02), ß=-0.01, p<0.001) and physical exercise (B=-0.95 (-1.40 to -0.51), ß=-0.08, p<0.001) demonstrated protective effects against depression. CONCLUSION: Healthcare workers have a high risk of developing depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially those working in the front line. However, there are factors that seem to work as protective mechanisms against depression, notably perceived quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Protective Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 610, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several risk factors for anxious-depressive symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic have been established. However, few studies have examined the relationship between personality traits, hardiness, and such symptomatology during the pandemic. These constructs might serve as risk- and/or protective factors for such mental distress through the pandemic. METHODS: A sample of 5783 Norwegians responded to a survey at two time points within the first year of the pandemic. The first data collection was in April 2020 (T1) and the second in December 2020 (T2). Measures included the Ten-Item Personality-Inventory, the Revised Norwegian Dispositional Resilience Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale. Analyses were performed using Pearson's correlations, multiple linear regression, and a moderation analysis. RESULTS: Anxious-depressive symptomatology in early phases (T1) of the pandemic was the strongest predictor for the presence of such symptomatology 9 months after the outbreak (T2). Personality and hardiness correlated significantly with mental distress at T1 and T2. Personality traits explained 5% variance in symptoms when controlling for age, gender, solitary living, negative economic impact, and mental distress at baseline. Higher neuroticism predicted higher mental distress, whereas higher conscientiousness and extraversion predicted less mental distress. Hardiness did not explain variance in outcome beyond personality traits. Hardiness did not significantly moderate the relationship between neuroticism and mental distress. CONCLUSION: Individuals with high levels of neuroticism had greater difficulties adapting to the circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic and were more prone to mental distress. Contrastingly, higher conscientiousness and extraversion may have served as protective factors for mental distress during the pandemic. The current findings might aid identification of vulnerable individuals and groups. Consequently, preventive interventions could be offered to those who need it the most.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Norway/epidemiology , Personality , Protective Factors
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13658, 2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991658

ABSTRACT

A complement effect on homeostasis during infection is determined by both cytotoxic (activate complement component 5 (C5a) terminal cytotoxic complex (TCC)), and cytoprotective elements (complement factor H (FH), as well as apolipoprotein E (ApoE)). Here, we investigated the gap in knowledge in their blood milieu during SARS-CoV-2 infection with respect to the viral burden, level of tissue necrosis, and immunological response. 101 patients hospitalized with a PCR-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 had blood collected at H1 (48 h), H2 (3-4 Days), H3 (5-7 days), H4 (more than 7 days up to 93 days). Pre-existing conditions, treatment, the incidence of cerebrovascular events (CVA), a history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and mortality was collected using electronic medical records. Plasma C5a, TCC, FH, and ApoE were considered as a complement milieu. Tissue necrosis (HMGB1, RAGE), non-specific inflammatory responses (IL-6, C-reactive protein), overall viral burden (SARS-CoV-2 spike protein), and specific immune responses (IgG, IgA, IgM directed αS- & N-proteins) were assessed simultaneously. C5a remained elevated across all time points, with the peak at 5-7 days. Studied elements of complement coalesced around three clusters: #0 (↑↑↑C5a, ↑↑TCC, ↓↓ApoE), #1 ↑C5a, ↑TCC, ↑↑↑FH); #2 (↑C5a, ↑TCC, ↑FH, ↑↑↑ApoE). The decline in FH and ApoE was a predictor of death, while TCC and C5a correlated with patient length of stay, APACHE, and CRP. Increased levels of C5a (Δ = 122.64; p = 0.0294; data not shown) and diminished levels of FH (Δ = 836,969; p = 0.0285; data not shown) co-existed with CVA incidence. C5a correlated storngly with blood RAGE and HMGB1, but not with viral load and immunological responsiveness. Remdesivir positively affected FH preservation, while convalescent plasma treatment elevated C5a levels. Three clusters of complement activation demonstrated a various milieu of ApoE & FH vs C5a & TCC in COVID-19 patients. Complement activation is linked to increased necrosis markers but not to viral burden or immune system response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HMGB1 Protein , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/therapy , Complement Activation , Complement C5a , Complement Factor H , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Necrosis , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
Acta Clin Croat ; 61(1): 107-114, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979813

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The usual presentation of the disease is a common cold-like illness but it can present with more severe and sometimes fatal manifestations. Immunocompromised patients such as those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) also are among the infected population. A limited number of reports have been published concerning CVID patients with COVID-19. The main reported symptoms were fever, cough, dyspnea and fatigue while the median duration of illness was 19 (interquartile range 14-26.5) days. Total recovery rate was 88.4%. It is still unknown whether primary immunodeficiency interacts as a predisposing or protective factor against the severe forms of COVID-19. Substitute immunoglobulin (IG) therapy is the only treatment option for CVID. Some reports suggest that early administration of intravenous IGs or convalescent plasma infusion may positively influence the outcome of COVID-19 in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Humans , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/therapy , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(10): 179, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383846
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2045-2054, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967814

ABSTRACT

Shanghai has been experiencing the Omicron wave since March 2022. Though several studies have evaluated the risk factors of severe infections, the analyses of BA.2 infection risk and protective factors among geriatric people were much limited. This multicentre cohort study described clinical characteristics, and assessed risk and protective factors for geriatric Omicron severe infections. A total of 1377 patients older than 60 were enrolled, with 75.96% having comorbidities. The median viral shedding time and hospitalization time were nine and eight days, respectively. Severe and critical were associated with longer virus clearance time (aOR [95%CI]:0.706 (0.533-0.935), P = .015), while fully vaccinated/booster and paxlovid use shortened viral shedding time (1.229 [1.076-1.402], P = .002; 1.140 [0.019-1.274], P = .022, respectively). Older age (>80), cerebrovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease were risk factors of severe/critical. Fully vaccination was a significant protective factor against severe infections (0.237 [0.071-0.793], P = .019). We found patients with more than two comorbidities were more likely to get serious outcomes. These findings demonstrated that in the elderly older than 60 years old, older age (aged over 80), cerebrovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease were risk factors for severe infection. Patients with more than two comorbidities were more likely to get serious outcomes. Fully vaccinated/booster patients were less likely to be severe and vaccinations could shorten viral shedding time. The limitation of lacking an overall spectrum of COVID-19 infections among elders could be compensated in other larger-scale studies in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Protective Factors
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 767, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to regional or nationwide lockdowns as part of risk mitigation measurements in many countries worldwide. Recent studies suggest an unexpected and unprecedented decrease in preterm births during the initial COVID-19 lockdowns in the first half of 2020. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the two months of the initial national COVID-19 lockdown period on the incidence of very and extremely preterm birth in the Netherlands, stratified by either spontaneous or iatrogenic onset of delivery, in both singleton and multiple pregnancies. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using data from all 10 perinatal centers in the Netherlands on very and extremely preterm births during the initial COVID-19 lockdown from March 15 to May 15, 2020. Incidences of very and extremely preterm birth were calculated using an estimate of the total number of births in the Netherlands in this period. As reference, we used data from the corresponding calendar period in 2015-2018 from the national perinatal registry (Perined). We differentiated between spontaneous versus iatrogenic onset of delivery and between singleton versus multiple pregnancies. RESULTS: The incidence of total preterm birth < 32 weeks in singleton pregnancies was 6.1‰ in the study period in 2020 versus 6.5‰ in the corresponding period in 2015-2018. The decrease in preterm births in singletons was solely due to a significant decrease in iatrogenic preterm births, both < 32 weeks (OR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53 to 0.95) and < 28 weeks (OR 0.53; 95%CI 0.29 to 0.97). For multiple pregnancies, an increase in preterm births < 28 weeks was observed (OR 2.43; 95%CI 1.35 to 4.39). CONCLUSION: This study shows a decrease in iatrogenic preterm births during the initial COVID-19-related lockdown in the Netherlands in singletons. Future studies should focus on the mechanism of action of lockdown measures and reduction of preterm birth and the effects of perinatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Labor, Induced/trends , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/epidemiology , Incidence , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/trends , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2087979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915468

ABSTRACT

Background: Parents of children with intellectual and developmental disorders often experience potentially traumatic events while caring for their children. Heightened posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) have been found in this population. Objective: We aimed to explore risk and protective factors for their PTS and PTG. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 385 parents (average age M = 43.14 years, SD = 7.40; 95.3% mothers). Results: Parenting trauma showed an adverse effect on developing PTS (beta = 0.25, p < .01) and a positive role in promoting PTG (beta = 0.16, p < .01). Social support was protective in its correlation with lower levels of PTS (beta = -0.12, p < .01) and higher levels of PTG (beta = 0.22, p < .01). Barriers to care were associated with increased PTS (beta = 0.23, p < .01), but unrelated to PTG (beta = .01, p = .855). Negative parenting showed a significant, but small, correlation with more severe PTS (beta = 0.11, p < .05), and was unrelated to PTG (beta = -0.09, p = .065). Conclusions: Our study increases the understanding of posttraumatic reactions in parents, predominantly mothers, of children with IDD and identified parenting-related trauma, social support, and barriers to mental health care as predictive factors of the reactions. More research is needed to confirm and validate the effects of the discussed factors. Although causation can not be inferred, prompt and adequate screening and therapeutic resources should be provided to those mothers who were exposed to multiple stressful caregiving events and had limited healthcare access and less support from their spouses, peers, and caregiving partners. HIGHLIGHTS: Parents of a child with Intellectual and Developmental Disorders with parenting trauma had higher posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG).Social support was related to lower PTS and higher PTG.Barriers to care were related to higher PTS but unrelated to PTG.


Antecedentes: Los padres de niños con trastornos intelectuales y del desarrollo a menudo experimentan eventos potencialmente traumáticos mientras cuidan a sus hijos. En esta población se han encontrado un elevado estrés postraumático (PTS por sus siglas en ingles) y crecimiento postraumático (PTG por sus siglas en ingles).Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fue explorar los factores protectores y de riesgo para PTS y PTG.Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal con 385 padres (con edad promedio M = 43,14 años, DS = 7,40; 95,3% madres).Resultados: El trauma parental mostró ser un efecto adverso en el desarrollo de PTS (beta = 0.25, p < 0.01) y un papel positivo en la promover el PTG (beta = 0.16, p < 0,01). El apoyo social fue protector en su correlación con niveles más bajos de PTS (beta = −0.12, p < .01) y niveles más altos de PTG (beta = 0.22, p < .01). Las barreras a la atención se asociaron con un aumento de PTS (beta = 0.23, p < 0.01), pero no se relacionaron con PTG (beta = 0.01, p = 0,855). La crianza negativa mostró una correlación significativa, pero pequeña, con PTS más severos (beta = 0.11, p < 0,05) y no estuvo relacionado con el PTG (beta = −0.09, p = 0.065).Conclusiones: Nuestro estudio aumenta la comprensión de las reacciones postraumáticas en los padres, predominantemente madres, de niños con IDD e identificó el trauma relacionado con la crianza, el apoyo social y las barreras para la atención de la salud mental como factores predictivos de estas reacciones. Se necesita más investigación para confirmar y validar los efectos de los factores discutidos. Si bien no se puede inferir causalidad, se deben proporcionar recursos terapéuticos y de detección, rápidos y adecuados, a aquellas madres que estuvieron expuestas a múltiples eventos estresantes del cuidado y tuvieron acceso limitado a la atención médica y menos apoyo de sus cónyuges, compañeros y cuidadores.


Subject(s)
Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developmental Disabilities , Humans , Parenting , Parents/psychology , Protective Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis
19.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267556, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety symptoms (AS) are exacerbated in healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Spirituality is known to protect against AS in the general population and it is a construct that differs from religion. It can be assessed using structured questionnaires. A validated questionnaire disclosed three spirituality dimensions: peace, meaning, and faith. In HCWs we investigated the predictors of chronic anxiety (pre-COVID-19 and during the pandemic) and acute anxiety (only during the pandemic), including spirituality in the model. Then, we verified which spirituality dimensions predicted chronic and acute anxiety. Lastly, we studied group differences between the mean scores of these spirituality dimensions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in a Brazilian Hospital. HCWs (n = 118) were assessed for spirituality at a single time-point. They were also asked about AS that had started pre-COVID-19 and persisted during the pandemic (chronic anxiety), and AS that had started only during the pandemic (acute anxiety). The subjects without chronic anxiety were subdivided into two other groups: acute anxiety and without chronic and acute anxiety. Forward stepwise logistic regressions were used to find the significant AS predictors. First, the model considered sex, age, religious affiliation, and spirituality. Then, the analysis were performed considering only the three spirituality dimensions. Group means differences in the spirituality dimensions were compared using univariate ANCOVAS followed by T-tests. RESULTS: Spirituality was the most realible predictor of chronic (OR = 0.818; 95%CI:0.752-0.890; p<0.001) and acute anxiety (OR = 0.727; 95%CI:0.601-0.881; p = 0.001). Peace alone predicted chronic anxiety (OR = 0.619; 95%CI:0.516-0.744; p<0.001) while for acute anxiety both peace (OR:0.517; 95%CI:0.340-0.787; p = 0.002), and faith (OR:0.674; 95%CI:0.509-0.892; p = 0.006) significantly contributed to the model. Faith was significantly higher in subjects without AS. CONCLUSION: Higher spirituality protected against chronic and acute anxiety. Faith and peace spirituality dimensions conferred protection against acute anxiety during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Protective Factors , Spirituality
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892876

ABSTRACT

This study looks into the relationship between mental health and social exclusion scenarios, paying special attention to employment-related factors. Previous studies have shown the relationship between mental health, social exclusion and poverty. For this study, authors have used data from the VIII Report on social development and exclusion in Spain, with a sample of 11,655 households. The SPSS Statistics programme was used for statistical analysis. Several factors that could pose a risk or be a protection for the presence of mental health conditions were designed. By means of a binary logistic regression the impact of these factors on mental health issues was scored. The results show that a deteriorated social network and a negative interpretation of reality are the most influential factors related to the presence of mental health conditions in a given household. On the contrary, positive social relationships protect households and function as a support when mental health conditions are already present. Thus, the support of positive and committed social relationships is a key element to protect the mental health of households.


Subject(s)
Employment , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Protective Factors
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