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2.
Kidney Int ; 98(6): 1519-1529, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023690

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 disease in the French national population of dialysis patients, their course of illness and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality. Our study included all patients on dialysis recorded in the French REIN Registry in April 2020. Clinical characteristics at last follow-up and the evolution of COVID-19 illness severity over time were recorded for diagnosed cases (either suspicious clinical symptoms, characteristic signs on the chest scan or a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) for SARS-CoV-2. A total of 1,621 infected patients were reported on the REIN registry from March 16th, 2020 to May 4th, 2020. Of these, 344 died. The prevalence of COVID-19 patients varied from less than 1% to 10% between regions. The probability of being a case was higher in males, patients with diabetes, those in need of assistance for transfer or treated at a self-care unit. Dialysis at home was associated with a lower probability of being infected as was being a smoker, a former smoker, having an active malignancy, or peripheral vascular disease. Mortality in diagnosed cases (21%) was associated with the same causes as in the general population. Higher age, hypoalbuminemia and the presence of an ischemic heart disease were statistically independently associated with a higher risk of death. Being treated at a selfcare unit was associated with a lower risk. Thus, our study showed a relatively low frequency of COVID-19 among dialysis patients contrary to what might have been assumed.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , /therapy , Case-Control Studies , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Hemodialysis, Home/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Registries , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
3.
Cytometry A ; 97(9): 882-886, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-790373

ABSTRACT

Operating shared resource laboratories (SRLs) in times of pandemic is a challenge for research institutions. In a multiuser, high-turnover working space, the transmission of infectious agents is difficult to control. To address this challenge, imaging core facility managers being members of German BioImaging discussed how shared microscopes could be operated with minimal risk of spreading SARS-CoV-2 between users and staff. Here, we describe the resulting guidelines and explain their rationale, with a focus on separating users in space and time, protective face masks, and keeping surfaces virus-free. These recommendations may prove useful for other types of SRLs. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control , Laboratories/organization & administration , Microscopy , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Cooperative Behavior , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Decontamination , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Germany , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protective Factors , Research Personnel/organization & administration , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Workflow
4.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 40(11-12): 336-341, 2020 12 09.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1022346

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that during the 2003 SARS pandemic, emergency department (ED) visits among the pediatric population decreased. We set out to investigate if this was also true for injury-related ED visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), we looked at 28 years of injury-related ED visits at the Montreal Children's Hospital, a provincially designated Pediatric Trauma Centre. We compared data from a two-month period during the COVID-19 lockdown (16 March to 15 May) to the same period in previous years (1993-2019) to determine whether the 2020 decrease in ED visit numbers was unprecedented (i.e. a similar decrease had never occurred) for different age groups, nature of injuries, mechanisms and severity. RESULTS: The 2020 decrease was unprecedented across all age groups between 1993 and 2019. When compared with the 2015 to 2019 average, the decrease was smallest in children aged 2 to 5 years (a 35% decrease), and greatest in the group aged 12 to 17 years (83%). Motor vehicle collisions and sports-related injuries practically vanished during the COVID-19 lockdown. Surprisingly, more children aged 6 to 17 years presented with less urgent injuries during the COVID-19 lockdown than in previous years. CONCLUSION: As was the case with SARS in 2003, COVID-19 acted as a deterrent for pediatric ED visits. The lockdown in particular had a profound impact on injury-related visits. The de-confinement period will be monitored to determine the impact in both the short and the long term.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Protective Factors , Quebec/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13089-13097, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, two influential articles that reported the association of (hydroxy)chloroquine or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality were retracted due to significant methodological issues. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the same clinical issues through an improved research method and to find out the differences from the retracted papers. We systematically reviewed pre-existing literature, and compared the results with those of the retracted papers to gain a novel insight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted common risk factors identified in two retracted papers, and conducted relevant publication search until June 26, 2020 in PubMed. Then, we analyzed the risk factors for COVID-19 mortality and compared them to those of the retracted papers. RESULTS: Our systematic review demonstrated that most demographic and clinical risk factors for COVID-19 mortality were similar to those of the retracted papers. However, while the retracted paper indicated that both (hydroxy)chloroquine monotherapy and combination therapy with macrolide were associated with higher risk of mortality, our study showed that only combination therapy of hydroxychloroquine and macrolide was associated with higher risk of mortality (odds ratio 2.33; 95% confidence interval 1.63-3.34). In addition, our study demonstrated that use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) was associated with reduced risk of mortality (0.77; 0.65-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: When analyzing the same clinical issues with the two retracted papers through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and relevant cohort studies, we found out that (hydroxy)chloroquine monotherapy was not associated with higher risk of mortality, and that the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs was associated with reduced risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Retraction of Publication as Topic , African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , /epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Information Dissemination , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Protective Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 536-548, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many research has indicated that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, health care workers are under greatly increased pressure and at increased risk for the development of mental health problems. Furthermore, previous research has indicated that psychiatrists are exposed to a number of unique stressors that may increase their risk for poor mental health. The aims of the present study were to assess the level of COVID-19 related concerns, psychological distress and life satisfaction among psychiatrists and other physicians during the first period of the pandemic and to examine whether individual differences in COVID-19 concerns, psychological flexibility, psychological resilience and coping behaviors account for differences in mental health indicators. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of N=725 physicians, among whom 22.8% were psychiatrists. This study was conducted online during the first lockdown in Croatia and collected data regarding COVID-19 related concerns, coping behaviors and mental health indicators (Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction). RESULTS: Physicians of other specialties had higher scores on a measure of COVID-19 anxiety than psychiatrists (p=0.012). In addition, a number of differences in coping behaviors are evident. Specifically, psychiatrists were less likely than physicians of other specializations to believe that being informed about COVID-19 is an effective coping strategy (p=0.013), but more prone to using sedatives and drugs as a coping strategy (p=0.002; p=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatrists are at special risk for substance abuse. Younger age, psychological inflexibility, low resilience and greater COVID-19 concerns might act as specific risk factors for distress. Our findings highlight the need for promoting a healthy lifestyle and psychological flexibility as universal protective factors.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Psychiatry , Communicable Disease Control , Croatia , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Protective Factors
7.
Physiol Rep ; 8(24): e14615, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994579

ABSTRACT

Recent reports suggest that high-altitude residence may be beneficial in the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) implicating that traveling to high places or using hypoxic conditioning thus could be favorable as well. Physiological high-altitude characteristics and symptoms of altitude illnesses furthermore seem similar to several pathologies associated with COVID-19. As a consequence, high altitude and hypoxia research and related clinical practices are discussed for potential applications in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. We summarize the currently available evidence on the relationship between altitude/hypoxia conditions and COVID-19 epidemiology and pathophysiology. The potential for treatment strategies used for altitude illnesses is evaluated. Symptomatic overlaps in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 induced ARDS and high altitude illnesses (i.e., hypoxemia, dyspnea…) have been reported but are also common to other pathologies (i.e., heart failure, pulmonary embolism, COPD…). Most treatments of altitude illnesses have limited value and may even be detrimental in COVID-19. Some may be efficient, potentially the corticosteroid dexamethasone. Physiological adaptations to altitude/hypoxia can exert diverse effects, depending on the constitution of the target individual and the hypoxic dose. In healthy individuals, they may optimize oxygen supply and increase mitochondrial, antioxidant, and immune system function. It is highly debated if these physiological responses to hypoxia overlap in many instances with SARS-CoV-2 infection and may exert preventive effects under very specific conditions. The temporal overlap of SARS-CoV-2 infection and exposure to altitude/hypoxia may be detrimental. No evidence-based knowledge is presently available on whether and how altitude/hypoxia may prevent, treat or aggravate COVID-19. The reported lower incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in high-altitude places remain to be confirmed. High-altitude illnesses and COVID-19 pathologies exhibit clear pathophysiological differences. While potentially effective as a prophylactic measure, altitude/hypoxia is likely associated with elevated risks for patients with COVID-19. Altogether, the different points discussed in this review are of possibly some relevance for individuals who aim to reach high-altitude areas. However, due to the ever-changing state of understanding of COVID-19, all points discussed in this review may be out of date at the time of its publication.


Subject(s)
Acclimatization , Altitude Sickness/physiopathology , Altitude , /physiopathology , Altitude Sickness/epidemiology , Altitude Sickness/therapy , Animals , /therapy , Humans , Prevalence , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 582205, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983743

ABSTRACT

Background: Given the worldwide spread of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), there is an urgent need to identify risk and protective factors and expose areas of insufficient understanding. Emerging tools, such as the Rapid Evidence Map (rEM), are being developed to systematically characterize large collections of scientific literature. We sought to generate an rEM of risk and protective factors to comprehensively inform areas that impact COVID-19 outcomes for different sub-populations in order to better protect the public. Methods: We developed a protocol that includes a study goal, study questions, a PECO statement, and a process for screening literature by combining semi-automated machine learning with the expertise of our review team. We applied this protocol to reports within the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19) that were published in early 2020. SWIFT-Active Screener was used to prioritize records according to pre-defined inclusion criteria. Relevant studies were categorized by risk and protective status; susceptibility category (Behavioral, Physiological, Demographic, and Environmental); and affected sub-populations. Using tagged studies, we created an rEM for COVID-19 susceptibility that reveals: (1) current lines of evidence; (2) knowledge gaps; and (3) areas that may benefit from systematic review. Results: We imported 4,330 titles and abstracts from CORD-19. After screening 3,521 of these to achieve 99% estimated recall, 217 relevant studies were identified. Most included studies concerned the impact of underlying comorbidities (Physiological); age and gender (Demographic); and social factors (Environmental) on COVID-19 outcomes. Among the relevant studies, older males with comorbidities were commonly reported to have the poorest outcomes. We noted a paucity of COVID-19 studies among children and susceptible sub-groups, including pregnant women, racial minorities, refugees/migrants, and healthcare workers, with few studies examining protective factors. Conclusion: Using rEM analysis, we synthesized the recent body of evidence related to COVID-19 risk and protective factors. The results provide a comprehensive tool for rapidly elucidating COVID-19 susceptibility patterns and identifying resource-rich/resource-poor areas of research that may benefit from future investigation as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Protective Factors , Research Report , Humans , Risk Factors
9.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 501-504, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continued into 2020, and the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) associated death toll increased. OBJECTIVES: To analyze COVID-19 death rates in European countries or regions to determine whether there was a significant association between bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination policy and lower rates of COVID-19 related deaths. METHODS: Certain Northern European countries or regions had low death rates regardless of BCG policy. The authors assumed the consumption of foods containing salmiak (NH4Cl) was a common and peculiar cause of the reduced COVID-19 related death rates in these countries, because NH4Cl is a known lysosomotropic agent, which has been indicated to inhibit or prevent SARS-CoV infection. To check the possible effectiveness of salmiak consumption against COVID-19 related death, the authors used a linear regression model with the death rate as the dependent variable and BCG-policy and salmiak consumption score as independent variables. RESULTS: Using least squares regression and a robust standard error algorithm, the authors found a significant effect exerted by the independent variables (P < 0.0005 for BCG and P = 0.001 for salmiak). Salmiak score alone was significant (P = 0.016) when using least squares regression with robust error algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: The results seem to confirm an association between BCG-positive vaccination policy and salmiak consumption, and lower death rates from COVID-19. Implementing BCG vaccination policy and fortification of foods with salmiak (NH4Cl) may have a significant impact on the control of SARS-CoV epidemic.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Chloride/administration & dosage , BCG Vaccine , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Area Under Curve , Candy , Europe/epidemiology , Health Policy , Humans , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , ROC Curve
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(24): e018475, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970883

ABSTRACT

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a proinflammatory state with high mortality. Statins have anti-inflammatory effects and may attenuate the severity of COVID-19. Methods and Results An observational study of all consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a single center located in Bronx, New York, was conducted from March 1, 2020, to May 2, 2020. Patients were grouped as those who did and those who did not receive a statin, and in-hospital mortality was compared by competing events regression. In addition, propensity score matching and inverse probability treatment weighting were used in survival models to examine the association between statin use and death during hospitalization. A total of 4252 patients were admitted with COVID-19. Diabetes mellitus modified the association between statin use and in-hospital mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus on a statin (n=983) were older (69±11 versus 67±14 years; P<0.01), had lower inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, 10.2; interquartile range, 4.5-18.4 versus 12.9; interquartile range, 5.9-21.4 mg/dL; P<0.01) and reduced cumulative in-hospital mortality (24% versus 39%; P<0.01) than those not on a statin (n=1283). No difference in hospital mortality was noted in patients without diabetes mellitus on or off statin (20% versus 21%; P=0.82). Propensity score matching (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94; P<0.01) and inverse probability treatment weighting (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P<0.01) showed a 12% lower risk of death during hospitalization for statin users than for nonusers. Conclusions Statin use was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus. These findings, if validated, may further reemphasize administration of statins to patients with diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
11.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(38): 625-630, 2020 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-931014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused mental stress in a number of ways: overstrain of the health care system, lockdown of the economy, restricted opportunities for interpersonal contact and excursions outside the home and workplace, and quarantine measures where necessary. In this article, we provide an overview of psychological distress in the current pandemic, identifying protective factors and risk factors. METHODS: The PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for relevant publications (1 January 2019 - 16 April 2020). This study was registered in OSF Registries (osf.io/34j8g). Data on mental stress and resilience in Germany were obtained from three surveys carried out on more than 1000 participants each in the framework of the COSMO study (24 March, 31 March, and 21 April 2020). RESULTS: 18 studies from China and India, with a total of 79 664 participants, revealed increased stress in the general population, with manifestations of depression and anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and sleep disturbances. Stress was more marked among persons working in the health care sector. Risk factors for stress included patient contact, female sex, impaired health status, worry about family members and significant others, and poor sleep quality. Protective factors included being informed about the increasing number of persons who have recovered from COVID, social support, and a lower perceived infectious risk. The COSMO study, though based on an insufficiently representative population sample because of a low questionnaire return rate (<20%), revealed increased rates of despondency, loneliness, and hopelessness in the German population as compared to norm data, with no change in estimated resilience. CONCLUSION: Stress factors associated with the current pandemic probably increase stress by causing anxiety and depression. Once the protective factors and risk factors have been identified, these can be used to develop psychosocial interventions. The informativeness of the results reported here is limited by the wide variety of instruments used to acquire data and by the insufficiently representative nature of the population samples.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protective Factors , Risk Factors
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916322

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 9(1): 61, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Israel hosts nearly 70,000 migrant careworkers. Migrant careworkers work and live with populations extremely vulnerable to the novel Coronavirus, including the elderly and people with pre-existing physical conditions. This rapid assessment aimed to explore psychosocial status and mental wellbeing of migrant careworkers in Israel during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and determine risk and protective factors associated with mental distress, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: This quantitative study was conducted via an online survey. The online survey collected social and demographic data, including country of origin, residence, age, sex, and time in Israel. In addition, questions were asked about knowledge of COVID-19 guidelines, access to supplies, and COVID-related racism. Respondents also completed a psychosocial screening tools, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 (HSCL-10), which was used to screen for depression and anxiety. RESULTS: As of May 3rd, 2020, 307 careworkers responded to the online survey, of whom 120 (39.1%) were found symptomatic using the HSCL-10. Separating the HSCL-10 into subscales, 28.0% were symptomatically anxious, and 38.1% were symptomatic for depression. In multivariate regression, emotional distress was associated with household food insecurity (OR: 5.85; p < 0.001), lack of confidence to care for oneself and employer during the pandemic (OR: 3.85; p < 0.001), poorer general health (OR: 2.98; p < 0.003), non-Philippine country of origin (OR: 2.83; p < 0.01), female sex (OR: 2.34; p < 0.04),, and inversely associated with age (p < 0.03). While 87.6% of careworkers reported having access to hand sanitization materials regularly, only 58.0% had regular access to a medical grade mask, and 21.5% reported household food insecurity. Moreover, 40.0% of careworkers claimed to lack confidence to care for themselves and their employer during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Migrant careworkers exhibited high levels of mental distress during the COVID-19 lockdown, associated with lack of confidence or resources to properly care for themselves and their employer. Guidelines and support programs specific to the carework sector, that respect their rights and guard their health, must be developed as part of a coordinated COVID-19 response.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Transients and Migrants/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protective Factors , Psychological Distress , Risk Factors , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(21): e017736, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901509

ABSTRACT

Background There has been significant controversy regarding the effects of pre-hospitalization use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors on the prognosis of hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Methods and Results We retrospectively assessed 2,297 hospitalized COVID-19 patients at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, from January 10th to March 30th, 2020; and identified 1,182 patients with known hypertension on pre-hospitalization therapy. We compared the baseline characteristics and in-hospital mortality between hypertensive patients taking RAS inhibitors (N=355) versus non-RAS inhibitors (N=827). Of the 1,182 hypertensive patients (median age 68 years, 49.1% male), 12/355 (3.4%) patients died in the RAS inhibitors group vs. 95/827 (11.5%) patients in the non-RAS inhibitors group (p<0.0001). Adjusted hazard ratio for mortality was 0.28 (95% CI 0.15-0.52, p<0.0001) at 45 days in the RAS inhibitors group compared with non-RAS inhibitors group. Similar findings were observed when patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers (N=289) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (N=66) were separately compared with non-RAS inhibitors group. The RAS inhibitors group compared with non-RAS inhibitors group had lower levels of C-reactive protein (median 13.5 vs. 24.4 pg/mL; p=0.007) and interleukin-6 (median 6.0 vs. 8.5 pg/mL; p=0.026) on admission. The protective effect of RAS inhibitors on mortality was confirmed in a meta-analysis of published data when our data were added to previous studies (odd ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.29-0.65, p<0.0001). Conclusions In a large single center retrospective analysis we observed a protective effect of pre-hospitalization use of RAS inhibitors on mortality in hypertensive COVID-19 patients; which might be associated with reduced inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/drug therapy , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Adult , Aged , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(1): 35-42, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during the COVID-19 quarantine periods and may be at risk for developing psychological distress symptoms that extend beyond a crisis, including depression. This study examined adolescents' postquarantine depressive symptoms associated with pandemic stressors. The primary aim was to identify potential protective factors that may buffer the association between the presence of COVID-19 cases in adolescents' communities and their postquarantine depressive symptoms. METHODS: Adolescents from public schools were recruited from Zhengzhou city, Henan, China (N = 1,487, Mage=13.14 years, 50% girls). Adolescents reported the presence of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases in their communities, their daily activities and routines during the 2-month quarantine period, and depressive symptoms after the quarantine period. RESULTS: The presence of cases in adolescents' communities during the quarantine contributed to more depressive symptoms in adolescents after the quarantine. This association was buffered by adolescents' spending more time on physical activities and better maintenance of daily living routines during the quarantine period. The presence of community infection was also more strongly associated with depressive symptoms in older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of COVID-19 cases in communities contributed to adolescents' poorer mental health, and the association was stronger for older adolescents. Spending time on physical activities and maintaining daily living routines during the quarantine appear to be practical strategies that can be used by adolescents to mitigate the association between pandemic stressors and their diminishing mental health.


Subject(s)
Exercise/psychology , Mental Health , Protective Factors , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , China , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male
16.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 139: 110463, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus outbreak has triggered the implementation of nationwide social distancing measures. We aimed to investigate the impact on patients with recurrent tonsillitis and parental perceptions towards tonsillectomy during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A telephone questionnaire was conducted for all children awaiting tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis after social distancing for 2 months at our centre. The COVID-19 lockdown period was compared with the 2 months prior to lockdown. RESULTS: Forty-four children had been social distancing at home during lockdown. There was a significant reduction in tonsillitis episodes during the 2-month lockdown period in comparison with 2 months prior to lockdown (p = 0.0001). In 70% (n = 31) of cases parents wanted their child's tonsillectomy during the coronavirus outbreak. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that viral exposure is a key factor in the pathophysiology of recurrent tonsillitis and that social distancing measures can reduce the frequency of recurrent tonsillitis. Despite the overall reduction in tonsillitis frequency during the lockdown period, the majority of parents wanted their child's tonsillectomy during the coronavirus outbreak. This demonstrates the impact tonsillitis has on the patient and their family's quality of life.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , Parents/psychology , Tonsillectomy/psychology , Tonsillitis/surgery , Adolescent , /prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Perception , Protective Factors , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tonsillitis/etiology , Tonsillitis/prevention & control , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1342-1354, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-881133

ABSTRACT

Many health care systems around the world continue to struggle with large numbers of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, while others have diminishing numbers of cases following an initial surge. There will most likely be significant oscillations in numbers of cases for the foreseeable future, based on the regional epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Less affected hospitals and facilities will attempt to progressively resume elective procedures and surgery. Ramping up elective care in hospitals that deliberately curtailed elective care to focus on SARS-CoV-2-infected patients will present unique and serious challenges. Among the challenges will be protecting patients and providers from recurrent outbreaks of disease while increasing procedure throughput. Anesthesia providers will inevitably be exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by patients who have not been diagnosed with infection. This is particularly concerning in consideration that aerosols produced during airway management may be infective. In this article, we recommend an approach to routine anesthesia care in the setting of persistent but variable prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We make specific recommendations for personal protective equipment and for the conduct of anesthesia procedures and workflow based on evidence and expert opinion. We propose practical, relatively inexpensive precautions that can be applied to all patients undergoing anesthesia. Because the SARS-CoV-2 virus is spread primarily by respiratory droplets and aerosols, effective masking of anesthesia providers is of paramount importance. Hospitals should follow the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for universal masking of all providers and patients within their facilities. Anesthesia providers should perform anesthetic care in respirator masks (such as N-95 and FFP-2) whenever possible, even when the SARS-CoV-2 test status of patients is negative. Attempting to screen patients for infection with SARS-CoV-2, while valuable, is not a substitute for respiratory protection of providers, as false-negative tests are possible and infected persons can be asymptomatic or presymptomatic. Provision of adequate supplies of respirator masks and other respiratory protection equipment such as powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs) should be a high priority for health care facilities and for government agencies. Eye protection is also necessary because of the possibility of infection from virus coming into contact with the conjunctiva. Because SARS-CoV-2 persists on surfaces and may cause infection by contact with fomites, hand hygiene and surface cleaning are also of paramount importance.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aerosols , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Eye Protective Devices , Hand Hygiene , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protective Factors , Respiratory Protective Devices , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Surgical Attire
18.
Blood Adv ; 4(20): 4990-4993, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873911

ABSTRACT

Identification of risk factors for contracting and developing serious illness following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of paramount interest. Here, we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all Danish individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 27 February 2020 and 30 July 2020, with a known ABO and RhD blood group, to determine the influence of common blood groups on virus susceptibility. Distribution of blood groups was compared with data from nontested individuals. Participants (29% of whom were male) included 473 654 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (7422 positive and 466 232 negative) and 2 204 742 nontested individuals, accounting for ∼38% of the total Danish population. Hospitalization and death from COVID-19, age, cardiovascular comorbidities, and job status were also collected for confirmed infected cases. ABO blood groups varied significantly between patients and the reference group, with only 38.41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.30-39.50) of the patients belonging to blood group O compared with 41.70% (95% CI, 41.60-41.80) in the controls, corresponding to a relative risk of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.91) for acquiring COVID-19. This study identifies ABO blood group as a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection but not for hospitalization or death from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(1): 45-53, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although respiratory viruses are common triggers of asthma exacerbation, it is unknown whether this also applies to infection with SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, patients with asthma and allergy appear underrepresented in large reports of COVID-19 cases worldwide. In this review, we evaluate existing literature on this topic and potential underlying mechanisms for any interrelationship between asthma and COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from several preclinical and clinical reports suggest a lower susceptibility for COVID-19 in patients with underlying type 2 airway inflammation including asthma that may be related to a reduced expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Corticosteroids further decrease expression of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors, hence may also have a protective effect against infection with SARS-CoV-2. In addition, some studies suggest that the reported improvement in asthma control and a reduction in asthma exacerbations during the COVID-19 pandemic may be related to improvement in adherence to controller therapy and reduced exposure to triggers, such as other respiratory viruses and air pollutants. Recent data point towards differential susceptibility for COVID-19 among asthma patients based on their phenotype and/or endotype. On the basis of existing evidence, continuation with controller therapies is recommended for all patients with asthma. For patients with severe uncontrolled asthma infected by SARS-CoV-2, adjustment of controllers and biologics should be based on a multidisciplinary decision. SUMMARY: Underrepresentation of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with asthma and related allergic diseases may be based on potentially protective underlying mechanisms, such as type 2 airway inflammation, downregulation of ACE2/TMPRSS2 receptors, reduced exposures to triggers and improved adherence to controller medications. Although it is imperative that control should be maintained and asthma medications be continued in all patients, management of patients with severe uncontrolled asthma infected by SARS-CoV-2 including adjustment of controllers and biologics should be discussed on an individual basis.


Subject(s)
Asthma/virology , /complications , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , /physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Protective Factors , Risk Factors
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