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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674826

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) first detected in Wuhan, China, has created a public health emergency all over the world. The pandemic has caused more than 340 million confirmed cases and 5.57 million deaths as of 23 January 2022. Although carbohydrates have been found to play a role in coronavirus binding and infection, the role of cell surface glycans in SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis is still not understood. Herein, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit binds specifically to blood group A and B antigens, and that the spike protein S2 subunit has a binding preference for Lea antigens. Further examination of the binding preference for different types of red blood cells (RBCs) indicated that the spike protein S1 subunit preferentially binds with blood group A RBCs, whereas the spike protein S2 subunit prefers to interact with blood group Lea RBCs. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a known target of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, was identified to be a blood group A antigen-containing glycoprotein. Additionally, 6-sulfo N-acetyllactosamine was found to inhibit the binding of the spike protein S1 subunit with blood group A RBCs and reduce the interaction between the spike protein S1 subunit and ACE2.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carbohydrates/genetics , China , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Polysaccharides , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 204: 114067, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670217

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is quickly evolving from wild-type to many variants and spreading around the globe. Since many people have been vaccinated with various types of vaccines, it is crucial to develop a high throughput platform for measuring the antibody responses and surrogate neutralizing activities against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. To meet this need, the present study developed a SARS-CoV-2 variant (CoVariant) array which consists of the extracellular domain of spike variants, e.g., wild-type, D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617, B.1.617.1, B.1.617.2, and B.1.617.3. A surrogate virus neutralization on the CoVariant array was established to quantify the bindings of antibody and host receptor ACE2 simultaneously to spike variants. By using a chimeric anti-spike antibody, we demonstrated a broad binding spectrum of antibodies while inhibiting the bindings of ACE2 to spike variants. To monitor the humoral immunities after vaccination, we collected serums from unvaccinated, partial, or fully vaccinated individuals with either mRNA-1273 or AZD1222 (ChAdOx1). The results showed partial vaccination increased the surrogate neutralization against all the mutants while full vaccination boosted the most. Although IgG, IgA, and IgM isotypes correlated with surrogate neutralizing activities, they behave differently throughout the vaccination processes. Overall, this study developed CoVariant arrays and assays for profiling the humoral responses which are useful for immune assessment, vaccine research, and drug development.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Protein Array Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580419

ABSTRACT

A microarray-based assay to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against betacoronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS, MERS, OC43, and HKU1), other respiratory viruses and type I interferons (IFN-Is) was developed. This multiplex assay was applied to track antibody cross-reactivity due to previous contact with similar viruses and to identify antibodies against IFN-Is as the markers for severe COVID-19. In total, 278 serum samples from convalescent plasma donors, COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and patients who recovered from mild/moderate COVID-19, vaccine recipients, prepandemic and pandemic patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders, and a heterogeneous prepandemic cohort including healthy individuals and chronically ill patients were analyzed. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 microarray results agreed well with the ELISA results. Regarding ICU patients, autoantibodies against IFN-Is were detected in 10.5% of samples, and 10.5% of samples were found to simultaneously contain IgM antibodies against more than two different viruses. Cross-reactivity between IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and IgG against the OC43 and HKU1 spike proteins was observed, resulting in positive signals for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in prepandemic samples from patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders. The presence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in the absence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21768, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505016

ABSTRACT

Rapid design, screening, and characterization of biorecognition elements (BREs) is essential for the development of diagnostic tests and antiviral therapeutics needed to combat the spread of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To address this need, we developed a high-throughput pipeline combining in silico design of a peptide library specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and microarray screening to identify binding sequences. Our optimized microarray platform allowed the simultaneous screening of ~ 2.5 k peptides and rapid identification of binding sequences resulting in selection of four peptides with nanomolar affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Finally, we demonstrated the successful integration of one of the top peptides into an electrochemical sensor with a clinically relevant limit of detection for S protein in spiked saliva. Our results demonstrate the utility of this novel pipeline for the selection of peptide BREs in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and the broader application of such a platform in response to future viral threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Electrochemistry/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interferometry , Kinetics , Peptide Library , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Engineering , Saliva/immunology
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0141621, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495015

ABSTRACT

The rapid worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has accelerated research and development for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. A multi-coronavirus protein microarray was created containing full-length proteins, overlapping protein fragments of various lengths, and peptide libraries from SARS-CoV-2 and four other human coronaviruses. Sera from confirmed COVID-19 patients as well as unexposed individuals were applied to multicoronavirus arrays to identify specific antibody reactivity. High-level IgG, IgM, and IgA reactivity to structural proteins S, M, and N of SARS-CoV-2, as well as accessory proteins such as ORF3a and ORF7a, were observed that were specific to COVID-19 patients. Antibody reactivity against overlapping 100-, 50-, and 30-amino acid fragments of SARS-CoV-2 proteins was used to identify antigenic regions. Numerous proteins of SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-OC43 were also more reactive with IgG, IgM, and IgA in COVID-19 patient sera than in unexposed control sera, providing further evidence of immunologic cross-reactivity between these viruses. Whereas unexposed individuals had minimal reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 proteins that poorly correlated with reactivity against HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-OC43 S2 and N proteins, COVID-19 patient sera had higher correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV responses, suggesting that de novo antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 cross-react with HCoV epitopes. Array responses were compared with validated spike protein-specific IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), showing agreement between orthologous methods. SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization titers were low in the COVID-19 patient sera but correlated with array responses against S and N proteins. The multi-coronavirus protein microarray is a useful tool for mapping antibody reactivity in COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE With novel mutant SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern on the rise, knowledge of immune specificities against SARS-CoV-2 proteins is increasingly important for understanding the impact of structural changes in antibody-reactive protein epitopes on naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity, as well as broader topics of cross-reactivity and viral evolution. A multi-coronavirus protein microarray used to map the binding of COVID-19 patient antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins and protein fragments as well as to the proteins of four other coronaviruses that infect humans has shown specific regions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins that are highly reactive with patient antibodies and revealed cross-reactivity of these antibodies with other human coronaviruses. These data and the multi-coronavirus protein microarray tool will help guide further studies of the antibody response to COVID-19 and to vaccination against this worldwide pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 304, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361622

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive analysis of the humoral immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential in understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis and developing antibody-based diagnostics and therapy. In this work, we performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins in 104 serum samples from 49 critical COVID-19 patients using a peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray. Our data show that the binding epitopes of IgM and IgG antibodies differ across SARS-CoV-2 proteins and even within the same protein. Moreover, most IgM and IgG epitopes are located within nonstructural proteins (nsps), which are critical in inactivating the host's innate immune response and enabling SARS-CoV-2 replication, transcription, and polyprotein processing. IgM antibodies are associated with a good prognosis and target nsp3 and nsp5 proteases, whereas IgG antibodies are associated with high mortality and target structural proteins (Nucleocapsid, Spike, ORF3a). The epitopes targeted by antibodies in patients with a high mortality rate were further validated using an independent serum cohort (n = 56) and using global correlation mapping analysis with the clinical variables that are associated with COVID-19 severity. Our data provide fundamental insight into humoral immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 immunogenic epitopes identified in this work could also help direct antibody-based COVID-19 treatment and triage patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Disease-Free Survival , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Protein Array Analysis , Survival Rate
9.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 832-844, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343659

ABSTRACT

While leading to millions of people's deaths every year the treatment of viral infectious diseases remains a huge public health challenge.Therefore, an in-depth understanding of human-virus protein-protein interactions (PPIs) as the molecular interface between a virus and its host cell is of paramount importance to obtain new insights into the pathogenesis of viral infections and development of antiviral therapeutic treatments. However, current human-virus PPI database resources are incomplete, lack annotation and usually do not provide the opportunity to computationally predict human-virus PPIs. Here, we present the Human-Virus Interaction DataBase (HVIDB, http://zzdlab.com/hvidb/) that provides comprehensively annotated human-virus PPI data as well as seamlessly integrates online PPI prediction tools. Currently, HVIDB highlights 48 643 experimentally verified human-virus PPIs covering 35 virus families, 6633 virally targeted host complexes, 3572 host dependency/restriction factors as well as 911 experimentally verified/predicted 3D complex structures of human-virus PPIs. Furthermore, our database resource provides tissue-specific expression profiles of 6790 human genes that are targeted by viruses and 129 Gene Expression Omnibus series of differentially expressed genes post-viral infections. Based on these multifaceted and annotated data, our database allows the users to easily obtain reliable information about PPIs of various human viruses and conduct an in-depth analysis of their inherent biological significance. In particular, HVIDB also integrates well-performing machine learning models to predict interactions between the human host and viral proteins that are based on (i) sequence embedding techniques, (ii) interolog mapping and (iii) domain-domain interaction inference. We anticipate that HVIDB will serve as a one-stop knowledge base to further guide hypothesis-driven experimental efforts to investigate human-virus relationships.


Subject(s)
Databases, Protein , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Machine Learning , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Conformation , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
10.
Virology ; 562: 142-148, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331288

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and potentially SARS-CoV-2 emerged as novel human coronaviruses following cross-species transmission from animal hosts. Although the receptor binding characteristics of human coronaviruses are well documented, the role of carbohydrate binding in addition to recognition of proteinaceous receptors has not been fully explored. Using natural glycan microarray technology, we identified N-glycans in the human lung that are recognized by various human and animal coronaviruses. All viruses tested, including SARS-CoV-2, bound strongly to a range of phosphorylated, high mannose N-glycans and to a very specific set of sialylated structures. Examination of two linked strains, human CoV OC43 and bovine CoV Mebus, reveals shared binding to the sialic acid form Neu5Gc (not found in humans), supporting the evidence for cross-species transmission of the bovine strain. Our findings, revealing robust recognition of lung glycans, suggest that these receptors could play a role in the initial stages of coronavirus attachment and entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Mannose/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/chemistry , Phosphorylation , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology
11.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109391, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303454

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome is largely unknown, especially for non-structural proteins and accessory proteins. In this study, we collect 2,360 COVID-19 sera and 601 control sera. We analyze these sera on a protein microarray with 20 proteins of SARS-CoV-2, building an antibody response landscape for immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. Non-structural proteins and accessory proteins NSP1, NSP7, NSP8, RdRp, ORF3b, and ORF9b elicit prevalent IgG responses. The IgG patterns and dynamics of non-structural/accessory proteins are different from those of the S and N proteins. The IgG responses against these six proteins are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome, and they decline sharply about 20 days after symptom onset. In non-survivors, a sharp decrease of IgG antibodies against S1 and N proteins before death is observed. The global antibody responses to non-structural/accessory proteins revealed here may facilitate a deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 immunology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Array Analysis
12.
mBio ; 12(3): e0122921, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286719

ABSTRACT

We sought to discover links between antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and patient clinical variables, cytokine profiles, and antibodies to endemic coronaviruses. Serum samples from 30 patients of younger (26 to 39 years) and older (69 to 83 years) age groups and with varying clinical severities ranging from outpatient to mechanically ventilated were collected and used to probe a novel multi-coronavirus protein microarray. This microarray contained variable-length overlapping fragments of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N), and open reading frame (ORF) proteins created through in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT). The array also contained SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), and HCoV-NL63 proteins. IgG antibody responses to specific epitopes within the S1 protein region spanning amino acids (aa) 500 to 650 and within the N protein region spanning aa 201 to 300 were found to be significantly higher in older patients and further significantly elevated in those older patients who were ventilated. Additionally, there was a noticeable overlap between antigenic regions and known mutation locations in selected emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of current clinical consequence (B.1.1.7, B1.351, P.1, CAL20.C, and B.1.526). Moreover, the older age group displayed more consistent correlations of antibody reactivity with systemic cytokine and chemokine responses than the younger adult group. A subset of patients, however, had little or no response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens and disproportionately severe clinical outcomes. Further characterization of these slow-low-responding individuals with cytokine analysis revealed significantly higher interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-15, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) levels and lower epidermal growth factor (EGF) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels than those of seroreactive patients in the cohort. IMPORTANCE As numerous viral variants continue to emerge in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, determining antibody reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes becomes essential in discerning changes in the immune response to infection over time. This study enabled us to identify specific areas of antigenicity within the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, allowing us to detect correlations of epitopes with clinical metadata and immunological signals to gain holistic insight into SARS-CoV-2 infection. This work also emphasized the risk of mutation accumulation in viral variants and the potential for evasion of the adaptive immune responses in the event of reinfection. We additionally highlighted the correlation of antigenicity between structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs, raising the possibility of cross-protection between homologous lineages. Finally, we identified a subset of patients with minimal antibody reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 infection, prompting discussion of the potential consequences of this alternative immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100321, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253745

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains poorly understood. While several studies suggest that immune dysregulation plays a central role, the key mediators of this process are yet to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that plasma from a high proportion (93%) of critically ill COVID-19 patients, but not healthy controls, contains broadly auto-reactive immunoglobulin M (IgM) and less frequently auto-reactive IgG or IgA. Importantly, these auto-IgMs preferentially recognize primary human lung cells in vitro, including pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cells. By using a combination of flow cytometry, analytical proteome microarray technology, and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH)-release cytotoxicity assays, we identify high-affinity, complement-fixing, auto-reactive IgM directed against 260 candidate autoantigens, including numerous molecules preferentially expressed on the cellular membranes of pulmonary, vascular, gastrointestinal, and renal tissues. These findings suggest that broad IgM-mediated autoimmune reactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, thereby identifying a potential target for therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Complement C4/metabolism , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Intensive Care Units , Lung/metabolism , Protein Array Analysis , Proteome/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Anal Chem ; 93(21): 7690-7698, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236048

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is an enveloped RNA virus that causes mild to severe respiratory diseases in humans, including HKU1-CoV, 229E-CoV, NL63-CoV, OC43-CoV, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Due to the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, it is important to identify the patients and investigate their immune responses. Protein microarray is one of the best platforms to profile the antibodies in the blood because of its fast, multiplexed, and sensitive nature. To fully understand the immune responses and biological specificities, this study developed a human coronavirus (HCoV) protein microarray and included all seven human coronaviruses and three influenza viruses. Each protein was printed in triplicate and formed 14 identical blocks per array. The HCoV protein microarray showed high reproducibility and sensitivity to the monoclonal antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid protein with detection limits of 10-200 pg. The HCoV proteins that were immobilized on the array were properly folded and functional by showing interactions with a known human receptor, e.g., ACE2. By profiling the serum IgG and IgA from 32 COVID-19 patients and 36 healthy patients, the HCoV protein microarray demonstrated 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity with two biomarkers. The results also showed the cross-reactivity of IgG and IgA in COVID-19 patients to spike proteins from various coronaviruses, including that from SARS-CoV, HKU1-CoV, and OC43-CoV. Finally, an innate immune protein named surfactant protein D showed broad affinities to spike proteins in all human coronaviruses. Overall, the HCoV protein microarray is multiplexed, sensitive, and specific, which is useful in diagnosis, immune assessment, biological development, and drug screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Humans , Protein Array Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(7): 1839-1849, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151897

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity to the Severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus (CoV)-2 is not fully understood yet but is a crucial factor of immune protection. The possibility of antibody cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses (HCoVs) would have important implications for immune protection but also for the development of specific diagnostic ELISA tests. Using peptide microarrays, n = 24 patient samples and n = 12 control samples were screened for antibodies against the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome as well as the Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), VME1 (V), R1ab, and Protein 3a (AP3A) of the HCoV strains SARS, MERS, OC43, and 229E. While widespread cross-reactivity was revealed across several immunodominant regions of S and N, IgG binding to several SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides provided statistically significant discrimination between COVID-19 patients and controls. Selected target peptides may serve as capture antigens for future, highly COVID-19-specific diagnostic antibody tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Protein Array Analysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
17.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(6): 946-959, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104703

ABSTRACT

The lack of complete information on the immune response dynamics to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the use of mainly molecular tests such as reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to diagnose Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19). Although remarkable progress has been made in developing effective RT-PCR kits, the lack of specific equipment required to perform this technique in all clinical laboratories limits its widespread use. In the case of COVID-19, these tests can be used for the triage of symptomatic patients, for testing the contacts of confirmed cases, and also for the analysis and monitoring of the situation. Along with molecular tests involving reverse transcription PCR, various laboratory tests can identify the specific anti-viral antibodies or viral antigens. This review seeks to describe the targets and diagnostic methods available or currently in development for SARS-CoV-2 infection, including reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), serologic immunoassays (SIA) and the protein microarray method (PMM). Knowing the specific targets and the sensitivity of each assay used for COVID-19 diagnosis can lead to more efficient detection of infected patients and it can provide better management of the pandemic status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immune System , Immunoassay , Mutation , Open Reading Frames , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 202: 105996, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 progresses slowly and negatively affects many people. However, mild to moderate symptoms develop in most infected people, who recover without hospitalization. Therefore, the development of early diagnosis and treatment strategies is essential. One of these methods is proteomic technology based on the blood protein profiling technique. This study aims to classify three COVID-19 positive patient groups (mild, severe, and critical) and a control group based on the blood protein profiling using deep learning (DL), random forest (RF), and gradient boosted trees (GBTs). METHODS: The dataset consists of 93 samples (60 COVID-19 patients, 33 control), and 370 variables obtained from an open-source website. The current dataset contains age, gender, and 368 protein, used to predict the relationship between disease severity and proteins using DL and machine learning approaches (RF, GBTs). An evolutionary algorithm tunes hyperparameters of the models and the predictions are assessed through accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision, F1 score, classification error, and kappa performance metrics. RESULTS: The accuracy of RF (96.21%) was higher as compared to DL (94.73%). However, the ensemble classifier GBTs produced the highest accuracy (96.98%). TGB1BP2 in the cardiovascular II panel and MILR1 in the inflammation panel were the two most important proteins associated with disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model (GBTs) achieved the best prediction of disease severity based on the proteins compared to the other algorithms. The results point out that changes in blood proteins associated with the severity of COVID-19 may be used in monitoring and early diagnosis/treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/physiopathology , Protein Array Analysis , Aged , Deep Learning , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 273: 113871, 2021 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042531

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Reduning injection (RDNI) is a patented Traditional Chinese medicine that contains three Chinese herbal medicines, respectively are the dry aboveground part of Artemisia annua L., the flower of Lonicera japonica Thunb., and the fruit Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis. RDNI has been recommended for treating Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the "New Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan". AIM OF THE STUDY: To elucidate and verify the underlying mechanisms of RDNI for the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: This study firstly performed anti-SARS-CoV-2 experiments in Vero E6 cells. Then, network pharmacology combined with molecular docking was adopted to explore the potential mechanisms of RDNI in the treatment for COVID-19. After that, western blot and a cytokine chip were used to validate the predictive results. RESULTS: We concluded that half toxic concentration of drug CC50 (dilution ratio) = 1:1280, CC50 = 2.031 mg crude drugs/mL (0.047 mg solid content/mL) and half effective concentration of drug (EC50) (diluted multiples) = 1:25140.3, EC50 = 103.420 µg crude drugs/mL (2.405 µg solid content/mL). We found that RDNI can mainly regulate targets like carbonic anhydrases (CAs), matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs) and pathways like PI3K/AKT, MAPK, Forkhead box O s and T cell receptor signaling pathways to reduce lung damage. We verified that RDNI could effectively inhibit the overexpression of MAPKs, PKC and p65 nuclear factor-κB. The injection could also affect cytokine levels, reduce inflammation and display antipyretic activity. CONCLUSION: RDNI can regulate ACE2, Mpro and PLP in COVID-19. The underlying mechanisms of RDNI in the treatment for COVID-19 may be related to the modulation of the cytokine levels and inflammation and its antipyretic activity by regulating the expression of MAPKs, PKC and p65 nuclear factor NF-κB.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Cell Line, Transformed , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Array Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells
20.
Lab Chip ; 21(2): 331-343, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933730

ABSTRACT

Despite widespread concern regarding cytokine storms leading to severe morbidity in COVID-19, rapid cytokine assays are not routinely available for monitoring critically ill patients. We report the clinical application of a digital protein microarray platform for rapid multiplex quantification of cytokines from critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at the University of Michigan Hospital. The platform comprises two low-cost modules: (i) a semi-automated fluidic dispensing/mixing module that can be operated inside a biosafety cabinet to minimize the exposure of the technician to the virus infection and (ii) a 12-12-15 inch compact fluorescence optical scanner for the potential near-bedside readout. The platform enabled daily cytokine analysis in clinical practice with high sensitivity (<0.4 pg mL-1), inter-assay repeatability (∼10% CV), and rapid operation providing feedback on the progress of therapy within 4 hours. This test allowed us to perform serial monitoring of two critically ill patients with respiratory failure and to support immunomodulatory therapy using the selective cytopheretic device (SCD). We also observed clear interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevations after receiving tocilizumab (IL-6 inhibitor) while significant cytokine profile variability exists across all critically ill COVID-19 patients and to discover a weak correlation between IL-6 to clinical biomarkers, such as ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Our data revealed large subject-to-subject variability in patients' response to COVID-19, reaffirming the need for a personalized strategy guided by rapid cytokine assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Digital Technology/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Protein Array Analysis/methods , Algorithms , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Equipment Design , Ferritins/analysis , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Limit of Detection , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
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