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1.
Biochemistry ; 62(11): 1744-1754, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324962

ABSTRACT

A major challenge in defining the pathophysiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is to better understand virally encoded multifunctional proteins and their interactions with host factors. Among the many proteins encoded by the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) stands out due to its impact on several stages of the viral replication cycle. Nsp1 is the major virulence factor that inhibits mRNA translation. Nsp1 also promotes host mRNA cleavage to modulate host and viral protein expression and to suppress host immune functions. To better define how this multifunctional protein can facilitate distinct functions, we characterize SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 by using a combination of biophysical techniques, including light scattering, circular dichroism, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), and temperature-dependent HDX-MS. Our results reveal that the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 N- and C-terminus are unstructured in solution, and in the absence of other proteins, the C-terminus has an increased propensity to adopt a helical conformation. In addition, our data indicate that a short helix exists near the C-terminus and adjoins the region that binds the ribosome. Together, these findings provide insights into the dynamic nature of Nsp1 that impacts its functions during infection. Furthermore, our results will inform efforts to understand SARS-CoV-2 infection and antiviral development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virulence Factors/metabolism
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2204539119, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311672

ABSTRACT

Viruses evade the innate immune response by suppressing the production or activity of cytokines such as type I interferons (IFNs). Here we report the discovery of a mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 virus coopts an intrinsic cellular machinery to suppress the production of the key immunostimulatory cytokine IFN-ß. We reveal that the SARS-CoV-2 encoded nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) directly interacts with the cellular GIGYF2 protein. This interaction enhances the binding of GIGYF2 to the mRNA cap-binding protein 4EHP, thereby repressing the translation of the Ifnb1 mRNA. Depletion of GIGYF2 or 4EHP significantly enhances IFN-ß production, which inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our findings reveal a target for rescuing the antiviral innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and other RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier Proteins , Interferon Type I , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , COVID-19/genetics , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
3.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299889

ABSTRACT

The virus-host interaction is dynamic and evolutionary. Viruses have to fight with hosts to establish successful infection. Eukaryotic hosts are equipped with multiple defenses against incoming viruses. One of the host antiviral defenses is the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for RNA quality control in eukaryotic cells. NMD ensures the accuracy of mRNA translation by removing the abnormal mRNAs harboring pre-matured stop codons. Many RNA viruses have a genome that contains internal stop codon(s) (iTC). Akin to the premature termination codon in aberrant RNA transcripts, the presence of iTC would activate NMD to degrade iTC-containing viral genomes. A couple of viruses have been reported to be sensitive to the NMD-mediated antiviral defense, while some viruses have evolved with specific cis-acting RNA features or trans-acting viral proteins to overcome or escape from NMD. Recently, increasing light has been shed on the NMD-virus interaction. This review summarizes the current scenario of NMD-mediated viral RNA degradation and classifies various molecular means by which viruses compromise the NMD-mediated antiviral defense for better infection in their hosts.


Subject(s)
Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay , RNA Viruses , RNA Viruses/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , Codon, Terminator , Antiviral Agents
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 51(9): 4208-4222, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296288

ABSTRACT

RPS3, a universal core component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, interacts with mRNA at the entry channel. Whether RPS3 mRNA-binding contributes to specific mRNA translation and ribosome specialization in mammalian cells is unknown. Here we mutated RPS3 mRNA-contacting residues R116, R146 and K148 and report their impact on cellular and viral translation. R116D weakened cap-proximal initiation and promoted leaky scanning, while R146D had the opposite effect. Additionally, R146D and K148D displayed contrasting effects on start-codon fidelity. Translatome analysis uncovered common differentially translated genes of which the downregulated set bears long 5'UTR and weak AUG context, suggesting a stabilizing role during scanning and AUG selection. We identified an RPS3-dependent regulatory sequence (RPS3RS) in the sub-genomic 5'UTR of SARS-CoV-2 consisting of a CUG initiation codon and a downstream element that is also the viral transcription regulatory sequence (TRS). Furthermore, RPS3 mRNA-binding residues are essential for SARS-CoV-2 NSP1-mediated inhibition of host translation and for its ribosomal binding. Intriguingly, NSP1-induced mRNA degradation was also reduced in R116D cells, indicating that mRNA decay occurs in the ribosome context. Thus, RPS3 mRNA-binding residues have multiple translation regulatory functions and are exploited by SARS-CoV-2 in various ways to influence host and viral mRNA translation and stability.


Subject(s)
Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational , Ribosomal Proteins , Humans , 5' Untranslated Regions , Codon, Initiator/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , Ribosomes/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
5.
J Biol Chem ; 299(5): 104658, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270108

ABSTRACT

Eukaryotic initiation factor 3d (eIF3d), a known RNA-binding subunit of the eIF3 complex, is a 66 to 68-kDa protein with an RNA-binding motif and a cap-binding domain. Compared with other eIF3 subunits, eIF3d is relatively understudied. However, recent progress in studying eIF3d has revealed a number of intriguing findings on its role in maintaining eIF3 complex integrity, global protein synthesis, and in biological and pathological processes. It has also been reported that eIF3d has noncanonical functions in regulating translation of a subset of mRNAs by binding to 5'-UTRs or interacting with other proteins independent of the eIF3 complex and additional functions in regulating protein stability. The noncanonical regulation of mRNA translation or protein stability may contribute to the role of eIF3d in biological processes such as metabolic stress adaptation and in disease onset and progression including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, tumorigenesis, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. In this review, we critically evaluate the recent studies on these aspects of eIF3d and assess prospects in understanding the function of eIF3d in regulating protein synthesis and in biological and pathological processes.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3 , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA Caps , Humans , COVID-19 , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3/metabolism , RNA Caps/metabolism , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Carcinogenesis , 5' Untranslated Regions/genetics
6.
Virol J ; 20(1): 55, 2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267029

ABSTRACT

When viruses like SARS-CoV-2 infect cells, they reprogram the repertoire of cellular and viral transcripts that are being translated to optimize their strategy of replication, often targeting host translation initiation factors, particularly eIF4F complex consisting of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A. A proteomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2/human proteins interaction revealed viral Nsp2 and initiation factor eIF4E2, but a role of Nsp2 in regulating translation is still controversial. HEK293T cells stably expressing Nsp2 were tested for protein synthesis rates of synthetic and endogenous mRNAs known to be translated via cap- or IRES-dependent mechanism under normal and hypoxic conditions. Both cap- and IRES-dependent translation were increased in Nsp2-expressing cells under normal and hypoxic conditions, especially mRNAs that require high levels of eIF4F. This could be exploited by the virus to maintain high translation rates of both viral and cellular proteins, particularly in hypoxic conditions as may arise in SARS-CoV-2 patients with poor lung functioning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/analysis , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/isolation & purification , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/metabolism , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology
7.
PLoS Biol ; 21(1): e3001693, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266404

ABSTRACT

RNA recombination in positive-strand RNA viruses is a molecular-genetic process, which permits the greatest evolution of the genome and may be essential to stabilizing the genome from the deleterious consequences of accumulated mutations. Enteroviruses represent a useful system to elucidate the details of this process. On the biochemical level, it is known that RNA recombination is catalyzed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase using a template-switching mechanism. For this mechanism to function in cells, the recombining genomes must be located in the same subcellular compartment. How a viral genome is trafficked to the site of genome replication and recombination, which is membrane associated and isolated from the cytoplasm, is not known. We hypothesized that genome translation was essential for colocalization of genomes for recombination. We show that complete inactivation of internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of a donor enteroviral genome enhanced recombination instead of impairing it. Recombination did not occur by a nonreplicative mechanism. Rather, sufficient translation of the nonstructural region of the genome occurred to support subsequent steps required for recombination. The noncanonical translation initiation factors, eIF2A and eIF2D, were required for IRES-independent translation. Our results support an eIF2A/eIF2D-dependent mechanism under conditions in which the eIF2-dependent mechanism is inactive. Detection of an IRES-independent mechanism for translation of the enterovirus genome provides an explanation for a variety of debated observations, including nonreplicative recombination and persistence of enteroviral RNA lacking an IRES. The existence of an eIF2A/eIF2D-dependent mechanism in enteroviruses predicts the existence of similar mechanisms in other viruses.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Humans , Enterovirus/physiology , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Internal Ribosome Entry Sites , Peptide Initiation Factors/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(7-8): 2451-2468, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254613

ABSTRACT

Maximizing the expression level of therapeutic proteins in cells is the general goal for DNA/mRNA therapies. It is particularly challenging to achieve efficient protein expression in the cellular contexts with inhibited translation machineries, such as in the presence of cellular Nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) of coronaviruses (CoVs) that has been reported to inhibit overall protein synthesis of host genes and exogenously delivered mRNAs/DNAs. In this study, we thoroughly examined the sequence and structure contexts of viral and non-viral 5'UTRs that determine the protein expression levels of exogenously delivered DNAs and mRNAs in cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1. It was found that high 5'-proximal A/U content promotes an escape from Nsp1-directed inhibition of protein synthesis and results in selective protein expression. Furthermore, 5'-proximal Cs were found to significantly enhance the protein expression in an Nsp1-dependent manner, while Gs located at a specific window close to the 5'-end counteract such enhancement. The distinct protein expression levels resulted from different 5'UTRs were found correlated to Nsp1-induced mRNA degradations. These findings ultimately enabled rational designs for optimized 5'UTRs that lead to strong expression of exogenous proteins regardless of the translationally repressive Nsp1. On the other hand, we have also identified several 5'-proximal sequences derived from host genes that are capable of mediating the escapes. These results provided novel perspectives to the optimizations of 5'UTRs for DNA/mRNA therapies and/or vaccinations, as well as shedding light on the potential host escapees from Nsp1-directed translational shutoffs. KEY POINTS: • The 5'-proximal SL1 and 5a/b derived from SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA promote exogenous protein synthesis in cells expressing Nsp1 comparing with non-specific 5'UTRs. • Specific 5'-proximal sequence contexts are the key determinants of the escapes from Nsp1-directed translational repression and thereby enhance protein expressions. • Systematic mutagenesis identified optimized 5'UTRs that strongly enhance protein expression and promote resistance to Nsp1-induced translational repression and RNA degradation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , 5' Untranslated Regions , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Cell Line , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(8): e2219758120, 2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241835

ABSTRACT

Synthetic biology tools for regulating gene expression have many useful biotechnology and therapeutic applications. Most tools developed for this purpose control gene expression at the level of transcription, and relatively few methods are available for regulating gene expression at the translational level. Here, we design and engineer split orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (o-aaRS) as unique tools to control gene translation in bacteria and mammalian cells. Using chemically induced dimerization domains, we developed split o-aaRSs that mediate gene expression by conditionally suppressing stop codons in the presence of the small molecules rapamycin and abscisic acid. By activating o-aaRSs, these molecular switches induce stop codon suppression, and in their absence stop codon suppression is turned off. We demonstrate, in Escherichia coli and in human cells, that split o-aaRSs function as genetically encoded AND gates where stop codon suppression is controlled by two distinct molecular inputs. In addition, we show that split o-aaRSs can be used as versatile biosensors to detect therapeutically relevant protein-protein interactions, including those involved in cancer, and those that mediate severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases , Codon, Terminator , Humans , Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases/genetics , Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases/metabolism , Ligases/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Transfer/genetics , Escherichia coli
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 230: 123191, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179329

ABSTRACT

Viral mRNA of coronavirus translates in an eIF4E-dependent manner, and the phosphorylation of eIF4E can modulate this process, but the role of p-eIF4E in coronavirus infection is not yet entirely evident. p-eIF4E favors the translation of selected mRNAs, specifically the mRNAs that encode proteins associated with cell proliferation, inflammation, the extracellular matrix, and tumor formation and metastasis. In the present work, two rounds of TMT relative quantitative proteomics were used to screen 77 cellular factors that are upregulated upon infection by coronavirus PEDV and are potentially susceptible to a high level of p-eIF4E. PEDV infection increased the translation level of ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit RPLp2 (but not subunit RPLp0/1) in a p-eIF4E-dependent manner. The bicistronic dual-reporter assay and polysome profile showed that RPLp2 is essential for translating the viral mRNA of PEDV. RNA binding protein and immunoprecipitation assay showed that RPLp2 interacted with PEDV 5'UTR via association with eIF4E. Moreover, the cap pull-down assay showed that the viral nucleocapsid protein is recruited in m7GTP-precipitated complexes with the assistance of RPLp2. The heterogeneous ribosomes, which are different in composition, regulate the selective translation of specific mRNAs. Our study proves that viral mRNA and protein utilize translation factors and heterogeneous ribosomes for preferential translation initiation. This previously uncharacterized process may be involved in the selective translation of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Humans , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , Coronavirus/genetics , Proteomics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
11.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964117

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection generates up to nine different sub-genomic mRNAs (sgRNAs), in addition to the genomic RNA (gRNA). The 5'UTR of each viral mRNA shares the first 75 nucleotides (nt.) at their 5'end, called the leader, but differentiates by a variable sequence (0 to 190 nt. long) that follows the leader. As a result, each viral mRNA has its own specific 5'UTR in term of length, RNA structure, uORF and Kozak context; each one of these characteristics could affect mRNA expression. In this study, we have measured and compared translational efficiency of each of the ten viral transcripts. Our data show that most of them are very efficiently translated in all translational systems tested. Surprisingly, the gRNA 5'UTR, which is the longest and the most structured, was also the most efficient to initiate translation. This property is conserved in the 5'UTR of SARS-CoV-1 but not in MERS-CoV strain, mainly due to the regulation imposed by the uORF. Interestingly, the translation initiation mechanism on the SARS-CoV-2 gRNA 5'UTR requires the cap structure and the components of the eIF4F complex but showed no dependence in the presence of the poly(A) tail in vitro. Our data strongly suggest that translation initiation on SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs occurs via an unusual cap-dependent mechanism.


Subject(s)
RNA, Guide, Kinetoplastida , SARS-CoV-2 , 5' Untranslated Regions , Genomics , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(14): 8080-8092, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948397

ABSTRACT

Translation of SARS-CoV-2-encoded mRNAs by the host ribosomes is essential for its propagation. Following infection, the early expressed viral protein NSP1 binds the ribosome, represses translation, and induces mRNA degradation, while the host elicits an anti-viral response. The mechanisms enabling viral mRNAs to escape this multifaceted repression remain obscure. Here we show that expression of NSP1 leads to destabilization of multi-exon cellular mRNAs, while intron-less transcripts, such as viral mRNAs and anti-viral interferon genes, remain relatively stable. We identified a conserved and precisely located cap-proximal RNA element devoid of guanosines that confers resistance to NSP1-mediated translation inhibition. Importantly, the primary sequence rather than the secondary structure is critical for protection. We further show that the genomic 5'UTR of SARS-CoV-2 drives cap-independent translation and promotes expression of NSP1 in an eIF4E-independent and Torin1-resistant manner. Upon expression, NSP1 further enhances cap-independent translation. However, the sub-genomic 5'UTRs are highly sensitive to eIF4E availability, rendering viral propagation partially sensitive to Torin1. We conclude that the combined NSP1-mediated degradation of spliced mRNAs and translation inhibition of single-exon genes, along with the unique features present in the viral 5'UTRs, ensure robust expression of viral mRNAs. These features can be exploited as potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , 5' Untranslated Regions , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/genetics , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
14.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0169521, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816694

ABSTRACT

The replication of coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of infected cells. The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by ER stress (ERS), is a typical outcome in coronavirus-infected cells and is closely associated with the characteristics of coronaviruses. However, the interaction between virus-induced ERS and coronavirus replication is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that infection with the betacoronavirus porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) induced ERS and triggered all three branches of the UPR signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ERS suppressed PHEV replication in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells primarily by activating the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) axis of the UPR. Moreover, another eIF2α phosphorylation kinase, interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), was also activated and acted cooperatively with PERK to decrease PHEV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PERK/PKR-eIF2α pathways negatively regulated PHEV replication by attenuating global protein translation. Phosphorylated eIF2α also promoted the formation of stress granules (SGs), which in turn repressed PHEV replication. In summary, our study presents a vital aspect of the host innate response to invading pathogens and reveals attractive host targets (e.g., PERK, PKR, and eIF2α) for antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus diseases are caused by different coronaviruses of importance in humans and animals, and specific treatments are extremely limited. ERS, which can activate the UPR to modulate viral replication and the host innate response, is a frequent occurrence in coronavirus-infected cells. PHEV, a neurotropic betacoronavirus, causes nerve cell damage, which accounts for the high mortality rates in suckling piglets. However, it remains incompletely understood whether the highly developed ER in nerve cells plays an antiviral role in ERS and how ERS regulates viral proliferation. In this study, we found that PHEV infection induced ERS and activated the UPR both in vitro and in vivo and that the activated PERK/PKR-eIF2α axis inhibited PHEV replication through attenuating global protein translation and promoting SG formation. A better understanding of coronavirus-induced ERS and UPR activation may reveal the pathogenic mechanism of coronavirus and facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for these diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Stress Granules/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Mice , Phosphorylation , Protein Biosynthesis , Signal Transduction , Unfolded Protein Response
15.
FEBS Lett ; 596(9): 1203-1213, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798052

ABSTRACT

Nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) of SARS-CoV-2 inhibits host cell translation through an interaction between its C-terminal domain and the 40S ribosome. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of Nsp1 is a target of recurring deletions, some of which are associated with altered COVID-19 disease progression. Here, we characterize the efficiency of translational inhibition by clinically observed Nsp1 deletion variants. We show that a frequent deletion of residues 79-89 severely reduces the ability of Nsp1 to inhibit translation while not abrogating Nsp1 binding to the 40S. Notably, while the SARS-CoV-2 5' untranslated region enhances translation of mRNA, it does not protect from Nsp1-mediated inhibition. Finally, thermal stability measurements and structure predictions reveal a correlation between stability of the NTD and the efficiency of translation inhibition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis , Ribosomes/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
16.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785535

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia is a common complication affecting liver disease patients, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cellular mechanisms that drive sarcopenia progression using an in vitro model of liver disease. C2C12 myotubes were serum and amino acid starved for 1-h and subsequently conditioned with fasted ex vivo serum from four non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients (NAFLD), four decompensated end-stage liver disease patients (ESLD) and four age-matched healthy controls (CON) for 4- or 24-h. After 4-h C2C12 myotubes were treated with an anabolic stimulus (5 mM leucine) for 30-min. Myotube diameter was reduced following treatment with serum from ESLD compared with CON (-45%) and NAFLD (-35%; p < 0.001 for both). A reduction in maximal mitochondrial respiration (24% and 29%, respectively), coupling efficiency (~12%) and mitophagy (~13%) was identified in myotubes conditioned with NAFLD and ESLD serum compared with CON (p < 0.05 for both). Myostatin (43%, p = 0.04) and MuRF-1 (41%, p = 0.03) protein content was elevated in myotubes treated with ESLD serum compared with CON. Here we highlight a novel, experimental platform to further probe changes in circulating markers associated with liver disease that may drive sarcopenia and develop targeted therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
End Stage Liver Disease , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Sarcopenia , Humans , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Protein Biosynthesis , Sarcopenia/complications
17.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0013622, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745828

ABSTRACT

Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to hijack the cellular gene expression system for their replication. The poly(A) binding proteins (PABPs), a family of critical gene expression factors, are viruses' common targets. PABPs act not only as a translation factor but also as a key factor of mRNA metabolism. During viral infections, the activities of PABPs are manipulated by various viruses, subverting the host translation machinery or evading the cellular antiviral defense mechanism. Viruses harness PABPs by modifying their stability, complex formation with other translation initiation factors, or subcellular localization to promote viral mRNAs translation while shutting off or competing with host protein synthesis. For the past decade, many studies have demonstrated the PABPs' roles during viral infection. This review summarizes a comprehensive perspective of PABPs' roles during viral infection and how viruses evade host antiviral defense through the manipulations of PABPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Host Microbial Interactions , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/genetics , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/immunology , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
18.
RNA ; 28(5): 729-741, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724733

ABSTRACT

The 5'UTR part of coronavirus genomes plays key roles in the viral replication cycle and translation of viral mRNAs. The first 75-80 nt, also called the leader sequence, are identical for genomic mRNA and subgenomic mRNAs. Recently, it was shown that cooperative actions of a 5'UTR segment and the nonstructural protein NSP1 are essential for both the inhibition of host mRNAs and for specific translation of viral mRNAs. Here, sequence analyses of both the 5'UTR RNA segment and the NSP1 protein have been done for several coronaviruses, with special attention to the betacoronaviruses. The conclusions are: (i) precise specific molecular signatures can be found in both the RNA and the NSP1 protein; (ii) both types of signatures correlate between each other. Indeed, definite sequence motifs in the RNA correlate with sequence motifs in the protein, indicating a coevolution between the 5'UTR and NSP1 in betacoronaviruses. Experimental mutational data on 5'UTR and NSP1 from SARS-CoV-2 using cell-free translation extracts support these conclusions and show that some conserved key residues in the amino-terminal half of the NSP1 protein are essential for evasion to the inhibitory effect of NSP1 on translation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , 5' Untranslated Regions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
19.
J Vis Exp ; (180)2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715854

ABSTRACT

RNA adopts diverse structural folds, which are essential for its functions and thereby can impact diverse processes in the cell. In addition, the structure and function of an RNA can be modulated by various trans-acting factors, such as proteins, metabolites or other RNAs. Frameshifting RNA molecules, for instance, are regulatory RNAs located in coding regions, which direct translating ribosomes into an alternative open reading frame, and thereby act as gene switches. They may also adopt different folds after binding to proteins or other trans-factors. To dissect the role of RNA-binding proteins in translation and how they modulate RNA structure and stability, it is crucial to study the interplay and mechanical features of these RNA-protein complexes simultaneously. This work illustrates how to employ single-molecule-fluorescence-coupled optical tweezers to explore the conformational and thermodynamic landscape of RNA-protein complexes at a high resolution. As an example, the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 programmed ribosomal frameshifting element with the trans-acting factor short isoform of zinc-finger antiviral protein is elaborated. In addition, fluorescence-labeled ribosomes were monitored using the confocal unit, which would ultimately enable the study of translation elongation. The fluorescence coupled OT assay can be widely applied to explore diverse RNA-protein complexes or trans-acting factors regulating translation and could facilitate studies of RNA-based gene regulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Optical Tweezers , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Biophys Chem ; 285: 106780, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693833

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) serve as blueprints for protein synthesis by the molecular machine the ribosome. The ribosome relies on hydrogen bonding interactions between adaptor aminoacyl-transfer RNA molecules and mRNAs to ensure the rapid and faithful translation of the genetic code into protein. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that chemical modifications to mRNA nucleosides impact the speed and accuracy of protein synthesis by the ribosome. Modulations in translation rates have downstream effects beyond protein production, influencing protein folding and mRNA stability. Given the prevalence of such modifications in mRNA coding regions, it is imperative to understand the consequences of individual modifications on translation. In this review we present the current state of our knowledge regarding how individual mRNA modifications influence ribosome function. Our comprehensive comparison of the impacts of 16 different mRNA modifications on translation reveals that most modifications can alter the elongation step in the protein synthesis pathway. Additionally, we discuss the context dependence of these effects, highlighting the necessity of further study to uncover the rules that govern how any given chemical modification in an mRNA codon is read by the ribosome.


Subject(s)
Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational , Protein Biosynthesis , Codon/analysis , Codon/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/chemistry , Ribosomes/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism
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