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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 976-987, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474606

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is a crucial target for treating coronavirus diseases including COVID-19. Our preliminary screening showed that Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (AGE) displayed potent SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activity, but the key constituents with SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory effect and their mechanisms were unrevealed. Herein, a practical strategy via integrating bioactivity-guided fractionation and purification, mass spectrometry-based peptide profiling and time-dependent biochemical assay, was applied to identify the crucial constituents in AGE and to uncover their inhibitory mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the flavonoid-rich fractions (10-17.5 min) displayed strong SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities, while the constituents in these fractions were isolated and their SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities were investigated. Among all isolated flavonoids, dihydromyricetin, isodihydromyricetin and myricetin strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in a time-dependent manner. Further investigations demonstrated that myricetin could covalently bind on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro at Cys300 and Cys44, while dihydromyricetin and isodihydromyricetin covalently bound at Cys300. Covalent docking coupling with molecular dynamics simulations showed the detailed interactions between the orthoquinone form of myricetin and two covalent binding sites (surrounding Cys300 and Cys44) of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Collectively, the flavonoids in AGE strongly and time-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, while the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors in AGE offer promising lead compounds for developing novel antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
3C Viral Proteases/chemistry , 3C Viral Proteases/metabolism , Ampelopsis/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites/drug effects , Cysteine/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonols/chemistry , Flavonols/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Conformation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 492-512, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330854

ABSTRACT

With increasing global cases and mortality rates due to COVID-19 infection, finding effective therapeutic interventions has become a top priority. Marine resources are not explored much and to be taken into consideration for exploring antiviral potential. Chitosan (carbohydrate polymer) is one such bioactive glycan found ubiquitously in marine organisms. The presence of reactive amine/hydroxyl groups, with low toxicity/allergenicity, compels us to explore it against SARS-CoV-2. We have screened a library of chitosan derivatives by site-specific docking at not only spike protein Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of wild type SARS-CoV-2 but also on RBD of B.1.1.7 (UK) and P.1 (Brazil) SARS-CoV-2 variants. The obtained result was very interesting and ranks N-benzyl-O-acetyl-chitosan, Imino-chitosan, Sulfated-chitosan oligosaccharides derivatives as a potent antiviral candidate due to its high binding affinity of the ligands (-6.0 to -6.6 kcal/mol) with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD and they critically interacting with amino acid residues Tyr 449, Asn 501, Tyr 501, Gln 493, Gln 498 and some other site-specific residues associated with higher transmissibility and severe infection. Further ADMET analysis was done and found significant for exploration of the future therapeutic potential of these three ligands. The obtained results are highly encouraging in support for consideration and exploration in further clinical studies of these chitosan derivatives as anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Genetic Variation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Brazil , Chitosan/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , United Kingdom , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(5): e1009519, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232468

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus that is the causative agent of COVID-19, a sometimes-lethal respiratory infection responsible for a world-wide pandemic. The envelope (E) protein, one of four structural proteins encoded in the viral genome, is a 75-residue integral membrane protein whose transmembrane domain exhibits ion channel activity and whose cytoplasmic domain participates in protein-protein interactions. These activities contribute to several aspects of the viral replication-cycle, including virion assembly, budding, release, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe the structure and dynamics of full-length SARS-CoV-2 E protein in hexadecylphosphocholine micelles by NMR spectroscopy. We also characterized its interactions with four putative ion channel inhibitors. The chemical shift index and dipolar wave plots establish that E protein consists of a long transmembrane helix (residues 8-43) and a short cytoplasmic helix (residues 53-60) connected by a complex linker that exhibits some internal mobility. The conformations of the N-terminal transmembrane domain and the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain are unaffected by truncation from the intact protein. The chemical shift perturbations of E protein spectra induced by the addition of the inhibitors demonstrate that the N-terminal region (residues 6-18) is the principal binding site. The binding affinity of the inhibitors to E protein in micelles correlates with their antiviral potency in Vero E6 cells: HMA ≈ EIPA > DMA >> Amiloride, suggesting that bulky hydrophobic groups in the 5' position of the amiloride pyrazine ring play essential roles in binding to E protein and in antiviral activity. An N15A mutation increased the production of virus-like particles, induced significant chemical shift changes from residues in the inhibitor binding site, and abolished HMA binding, suggesting that Asn15 plays a key role in maintaining the protein conformation near the binding site. These studies provide the foundation for complete structure determination of E protein and for structure-based drug discovery targeting this protein.


Subject(s)
Amiloride/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amiloride/pharmacokinetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Humans , Ion Channels/metabolism , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Conformation/drug effects , Protein Domains , Vero Cells , Virus Assembly/drug effects
4.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(6): 689-703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has become a pandemic with higher morbidity and mortality rates after its start from Wuhan city of China. The infection by RNA virus, also known as SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV, from the beta class of coronaviruses, has been found to be responsible for COVID-19. Structural analysis and evidences have been indicated that interaction between a segment of receptor binding domain (RBD) from S protein of the virus and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) is essential for cellular entry of the virus. OBJECTIVE: The current review sheds light on structural aspects for the inhibition of RBD-hACE2 interaction mediated cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The present study provides a critical review of recently published information on RBDhACE2 interaction and its inhibitors to control SARS-CoV-2 infection. The review highlighted the structural aspects of the interaction between RBD-hACE2 and involved amino acid residues. RESULTS: Recently, several studies are being conducted for the inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 attachment and entry to the human cellular system. One of the important targets for viral invasion is its binding with cell surface receptor, hACE2, through RBD on S-protein. Mimicking of three residues on ACE2 (Lys31, Glu35 and Lys353 on B chain) provided a hot target directed strategy for the inhibition of early attachment of the virus to the cell. Early screening of peptidic or non-peptidic molecules for the inhibition of RBD-hACE2 interaction has raised the hope for potential therapeutics against COVID-19. The higher affinity of molecules toward RBD than ACE2 is an important factor for selectivity and minimization of ACE2 related adverse events on the cardiovascular system, brain, kidney, and foetus development during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of RBD-hACE2 interaction by different molecular scaffolds can be used as a preferred strategy for control of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently, published reports pointed out Lys31, Glu35 and Lys353 on the B chain of ACE2 as crucial residues for mimicking and design of novel molecules as inhibitors SARS-CoV-2 attachment to human cells. Moreover, some recently identified RBD-hACE2 interaction inhibitors have also been described with their protein binding pattern and potencies (IC50 values), which will help for further improvement in the selectivity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Design , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Conformation/drug effects , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
5.
Protein J ; 39(6): 619-630, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967333

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir was approved by the U.S.A. Food and Drug administration for emergency use to interfere with the replication of SARS CoV-2 virus (the agent that causes COVID-19) in adults and children hospitalized with severe disease. The crystal structure of the metabolite of remdesivir (Monophosphate of GS-441524) and NSP12-NSP8-NSP7 of SARS CoV-2 virus was recently reported. The crystal structures of ADP-Ribose or AMP and NSP3 of SARS CoV-2 virus were also released, recently. This study compared their binding sites and suggests the crystal structure of NSP3 of SARS CoV-2 virus as an alternative binding site of AMP or ADP-ribose to treat COVID-19. We virtually screened 682 FDA-approved compounds, and the top 10 compounds were selected by analysis of docking scores, (G-score, D-score, and Chemscore) and visual analysis using a structure-based docking approach of NSP3 of SARS CoV-2 virus. All immunization approaches are based on the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein. A recent study reported that the D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein reduces S1 shedding and increases infectivity of SARS COV-2 virus. Therefore, if there is a severe change in the spike protein of a modified Coronavirus, all developed vaccines can lose their efficacy, necessitating the need for an alternative treatment method. The top 10 compounds (FDA-approved) in this study are selected based on NSP 3 binding site, and therefore are a potential viable treatment because they will show potential activity for all mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Conformation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
6.
Elife ; 92020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940328

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is targeted in the treatment of B-cell disorders including leukemias and lymphomas. Currently approved BTK inhibitors, including Ibrutinib, a first-in-class covalent inhibitor of BTK, bind directly to the kinase active site. While effective at blocking the catalytic activity of BTK, consequences of drug binding on the global conformation of full-length BTK are unknown. Here, we uncover a range of conformational effects in full-length BTK induced by a panel of active site inhibitors, including large-scale shifts in the conformational equilibria of the regulatory domains. Additionally, we find that a remote Ibrutinib resistance mutation, T316A in the BTK SH2 domain, drives spurious BTK activity by destabilizing the compact autoinhibitory conformation of full-length BTK, shifting the conformational ensemble away from the autoinhibited form. Future development of BTK inhibitors will need to consider long-range allosteric consequences of inhibitor binding, including the emerging application of these BTK inhibitors in treating COVID-19.


Treatments for blood cancers, such as leukemia and lymphoma, rely heavily on chemotherapy, using drugs that target a vulnerable aspect of the cancer cells. B-cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies, require a protein called Bruton's tyrosine kinase, or BTK for short, to survive. The drug ibrutinib (Imbruvica) is used to treat B-cell cancers by blocking BTK. The BTK protein consists of several regions. One of them, known as the kinase domain, is responsible for its activity as an enzyme (which allows it to modify other proteins by adding a 'tag' known as a phosphate group). The other regions of BTK, known as regulatory modules, control this activity. In BTK's inactive form, the regulatory modules attach to the kinase domain, blocking the regulatory modules from interacting with other proteins. When BTK is activated, it changes its conformation so the regulatory regions detach and become available for interactions with other proteins, at the same time exposing the active kinase domain. Ibrutinib and other BTK drugs in development bind to the kinase domain to block its activity. However, it is not known how this binding affects the regulatory modules. Previous efforts to study how drugs bind to BTK have used a version of the protein that only had the kinase domain, instead of the full-length protein. Now, Joseph et al. have studied full-length BTK and how it binds to five different drugs. The results reveal that ibrutinib and another drug called dasatinib both indirectly disrupt the normal position of the regulatory domains pushing BTK toward a conformation that resembles the activated state. By contrast, the three other compounds studied do not affect the inactive structure. Joseph et al. also examined a mutation in BTK that confers resistance against ibrutinib. This mutation increases the activity of BTK by disrupting the inactive structure, leading to B cells surviving better. Understanding how drug resistance mechanisms can work will lead to better drug treatment strategies for cancer. BTK is also a target in other diseases such as allergies or asthma and even COVID-19. If interactions between partner proteins and the regulatory domain are important in these diseases, then they may be better treated with drugs that maintain the regulatory modules in their inactive state. This research will help to design drugs that are better able to control BTK activity.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Catalytic Domain , Protein Conformation/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/chemistry , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/chemistry , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Dasatinib/chemistry , Dasatinib/metabolism , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/genetics , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/prevention & control , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Mutation , Piperidines/chemistry , Piperidines/metabolism , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , src Homology Domains/genetics
7.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(6): 689-703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has become a pandemic with higher morbidity and mortality rates after its start from Wuhan city of China. The infection by RNA virus, also known as SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV, from the beta class of coronaviruses, has been found to be responsible for COVID-19. Structural analysis and evidences have been indicated that interaction between a segment of receptor binding domain (RBD) from S protein of the virus and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) is essential for cellular entry of the virus. OBJECTIVE: The current review sheds light on structural aspects for the inhibition of RBD-hACE2 interaction mediated cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The present study provides a critical review of recently published information on RBDhACE2 interaction and its inhibitors to control SARS-CoV-2 infection. The review highlighted the structural aspects of the interaction between RBD-hACE2 and involved amino acid residues. RESULTS: Recently, several studies are being conducted for the inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 attachment and entry to the human cellular system. One of the important targets for viral invasion is its binding with cell surface receptor, hACE2, through RBD on S-protein. Mimicking of three residues on ACE2 (Lys31, Glu35 and Lys353 on B chain) provided a hot target directed strategy for the inhibition of early attachment of the virus to the cell. Early screening of peptidic or non-peptidic molecules for the inhibition of RBD-hACE2 interaction has raised the hope for potential therapeutics against COVID-19. The higher affinity of molecules toward RBD than ACE2 is an important factor for selectivity and minimization of ACE2 related adverse events on the cardiovascular system, brain, kidney, and foetus development during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of RBD-hACE2 interaction by different molecular scaffolds can be used as a preferred strategy for control of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently, published reports pointed out Lys31, Glu35 and Lys353 on the B chain of ACE2 as crucial residues for mimicking and design of novel molecules as inhibitors SARS-CoV-2 attachment to human cells. Moreover, some recently identified RBD-hACE2 interaction inhibitors have also been described with their protein binding pattern and potencies (IC50 values), which will help for further improvement in the selectivity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Design , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Conformation/drug effects , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(37)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760208

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to repurpose drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent computational-experimental screenings have identified several existing drugs that could serve as effective inhibitors of the virus' main protease, Mpro, which is involved in gene expression and replication. Among these, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzoselenazol-3-one) appears to be particularly promising. Here, we examine, at a molecular level, the potential of ebselen to decrease Mpro activity. We find that it exhibits a distinct affinity for the catalytic region. Our results reveal a higher-affinity, previously unknown binding site localized between the II and III domains of the protein. A detailed strain analysis indicates that, on such a site, ebselen exerts a pronounced allosteric effect that regulates catalytic site access through surface-loop interactions, thereby inducing a reconfiguration of water hotspots. Together, these findings highlight the promise of ebselen as a repurposed drug against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azoles/metabolism , Azoles/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Organoselenium Compounds/metabolism , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Isoindoles , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Protein Conformation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 1693-1703, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704182

ABSTRACT

The global health emergency generated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has prompted the search for preventive and therapeutic treatments for its pathogen, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are many potential targets for drug discovery and development to tackle this disease. One of these targets is the main protease, Mpro or 3CLpro, which is highly conserved among coronaviruses. 3CLpro is an essential player in the viral replication cycle, processing the large viral polyproteins and rendering the individual proteins functional. We report a biophysical characterization of the structural stability and the catalytic activity of 3CLpro from SARS-CoV-2, from which a suitable experimental in vitro molecular screening procedure has been designed. By screening of a small chemical library consisting of about 150 compounds, the natural product quercetin was identified as reasonably potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro (Ki ~ 7 µM). Quercetin could be shown to interact with 3CLpro using biophysical techniques and bind to the active site in molecular simulations. Quercetin, with well-known pharmacokinetic and ADMET properties, can be considered as a good candidate for further optimization and development, or repositioned for COVID-19 therapeutic treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Conformation/drug effects , Protein Unfolding , Quercetin/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 66-76, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653164

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome caused by Coronavirus 2) began in December 2019. Its closest relative, SARS-CoV-1, has a slightly mutated Spike (S) protein, which interacts with ACE2 receptor in human cells to start the infection. So far, there are no vaccines or drugs to treat COVID-19. So, research groups worldwide are seeking new molecules targeting the S protein to prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 establishment. We performed molecular docking analysis of eight synthetic peptides against SARS-CoV-2 S protein. All interacted with the protein, but Mo-CBP3-PepII and PepKAA had the highest affinity with it. By binding to the S protein, both peptides led to conformational alterations in the protein, resulting in incorrect interaction with ACE2. Therefore, given the importance of the S protein-ACE2 interaction for SARS-CoV-2 infection, synthetic peptides could block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, unlike other antiviral drugs, peptides have no toxicity to human cells. Thus, these peptides are potential molecules to be tested against SARS-CoV-2 and to develop new drugs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptides/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Conformation/drug effects , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res ; 40(6): 605-612, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457256

ABSTRACT

Recently, a pathogen has been identified as a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and found to trigger novel pneumonia (COVID-19) in human beings and some other mammals. The uncontrolled release of cytokines is seen from the primary stages of symptoms to last acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, it is necessary to find out safe and effective drugs against this deadly coronavirus as soon as possible. Here, we downloaded the three-dimensional model of NSP10/NSP16 methyltransferase (PDB-ID: 6w6l) and main protease (PDB-ID: 6lu7) of COVID-19. Using these molecular models, we performed virtual screening with our anti-viral, inti-infectious, and anti-protease compounds, which are attractive therapeutics to prevent infection of the COVID-19. We found that top screened compound binds with protein molecules with good dock score with the help of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. We observed that protease complexed with Cyclocytidine hydrochloride (anti-viral and anti-cancer), Trifluridine (anti-viral), Adonitol, and Meropenem (anti-bacterial), and Penciclovir (anti-viral) bound with a good docking score ranging from -6.8 to -5.1 (Kcal/mol). Further, NSP10/NSP16 methyltransferase complexed with Telbivudine, Oxytetracycline dihydrate (anti-viral), Methylgallate (anti-malarial), 2-deoxyglucose and Daphnetin (anti-cancer) from the docking score of -7.0 to -5.7 (Kcal/mol). In conclusion, the selected compounds may be used as a novel therapeutic agent to combat this deadly pandemic disease, SARS-CoV-2 infection, but needs further experimental research.HighlightsNSP10/NSP16 methyltransferase and main protease complex of SARS CoV-2 bind with selected drugs.NSP10/NSP16 methyltransferase and protease interacted with drugs by hydrophobic interactions.Compounds show good DG binging free energy with protein complexes.Ligands were found to follow the Lipinski rule of five.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Acyclovir/analogs & derivatives , Acyclovir/chemistry , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Ancitabine/chemistry , Ancitabine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Guanine , Humans , Meropenem/chemistry , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Methyltransferases , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Conformation/drug effects , Ribitol/chemistry , Ribitol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Trifluridine/chemistry , Trifluridine/therapeutic use , User-Computer Interface , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/ultrastructure , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/ultrastructure
13.
ACS Comb Sci ; 22(6): 297-305, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-247796

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (CoV) caused a pandemic named COVID-19, which has become a global health care emergency in the present time. The virus is referred to as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) and has a genome similar (∼82%) to that of the previously known SARS-CoV (SARS coronavirus). An attractive therapeutic target for CoVs is the main protease (Mpro) or 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), as this enzyme plays a key role in polyprotein processing and is active in a dimeric form. Further, Mpro is highly conserved among various CoVs, and a mutation in Mpro is often lethal to the virus. Thus, drugs targeting the Mpro enzyme significantly reduce the risk of mutation-mediated drug resistance and display broad-spectrum antiviral activity. The combinatorial design of peptide-based inhibitors targeting the dimerization of SARS-CoV Mpro represents a potential therapeutic strategy. In this regard, we have compiled the literature reports highlighting the effect of mutations and N-terminal deletion of residues of SARS-CoV Mpro on its dimerization and, thus, catalytic activity. We believe that the present review will stimulate research in this less explored yet quite significant area. The effect of the COVID-19 epidemic and the possibility of future CoV outbreaks strongly emphasize the urgent need for the design and development of potent antiviral agents against CoV infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Drug Discovery , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutation/drug effects , Pandemics , Peptides/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Conformation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
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