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1.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715565

ABSTRACT

For most researchers, discovering new anticancer drugs to avoid the adverse effects of current ones, to improve therapeutic benefits and to reduce resistance is essential. Because the COX-2 enzyme plays an important role in various types of cancer leading to malignancy enhancement, inhibition of apoptosis, and tumor-cell metastasis, an indispensable objective is to design new scaffolds or drugs that possess combined action or dual effect, such as kinase and COX-2 inhibition. The start compounds A1 to A6 were prepared through the diazo coupling of 3-aminoacetophenone with a corresponding phenol and then condensed with two new chalcone series, C7-18. The newly synthesized compounds were assessed against both COX-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for their inhibitory effect. All novel compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines. Compounds C9 and G10 exhibited potent EGFR inhibition with IC50 values of 0.8 and 1.1 µM, respectively. Additionally, they also displayed great COX-2 inhibition with IC50 values of 1.27 and 1.88 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the target compounds were assessed for their cytotoxicity against pancreatic ductal cancer (Panc-1), lung cancer (H-460), human colon cancer (HT-29), human malignant melanoma (A375) and pancreatic cancer (PaCa-2) cell lines. Interestingly, compounds C10 and G12 exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect against PaCa-2 with average IC50 values of 0.9 and 0.8 µM, respectively. To understand the possible binding modes of the compounds under investigation with the receptor cites of EGFR and COX-2, a virtual docking study was conducted.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Chalcones , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Neoplasm Proteins , Neoplasms , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chalcones/chemical synthesis , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Molecular Structure , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/enzymology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
2.
Cell Chem Biol ; 28(12): 1795-1806.e5, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599513

ABSTRACT

Designing covalent inhibitors is increasingly important, although it remains challenging. Here, we present covalentizer, a computational pipeline for identifying irreversible inhibitors based on structures of targets with non-covalent binders. Through covalent docking of tailored focused libraries, we identify candidates that can bind covalently to a nearby cysteine while preserving the interactions of the original molecule. We found âˆ¼11,000 cysteines proximal to a ligand across 8,386 complexes in the PDB. Of these, the protocol identified 1,553 structures with covalent predictions. In a prospective evaluation, five out of nine predicted covalent kinase inhibitors showed half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values between 155 nM and 4.5 µM. Application against an existing SARS-CoV Mpro reversible inhibitor led to an acrylamide inhibitor series with low micromolar IC50 values against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The docking was validated by 12 co-crystal structures. Together these examples hint at the vast number of covalent inhibitors accessible through our protocol.


Subject(s)
Drug Design , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Acrylamide/chemistry , Acrylamide/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Protein , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
3.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390542

ABSTRACT

The rising prevalence of diabetes is threatening global health. It is known not only for the occurrence of severe complications but also for the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, which shows that it exacerbates susceptibility to infections. Current therapies focus on artificially maintaining insulin homeostasis, and a durable cure has not yet been achieved. We demonstrate that our set of small molecule inhibitors of DYRK1A kinase potently promotes ß-cell proliferation, enhances long-term insulin secretion, and balances glucagon level in the organoid model of the human islets. Comparable activity is seen in INS-1E and MIN6 cells, in isolated mice islets, and human iPSC-derived ß-cells. Our compounds exert a significantly more pronounced effect compared to harmine, the best-documented molecule enhancing ß-cell proliferation. Using a body-like environment of the organoid, we provide a proof-of-concept that small-molecule-induced human ß-cell proliferation via DYRK1A inhibition is achievable, which lends a considerable promise for regenerative medicine in T1DM and T2DM treatment.


Subject(s)
Homeostasis , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/enzymology , Insulin/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Genes, Reporter , Harmine/pharmacology , Homeostasis/drug effects , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Kinetics , Male , Mice , Models, Biological , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Rats , Transforming Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
4.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 124: 275-309, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375869

ABSTRACT

The discovery and development of a new drug is a complex, time consuming and costly process that typically takes over 10 years and costs around 1 billion dollars from bench to market. This scenario makes the discovery of novel drugs targeting neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which afflict in particular people in low-income countries, prohibitive. Despite the intensive use of High-Throughput Screening (HTS) in the past decades, the speed with which new drugs come to the market has remained constant, generating doubts about the efficacy of this approach. Here we review a few of the yeast-based high-throughput approaches that can work synergistically with parasite-based, in vitro, or in silico methods to identify and optimize novel antiparasitic compounds. These yeast-based methods range from HTP screens to identify novel hits against promising parasite kinase targets to the identification of potential antiparasitic kinase inhibitors extracted from databases of yeast chemical genetic screens.


Subject(s)
Drug Discovery , Neglected Diseases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Protein Kinases , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Neglected Diseases/drug therapy , Neglected Diseases/enzymology , Neglected Diseases/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288906

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is the leading global health threat to date caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Recent clinical trials reported that the use of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors to treat COVID-19 patients could reduce dyspnea and hypoxia, thromboinflammation, hypercoagulability and improve oxygenation. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Thus, this study employs structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) to repurpose BTK inhibitors acalabrutinib, dasatinib, evobrutinib, fostamatinib, ibrutinib, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, spebrutinib, XL418 and zanubrutinib against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking is conducted with BTK inhibitors against structural and nonstructural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and host targets (ACE2, TMPRSS2 and BTK). Molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are then carried out on the selected complexes with high binding energy. Ibrutinib and zanubrutinib are found to be the most potent of the drugs screened based on the results of computational studies. Results further show that ibrutinib and zanubrutinib could exploit different mechanisms at the viral entry and replication stage and could be repurposed as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Repositioning , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Piperidines/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Adenine/chemistry , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/therapeutic use , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Piperidines/metabolism , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/metabolism , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/metabolism , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282514

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology is an important application in modern cancer therapy. In comparison with conventional drug formulations, nanoparticles ensure better penetration into the tumor mass by exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect, longer blood circulation times by a reduced renal excretion and a decrease in side effects and drug accumulation in healthy tissues. The most significant classes of nanoparticles (i.e., liposomes, inorganic and organic nanoparticles) are here discussed with a particular focus on their use as delivery systems for small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A number of these new compounds (e.g., Imatinib, Dasatinib, Ponatinib) have been approved as first-line therapy in different cancer types but their clinical use is limited by poor solubility and oral bioavailability. Consequently, new nanoparticle systems are necessary to ameliorate formulations and reduce toxicity. In this review, some of the most important TKIs are reported, focusing on ongoing clinical studies, and the recent drug delivery systems for these molecules are investigated.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Nanotechnology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Compounding , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/etiology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Structure-Activity Relationship , Treatment Outcome
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273463

ABSTRACT

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) encompass a group of glycoproteins composed of unbranched negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS) chains covalently attached to a core protein. The complex HSPG biosynthetic machinery generates an extraordinary structural variety of HS chains that enable them to bind a plethora of ligands, including growth factors, morphogens, cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, matrix proteins, and bacterial and viral pathogens. These interactions translate into key regulatory activity of HSPGs on a wide range of cellular processes such as receptor activation and signaling, cytoskeleton assembly, extracellular matrix remodeling, endocytosis, cell-cell crosstalk, and others. Due to their ubiquitous expression within tissues and their large functional repertoire, HSPGs are involved in many physiopathological processes; thus, they have emerged as valuable targets for the therapy of many human diseases. Among their functions, HSPGs assist many viruses in invading host cells at various steps of their life cycle. Viruses utilize HSPGs for the attachment to the host cell, internalization, intracellular trafficking, egress, and spread. Recently, HSPG involvement in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been established. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying HSPG/SARS-CoV-2 interaction and downstream effects, and we provide an overview of the HSPG-based therapeutic strategies that could be used to combat such a fearsome virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/chemistry , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/chemistry , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfotransferases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/pathology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264471

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise different fibrotic lung disorders characterized by cellular proliferation, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis. The JAK/STAT molecular pathway is activated under the interaction of a broad number of profibrotic/pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-11, and IL-13, among others, which are increased in different ILDs. Similarly, several growth factors over-expressed in ILDs, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activate JAK/STAT by canonical or non-canonical pathways, which indicates a predominant role of JAK/STAT in ILDs. Between the different JAK/STAT isoforms, it appears that JAK2/STAT3 are predominant, initiating cellular changes observed in ILDs. This review analyzes the expression and distribution of different JAK/STAT isoforms in ILDs lung tissue and different cell types related to ILDs, such as lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial type II cells and analyzes JAK/STAT activation. The effect of JAK/STAT phosphorylation on cellular fibrotic processes, such as proliferation, senescence, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or epithelial/fibroblast to mesenchymal transition will be described. The small molecules directed to inhibit JAK/STAT activation were assayed in vitro and in in vivo models of pulmonary fibrosis, and different JAK inhibitors are currently approved for myeloproliferative disorders. Recent evidence indicates that JAK inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed to block IL-6 are used as compassionate use to attenuate the excessive inflammation and lung fibrosis related to SARS-CoV-2 virus. These altogether indicate that JAK/STAT pathway is an attractive target to be proven in future clinical trials of lung fibrotic disorders.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Cellular Senescence , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Interleukins/metabolism , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction
9.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159011

ABSTRACT

Protein kinases are a large class of enzymes with numerous biological roles and many have been implicated in a vast array of diseases, including cancer and the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19. Thus, the development of chemical probes to selectively target each kinase is of great interest. Inhibition of protein kinases with ATP-competitive inhibitors has historically been the most widely used method. However, due to the highly conserved structures of ATP-sites, the identification of truly selective chemical probes is challenging. In this review, we use the Ser/Thr kinase CK2 as an example to highlight the historical challenges in effective and selective chemical probe development, alongside recent advances in the field and alternative strategies aiming to overcome these problems. The methods utilised for CK2 can be applied to an array of protein kinases to aid in the discovery of chemical probes to further understand each kinase's biology, with wide-reaching implications for drug development.


Subject(s)
Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Molecular Probes/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinases/chemistry , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Casein Kinase II/chemistry , Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole/chemistry , Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Probes/metabolism , Naphthyridines/chemistry , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Phenazines/chemistry , Phenazines/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
10.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 124: 187-223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970585

ABSTRACT

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of twenty-one diseases classified by the World Health Organization that prevail in regions with tropical and subtropical climate and affect more than one billion people. There is an urgent need to develop new and safer drugs for these diseases. Protein kinases are a potential class of targets for developing new drugs against NTDs, since they play crucial role in many biological processes, such as signaling pathways, regulating cellular communication, division, metabolism and death. Bioinformatics is a field that aims to organize large amounts of biological data as well as develop and use tools for understanding and analyze them in order to produce meaningful information in a biological manner. In combination with chemogenomics, which analyzes chemical-biological interactions to screen ligands against selected targets families, these approaches can be used to stablish a rational strategy for prioritizing new drug targets for NTDs. Here, we describe how bioinformatics and chemogenomics tools can help to identify protein kinases and their potential inhibitors for the development of new drugs for NTDs. We present a review of bioinformatics tools and techniques that can be used to define an organisms kinome for drug prioritization, drug and target repurposing, multi-quinase inhibition approachs and selectivity profiling. We also present some successful examples of the application of such approaches in recent case studies.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Genomics , Neglected Diseases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Protein Kinases , Tropical Medicine , Humans , Neglected Diseases/drug therapy , Neglected Diseases/enzymology , Neglected Diseases/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Kinases/chemistry , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Kinases/metabolism
11.
Elife ; 92020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940328

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is targeted in the treatment of B-cell disorders including leukemias and lymphomas. Currently approved BTK inhibitors, including Ibrutinib, a first-in-class covalent inhibitor of BTK, bind directly to the kinase active site. While effective at blocking the catalytic activity of BTK, consequences of drug binding on the global conformation of full-length BTK are unknown. Here, we uncover a range of conformational effects in full-length BTK induced by a panel of active site inhibitors, including large-scale shifts in the conformational equilibria of the regulatory domains. Additionally, we find that a remote Ibrutinib resistance mutation, T316A in the BTK SH2 domain, drives spurious BTK activity by destabilizing the compact autoinhibitory conformation of full-length BTK, shifting the conformational ensemble away from the autoinhibited form. Future development of BTK inhibitors will need to consider long-range allosteric consequences of inhibitor binding, including the emerging application of these BTK inhibitors in treating COVID-19.


Treatments for blood cancers, such as leukemia and lymphoma, rely heavily on chemotherapy, using drugs that target a vulnerable aspect of the cancer cells. B-cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies, require a protein called Bruton's tyrosine kinase, or BTK for short, to survive. The drug ibrutinib (Imbruvica) is used to treat B-cell cancers by blocking BTK. The BTK protein consists of several regions. One of them, known as the kinase domain, is responsible for its activity as an enzyme (which allows it to modify other proteins by adding a 'tag' known as a phosphate group). The other regions of BTK, known as regulatory modules, control this activity. In BTK's inactive form, the regulatory modules attach to the kinase domain, blocking the regulatory modules from interacting with other proteins. When BTK is activated, it changes its conformation so the regulatory regions detach and become available for interactions with other proteins, at the same time exposing the active kinase domain. Ibrutinib and other BTK drugs in development bind to the kinase domain to block its activity. However, it is not known how this binding affects the regulatory modules. Previous efforts to study how drugs bind to BTK have used a version of the protein that only had the kinase domain, instead of the full-length protein. Now, Joseph et al. have studied full-length BTK and how it binds to five different drugs. The results reveal that ibrutinib and another drug called dasatinib both indirectly disrupt the normal position of the regulatory domains pushing BTK toward a conformation that resembles the activated state. By contrast, the three other compounds studied do not affect the inactive structure. Joseph et al. also examined a mutation in BTK that confers resistance against ibrutinib. This mutation increases the activity of BTK by disrupting the inactive structure, leading to B cells surviving better. Understanding how drug resistance mechanisms can work will lead to better drug treatment strategies for cancer. BTK is also a target in other diseases such as allergies or asthma and even COVID-19. If interactions between partner proteins and the regulatory domain are important in these diseases, then they may be better treated with drugs that maintain the regulatory modules in their inactive state. This research will help to design drugs that are better able to control BTK activity.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Catalytic Domain , Protein Conformation/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/chemistry , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/chemistry , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Dasatinib/chemistry , Dasatinib/metabolism , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/genetics , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/prevention & control , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Mutation , Piperidines/chemistry , Piperidines/metabolism , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , src Homology Domains/genetics
12.
Antiviral Res ; 173: 104651, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824493

ABSTRACT

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause severe gastroenteric or respiratory diseases in humans and animals, and no approved therapeutics are currently available. Here, A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) of the tyrphostin class, is identified as a robust inhibitor of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection in cell-based assays. Moreover, A9 exhibited potent antiviral activity against the replication of various CoVs, including murine hepatitis virus (MHV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). We further performed a comparative phosphoproteomic analysis to investigate the mechanism of action of A9 against TGEV infection in vitro. We specifically identified p38 and JNK1, which are the downstream molecules of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) required for efficient TGEV replication, as A9 targets through plaque assays, qRT-PCR and Western blotting assays. p38 and JNK1 inhibitors and RNA interference further showed that the inhibitory activity of A9 against TGEV infection was mainly mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. All these findings indicated that the RTKI A9 directly inhibits TGEV replication and that its inhibitory activity against TGEV replication mainly occurs by targeting p38, which provides vital clues to the design of novel drugs against CoVs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cats , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromatography, Liquid , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/drug therapy , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/metabolism , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Life Cycle Stages , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Proteomics/methods , Small Molecule Libraries , Swine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Vero Cells
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