Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 69
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24442, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577650

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic interventions targeting viral infections remain a significant challenge for both the medical and scientific communities. While specific antiviral agents have shown success as therapeutics, viral resistance inevitably develops, making many of these approaches ineffective. This inescapable obstacle warrants alternative approaches, such as the targeting of host cellular factors. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the major respiratory pathogen of infants and children worldwide, causes respiratory tract infection ranging from mild upper respiratory tract symptoms to severe life-threatening lower respiratory tract disease. Despite the fact that the molecular biology of the virus, which was originally discovered in 1956, is well described, there is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment against RSV infection. Here, we demonstrate that targeting host factors, specifically, mTOR signaling, reduces RSV protein production and generation of infectious progeny virus. Further, we show that this approach can be generalizable as inhibition of mTOR kinases reduces coronavirus gene expression, mRNA transcription and protein production. Overall, defining virus replication-dependent host functions may be an effective means to combat viral infections, particularly in the absence of antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/genetics , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/metabolism , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/antagonists & inhibitors , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/genetics , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
2.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(7): 427-433, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526210

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia is a haematological, autoimmune disorder characterized by elevated platelet demolition due to the presence of antiplatelet autoantibodies derived from B cells and to an irregular, deficient process of platelets production in bone marrow. In this review, after a brief presentation of 'old' strategies used nowadays yet, we focused on new drugs used in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia and their mechanism of action and posology, basing on the last scientific literature. The observation that CoViD-19 can be associated with immune thrombocytopenia is also put in evidence. Particular attention will be dedicated on the concept that the ideal treatment should represent a solution not only for the failure of normal processes of production and survival of platelets, but also it should improve quality of life of patients, with minimum adverse events. Anyway, despite enormous advances of the last years, further investigations are necessary in order to define scrupulously long-term efficacy of new molecules proposed.


Subject(s)
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Receptors, Fc/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Thrombopoietin/agonists , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Syk Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Thiophenes/therapeutic use
3.
Immunology ; 164(4): 722-736, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494730

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a TEC kinase with a multifaceted role in B-cell biology and function, highlighted by its position as a critical component of the B-cell receptor signalling pathway. Due to its role as a therapeutic target in several haematological malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, BTK has been gaining tremendous momentum in recent years. Within the immune system, BTK plays a part in numerous pathways and cells beyond B cells (i.e. T cells, macrophages). Not surprisingly, BTK has been elucidated to be a driving factor not only in lymphoproliferative disorders but also in autoimmune diseases and response to infection. To extort this role, BTK inhibitors such as ibrutinib have been developed to target BTK in other diseases. However, due to rising levels of resistance, the urgency to develop new inhibitors with alternative modes of targeting BTK is high. To meet this demand, an expanding list of BTK inhibitors is currently being trialled. In this review, we synopsize recent discoveries regarding BTK and its role within different immune cells and pathways. Additionally, we discuss the broad significance and relevance of BTK for various diseases ranging from haematology and rheumatology to the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, BTK signalling and its targetable nature have emerged as immensely important for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of novel, more specific and less toxic BTK inhibitors could be revolutionary for a significant number of diseases with yet unmet treatment needs.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/enzymology , Immune System/enzymology , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/enzymology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/drug therapy , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/enzymology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
4.
Immunology ; 164(4): 722-736, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429802

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a TEC kinase with a multifaceted role in B-cell biology and function, highlighted by its position as a critical component of the B-cell receptor signalling pathway. Due to its role as a therapeutic target in several haematological malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, BTK has been gaining tremendous momentum in recent years. Within the immune system, BTK plays a part in numerous pathways and cells beyond B cells (i.e. T cells, macrophages). Not surprisingly, BTK has been elucidated to be a driving factor not only in lymphoproliferative disorders but also in autoimmune diseases and response to infection. To extort this role, BTK inhibitors such as ibrutinib have been developed to target BTK in other diseases. However, due to rising levels of resistance, the urgency to develop new inhibitors with alternative modes of targeting BTK is high. To meet this demand, an expanding list of BTK inhibitors is currently being trialled. In this review, we synopsize recent discoveries regarding BTK and its role within different immune cells and pathways. Additionally, we discuss the broad significance and relevance of BTK for various diseases ranging from haematology and rheumatology to the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, BTK signalling and its targetable nature have emerged as immensely important for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of novel, more specific and less toxic BTK inhibitors could be revolutionary for a significant number of diseases with yet unmet treatment needs.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/enzymology , Immune System/enzymology , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/enzymology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/drug therapy , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/enzymology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
5.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(6)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403284

ABSTRACT

Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKis) encompass a new class of therapeutics currently being evaluated for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Whether BTKis affect COVID-19 risk or severity or reduce vaccine efficacy are important but unanswered questions. Here, we provide an overview on BTKi mechanisms relevant to COVID-19 infection and vaccination and review preliminary data on BTKi use in patients with COVID-19. BTKis block B-cell receptor- and myeloid fragment crystallizable receptor-mediated signaling, thereby dampening B-cell activation, antibody class-switching, expansion, and cytokine production. Beyond antibodies, COVID-19 severity and vaccine efficacy appear largely linked to T-cell responses and interferon induction, processes not directly affected by BTKis. Given that B cells have clear roles in antigen presentation to T cells, however, it is possible that BTKis may indirectly interfere with beneficial or detrimental T-cell responses during COVID-19 infection or vaccination. In addition to these possible effects on generating a protective immune response, BTKis may attenuate the hyperinflammatory dysregulation often seen in severe cases of COVID-19 that evolves as a key risk factor in this disease. Currently available outcomes from BTKi-treated patients with COVID-19 are discussed. Clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of BTKis in individuals with MS. Although limited data suggest a potential benefit of BTKis on outcomes for some COVID-19 patients, data from adequately powered, prospective and randomized clinical trials are lacking. Likewise, the specific effect of BTKis on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines remains to be determined. Any potential unknown risks that BTKi therapy may present to the patient relative to COVID-19 infection, severity, and vaccine efficacy must be balanced with the importance of timely intervention to prevent or minimize MS progression.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
7.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 124: 275-309, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375869

ABSTRACT

The discovery and development of a new drug is a complex, time consuming and costly process that typically takes over 10 years and costs around 1 billion dollars from bench to market. This scenario makes the discovery of novel drugs targeting neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which afflict in particular people in low-income countries, prohibitive. Despite the intensive use of High-Throughput Screening (HTS) in the past decades, the speed with which new drugs come to the market has remained constant, generating doubts about the efficacy of this approach. Here we review a few of the yeast-based high-throughput approaches that can work synergistically with parasite-based, in vitro, or in silico methods to identify and optimize novel antiparasitic compounds. These yeast-based methods range from HTP screens to identify novel hits against promising parasite kinase targets to the identification of potential antiparasitic kinase inhibitors extracted from databases of yeast chemical genetic screens.


Subject(s)
Drug Discovery , Neglected Diseases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Protein Kinases , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Neglected Diseases/drug therapy , Neglected Diseases/enzymology , Neglected Diseases/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
8.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(11): 4671-4674, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371359

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) represents a global public health nightmare. The "cytokine storm," the most prominent underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease, can theoretically be targeted at several stages. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors constitute a drug class that could ameliorate the inflammatory response and enhance antibody production. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of JAK inhibitors in patients with COVID-19, performing the most updated relevant meta-analysis. We searched two major databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling adult patients with documented COVID-19 in the in-hospital setting, assigned either to JAK inhibitor treatment plus standard of care or standard of care alone. We set as primary efficacy outcome the endpoint of COVID-19 death on day 28 and as secondary efficacy composite outcome that of mechanical ventilation or initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We finally pooled data of interest from 4 RCTs in a total of 1338 subjects with documented COVID-19 infection, utilizing the following JAK inhibitors: baricitinib, ruxolitinib, tofacitinib, and nezulcitinib. Treatment with JAK inhibitor compared to control resulted in a significant reduction in the risk for COVID-19 death by 43%, while it also led to a significant decrease in the risk for mechanical ventilation or ECMO initiation by 36%. Herein, we demonstrate a clear benefit with JAK inhibitors added to standard of care in patients with COVID-19 in terms of risk reduction concerning major outcomes. Larger RCTs will elucidate their place in treatment armamentarium against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cancer J ; 27(4): 328-333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354352

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has markedly impacted on the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and their outcome in the last year. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in patients with CLL in 1 year was approximately 3% in the recent Italian CAMPUS CLL survey; large retrospective studies have documented a higher mortality in patients with CLL hospitalized for severe COVID-19 compared with the general population. Controversial results for CLL-directed treatment have been reported, with some studies suggesting a potential benefit for BTK inhibitors. Reducing the number of hospital visits, delaying treatment whenever possible, and using oral therapy have become the mainstay of management in these patients. Available results with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines indicate an immune serological response in 40% of patients only, with a detrimental effect of recent therapy with or without anti-CD20 therapy, older age, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Further studies are needed to determine the best strategies in patients with CLL regarding (i) management of concomitant COVID-19, (ii) identification of patients in whom CLL therapy can be safely postponed, (iii) CLL treatment algorithms, and (iv) optimal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
10.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(9): 819-830, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349725

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ibrutinib is a highly effective drug for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and is well tolerated even by older patients and those unfit to receive conventional immuno-chemotherapy. AREAS COVERED: The occurrence of adverse events was revealed as a major cause of ibrutinib failure in the real-world. Ibrutinib-induced lymphocytosis carries the risk of an untimely interruption of therapy because it may be misinterpreted as disease progression. In addition, drug interactions can worsen ibrutinib-associated toxicities by increasing the plasma concentration of ibrutinib. In this review, we present a case of major hemorrhage and atrial fibrillation (AF) during ibrutinib use and summarize the adverse events associated with ibrutinib. Furthermore, the practical management of ibrutinib-associated toxicities was covered with reference to a drug interaction mechanism. EXPERT OPINION: Clinicians should examine the prescribed drugs prior to ibrutinib initiation and carefully monitor toxicities while taking ibrutinib. A reduced dose of ibrutinib with the concurrent use of CYP3A inhibitors such as antifungal agents could be an attractive strategy to reduce toxicities and may confer financial benefits. Reducing unexpected toxicities is as significant as achieving treatment response in the era of life-long therapy with ibrutinib in patients with CLL.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenine/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disease Management , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/therapy , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Piperidines/adverse effects , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288906

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is the leading global health threat to date caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Recent clinical trials reported that the use of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors to treat COVID-19 patients could reduce dyspnea and hypoxia, thromboinflammation, hypercoagulability and improve oxygenation. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Thus, this study employs structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) to repurpose BTK inhibitors acalabrutinib, dasatinib, evobrutinib, fostamatinib, ibrutinib, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, spebrutinib, XL418 and zanubrutinib against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking is conducted with BTK inhibitors against structural and nonstructural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and host targets (ACE2, TMPRSS2 and BTK). Molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are then carried out on the selected complexes with high binding energy. Ibrutinib and zanubrutinib are found to be the most potent of the drugs screened based on the results of computational studies. Results further show that ibrutinib and zanubrutinib could exploit different mechanisms at the viral entry and replication stage and could be repurposed as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Repositioning , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Piperidines/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Adenine/chemistry , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/therapeutic use , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Piperidines/metabolism , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/metabolism , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/metabolism , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282514

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology is an important application in modern cancer therapy. In comparison with conventional drug formulations, nanoparticles ensure better penetration into the tumor mass by exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect, longer blood circulation times by a reduced renal excretion and a decrease in side effects and drug accumulation in healthy tissues. The most significant classes of nanoparticles (i.e., liposomes, inorganic and organic nanoparticles) are here discussed with a particular focus on their use as delivery systems for small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A number of these new compounds (e.g., Imatinib, Dasatinib, Ponatinib) have been approved as first-line therapy in different cancer types but their clinical use is limited by poor solubility and oral bioavailability. Consequently, new nanoparticle systems are necessary to ameliorate formulations and reduce toxicity. In this review, some of the most important TKIs are reported, focusing on ongoing clinical studies, and the recent drug delivery systems for these molecules are investigated.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Nanotechnology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Compounding , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/etiology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Structure-Activity Relationship , Treatment Outcome
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273463

ABSTRACT

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) encompass a group of glycoproteins composed of unbranched negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS) chains covalently attached to a core protein. The complex HSPG biosynthetic machinery generates an extraordinary structural variety of HS chains that enable them to bind a plethora of ligands, including growth factors, morphogens, cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, matrix proteins, and bacterial and viral pathogens. These interactions translate into key regulatory activity of HSPGs on a wide range of cellular processes such as receptor activation and signaling, cytoskeleton assembly, extracellular matrix remodeling, endocytosis, cell-cell crosstalk, and others. Due to their ubiquitous expression within tissues and their large functional repertoire, HSPGs are involved in many physiopathological processes; thus, they have emerged as valuable targets for the therapy of many human diseases. Among their functions, HSPGs assist many viruses in invading host cells at various steps of their life cycle. Viruses utilize HSPGs for the attachment to the host cell, internalization, intracellular trafficking, egress, and spread. Recently, HSPG involvement in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been established. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying HSPG/SARS-CoV-2 interaction and downstream effects, and we provide an overview of the HSPG-based therapeutic strategies that could be used to combat such a fearsome virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/chemistry , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/chemistry , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfotransferases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/pathology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264471

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise different fibrotic lung disorders characterized by cellular proliferation, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis. The JAK/STAT molecular pathway is activated under the interaction of a broad number of profibrotic/pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-11, and IL-13, among others, which are increased in different ILDs. Similarly, several growth factors over-expressed in ILDs, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activate JAK/STAT by canonical or non-canonical pathways, which indicates a predominant role of JAK/STAT in ILDs. Between the different JAK/STAT isoforms, it appears that JAK2/STAT3 are predominant, initiating cellular changes observed in ILDs. This review analyzes the expression and distribution of different JAK/STAT isoforms in ILDs lung tissue and different cell types related to ILDs, such as lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial type II cells and analyzes JAK/STAT activation. The effect of JAK/STAT phosphorylation on cellular fibrotic processes, such as proliferation, senescence, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or epithelial/fibroblast to mesenchymal transition will be described. The small molecules directed to inhibit JAK/STAT activation were assayed in vitro and in in vivo models of pulmonary fibrosis, and different JAK inhibitors are currently approved for myeloproliferative disorders. Recent evidence indicates that JAK inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed to block IL-6 are used as compassionate use to attenuate the excessive inflammation and lung fibrosis related to SARS-CoV-2 virus. These altogether indicate that JAK/STAT pathway is an attractive target to be proven in future clinical trials of lung fibrotic disorders.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Cellular Senescence , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Interleukins/metabolism , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 14571-14589, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259803

ABSTRACT

Emodin has shown pharmacological effects in the treatment of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, which leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, we speculated that emodin may possess anti-COVID-19 activity. In this study, using bioinformatics databases, we screened and harvested the candidate genes or targets of emodin and COVID-19 prior to the determination of pharmacological targets and molecular mechanisms of emodin against COVID-19. We discovered core targets for the treatment of COVID-19, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), tumor protein (TP53), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), caspase-3 (CASP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 1B (IL1B), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), B-cell lymphoma-2-like protein 1 (BCL2L1), interleukin-8 (CXCL8), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1), and colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). The GO analysis of emodin against COVID-19 mainly included cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, response to lipopolysaccharide, response to molecule of bacterial origin, developmental process involved in reproduction, and reproductive structure development. The KEGG results exhibited that the molecular pathways mainly included IL-17 signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, TNF signaling pathway, pertussis, proteoglycans in cancer, pathways in cancer, MAPK signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, etc. Also, molecular docking results revealed the docking capability between emodin and COVID-19 and the potential pharmacological activity of emodin against COVID-19. Taken together, these findings uncovered the targets and pharmacological mechanisms of emodin for treating COVID-19 and suggested that the vital targets might be used as biomarkers against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Emodin/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Emodin/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects
19.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 27(5): 1251-1254, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243778

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Serious Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) has led to COVID 19 pandemic a year ago and it has not been globally taken under control yet. COVID 19 tends to have poorer prognosis in cancer patients. Additionally, we have no well-established guidelines for management of these patients during pandemic, in terms of treatment of 'cancer' and treatment of 'COVID 19'. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are given without any break in cancer patients to have better survival outcomes in daily routine. However, there is no well-established data to continue or delay ALK inhibitors in lung cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV2. Concomittant use of ALK inhibitors and COVID 19 antiviral treatment is a dilemma because of the lack of data in this area. CASE REPORT: A 47-year old female metastatic ALK positive nonsquamous cell lung cancer patient on alectinib, a second generation ALK inhibitor was diagnosed with symptomatic COVID 19. She was given favipiravir for COVID 19 while continuing alectinib.Management and outcome: The patient continued alectinib during COVID 19 antiviral treatment without any break. She tolerated 'concomittant' alectinib & favipiravir. She had partial remission after three months of alectinib without any dose adjustment despite active COVID 19 medication. DISCUSSION: To best of our knowledge, this is the first case who continued alectinib without dose adjustment during antiviral COVID-19 medication without clinically worsening. There is limited data about 'concomittant' use of TKIs and antiviral COVID 19 medication in the literature. There are some case reports, but they generally tended to delay or suspend TKIs during COVID 19 antiviral medication. Our case differs from them in terms of continuation of alectinib without any break or additional side effects during favipiravir for symptomatic COVID 19. We consider that our case might contribute to the literature in terms of management of cancer patients on targeted therapy during COVID 19 antiviral treatment. However, clinical trials are needed in this area.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbazoles/administration & dosage , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 183, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230872

ABSTRACT

CK2 is a constitutively active Ser/Thr protein kinase, which phosphorylates hundreds of substrates, controls several signaling pathways, and is implicated in a plethora of human diseases. Its best documented role is in cancer, where it regulates practically all malignant hallmarks. Other well-known functions of CK2 are in human infections; in particular, several viruses exploit host cell CK2 for their life cycle. Very recently, also SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, has been found to enhance CK2 activity and to induce the phosphorylation of several CK2 substrates (either viral and host proteins). CK2 is also considered an emerging target for neurological diseases, inflammation and autoimmune disorders, diverse ophthalmic pathologies, diabetes, and obesity. In addition, CK2 activity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, as cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, and cardiac hypertrophy. The hypothesis of considering CK2 inhibition for cystic fibrosis therapies has been also entertained for many years. Moreover, psychiatric disorders and syndromes due to CK2 mutations have been recently identified. On these bases, CK2 is emerging as an increasingly attractive target in various fields of human medicine, with the advantage that several very specific and effective inhibitors are already available. Here, we review the literature on CK2 implication in different human pathologies and evaluate its potential as a pharmacological target in the light of the most recent findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Casein Kinase II , Cystic Fibrosis , Eye Diseases , Mental Disorders , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/enzymology , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Casein Kinase II/antagonists & inhibitors , Casein Kinase II/genetics , Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/enzymology , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/enzymology , Eye Diseases/genetics , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/enzymology , Mental Disorders/genetics , Mutation , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...