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1.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 38(5): e144-e147, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063057

ABSTRACT

Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a rare tumor, particularly in the orbit, with fewer than 10 cases of primary orbital desmoid-type fibromatosis reported in the literature. The authors present a case of an infant who presented with rapid onset of OD proptosis, disc edema, and hyperopic shift who was found to have a retrobulbar desmoid-type fibromatosis. After initial biopsy, due to risk of vision loss with complete excision, the tumor was treated with sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. During the course of treatment with sorafenib, the tumor stabilized and then regressed in size. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of orbital desmoid-type fibromatosis to be treated with sorafenib.


Subject(s)
Fibromatosis, Aggressive , Biopsy , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/diagnosis , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/drug therapy , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/pathology , Humans , Infant , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sorafenib/therapeutic use
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(26): e29660, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051686

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a novel coronavirus-2 (CoV-2), also known as COVID-19, has spread rapidly worldwide since it is recognized as a public health emergency and has now been declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 comprises a single-stranded positive-sense RNA approximately 27 to 30 kb in size. The virus is transmitted through droplets from humans to humans. Infection with the SARS virus varies from asymptomatic to lethal, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and headache, but in severe cases, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, no specific and effective treatment has been recommended for patients infected with the SARS virus. However, several options can be investigated to control SARS-CoV-2 infection, including monoclonal antibodies, interferons, therapeutic vaccines, and molecular-based targeted drugs. In the current review, we focus on tyrosine kinase inhibitor management and their protective role in SARS-CoV-2 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(7): 1256-1264, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968075

ABSTRACT

Tofacitinib has revolutionized the treatment of numerous dermatological conditions in different age groups. However, evidence for its effectiveness, safety and tolerability in the paediatric population is limited. We performed a literature search, which showed that oral tofacitinib is a reliable option in refractory juvenile dermatomyositis, severe alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Topical tofacitinib is an effective option in vitiligo and halo naevus. The risk-benefit ratio should be assessed prior to consideration of this molecule. In this narrative review, we have attempted to present a summary of the evidence of using tofacitinib (oral and topical) in paediatric dermatoses.


Subject(s)
Alopecia Areata , Pyrroles , Alopecia Areata/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Piperidines , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use
4.
Pharmacol Res ; 183: 106362, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956292

ABSTRACT

The Janus kinase (JAK) family of nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinases consists of JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2 (Tyrosine Kinase 2). Each of these proteins contains a JAK homology pseudokinase (JH2) domain that interacts with and regulates the activity of the adjacent protein kinase domain (JH1). The Janus kinase family is regulated by numerous cytokines including interferons, interleukins, and hormones such as erythropoietin and thrombopoietin. Ligand binding to cytokine receptors leads to the activation of associated Janus kinases, which then catalyze the phosphorylation of the receptors. The SH2 domain of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) binds to the cytokine receptor phosphotyrosines thereby promoting STAT phosphorylation and activation by the Janus kinases. STAT dimers are then translocated into the nucleus where they participate in the regulation and expression of dozens of proteins. JAK1/3 signaling participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders while JAK1/2 signaling contributes to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms as well as several malignancies including leukemias and lymphomas. An activating JAK2 V617F mutation occurs in 95% of people with polycythemia vera and about 50% of cases of myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia. Abrocitinib, ruxolitinib, and upadacitinib are JAK inhibitors that are FDA-approved for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Baricitinib is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and covid 19. Tofacitinib and upadacitinib are JAK antagonists that are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. Additionally, ruxolitinib is approved for the treatment of polycythemia vera while fedratinib, pacritinib, and ruxolitinib are approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Polycythemia Vera , Primary Myelofibrosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Humans , Janus Kinase 1 , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113459, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956090

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lethal clinical entity that has become an emergency event with the outbreak of COVID-19. However, to date, there are no well-proven pharmacotherapies except dexamethasone. This study is aimed to evaluate IRAK4 inhibitors as a potential treatment for ARDS-cytokine release syndrome (CRS). We applied two IRAK4 inhibitors, BAY-1834845 and PF-06650833 to an inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS mouse model with control of high dose dexamethasone (10 mg/kg). Unexpectedly, although both compounds had excellent IC50 on IRAK4 kinase activity, only BAY-1834845 but not PF-06650833 or high dose dexamethasone could significantly prevent lung injury according to a blinded pathology scoring. Further, only BAY-1834845 and BAY-1834845 combined with dexamethasone could effectively improve the injury score of pre-existed ARDS. Compared with PF-06650833 and high dose dexamethasone, BAY-1834845 remarkably decreased inflammatory cells infiltrating lung tissue and neutrophil count in BALF. BAY-1834845, DEX, and the combination of the two agents could decrease BALF total T cells, monocyte, and macrophages. In further cell type enrichment analysis based on lung tissue RNA-seq, both BAY-1834845 and dexamethasone decreased signatures of inflammatory cells and effector lymphocytes. Interestingly, unlike the dexamethasone group, BAY-1834845 largely preserved the signatures of naïve lymphocytes and stromal cells such as endothelial cells, chondrocytes, and smooth muscle cells. Differential gene enrichment suggested that BAY-1834845 downregulated genes more efficiently than dexamethasone, especially TNF, IL-17, interferon, and Toll-like receptor signaling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelial Cells , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Isoquinolines/therapeutic use , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
6.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(10): 2961-2966, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941822

ABSTRACT

Generic tofacitinib has been available in India for more than a year and is widely used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy. There is scarce real-world data on its effectiveness and safety from India, especially given infection endemicity. We retrospectively analysed records (demographic and clinical information, haematology and biochemistry, adverse events) of patients prescribed generic tofacitinib from a single centre in Mumbai, India. Disease activity was calculated using the disease activity score-28 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and other tools, and we used paired T-tests for significant response. We defined clinical tofacitinib failure as a composite outcome, including clinician's decision to change to an alternative disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) or flare after self-withdrawal. We performed logistic regression and survival analysis for determinants of clinical failure. We reviewed records of 102 patients (92 female; median age: 53 years) with mean RA duration of 146 months. Thirteen had prior treatment with innovator tofacitinib. There was significant improvement in disease activity parameters at a mean duration of 186 days. No serious adverse events were reported; 4 patients had tuberculosis and 19 patients had mild COVID-19 while on treatment. Clinical failure was seen in 25 patients, and mean time to failure on survival analysis was 357 days. No baseline characteristic predicted clinical failure. Generic tofacitinib showed good effectiveness and a tolerable adverse effect profile, despite tuberculosis endemicity and COVID-19. Setting up registries would be valuable in gaining more data on generic tofacitinib. Key Points • There is scarce data from India regarding the use of tofacitinib in rheumatoid arthritis, despite widespread use. • In this retrospective analysis of 102 patients at a single centre, we found tofacitinib monotherapy was efficacious and tolerable. • Tuberculosis was detected in four and nineteen patients had mild covid.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/chemically induced , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Female , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Piperidines , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines , Pyrroles/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 90, 2022 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928195

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have vastly improved long-term outcomes for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). After imatinib (a first-generation TKI), second- and third-generation TKIs were developed. With five TKIs (imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib) targeting BCR::ABL approved in most countries, and with the recent approval of asciminib in the USA, treatment decisions are complex and require assessment of patient-specific factors. Optimal treatment strategies for CML continue to evolve, with an increased focus on achieving deep molecular responses. Using clinically relevant case studies developed by the authors of this review, we discuss three major scenarios from the perspective of international experts. Firstly, this review explores patient-specific characteristics that affect decision-making between first- and second-generation TKIs upon initial diagnosis of CML, including patient comorbidities. Secondly, a thorough assessment of therapeutic options in the event of first-line treatment failure (as defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European LeukemiaNet guidelines) is discussed along with real-world considerations for monitoring optimal responses to TKI therapy. Thirdly, this review illustrates the considerations and importance of achieving treatment-free remission as a treatment goal. Due to the timing of the writing, this review addresses global challenges commonly faced by hematologists treating patients with CML during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lastly, as new treatment approaches continue to be explored in CML, this review also discusses the advent of newer therapies such as asciminib. This article may be a useful reference for physicians treating patients with CML with second-generation TKIs and, as it is focused on the physicians' international and personal experiences, may give insight into alternative approaches not previously considered.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Dasatinib , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Pandemics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
8.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 36(2): 325-339, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914449

ABSTRACT

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (wAIHA) is an uncommon and heterogeneous disorder caused by autoantibodies to RBC antigens. Initial evaluation should involve the DAT, with wAIHA typically IgG positive with or without C3 positivity, and a search for underlying conditions associated with secondary wAIHA, which comprise 50% of cases. First-line therapy involves glucocorticoids, increasingly with rituximab, though a chronic relapsing course is typical. While splenectomy and a number of immunosuppressive therapies have been used in the setting of relapsed and refractory disease, the optimal choice and sequence of therapies is unknown, and clinical trials should be offered when available. Newer investigational targets include spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies targeting CD38, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors, complement inhibitors, and antibodies against neonatal Fc receptors.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/therapy , Autoantibodies/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Splenectomy
10.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737002

ABSTRACT

Rearranged during transfection (RET) is an oncogenic driver receptor that is overexpressed in several cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer. To date, only multiple kinase inhibitors are widely used to treat RET-positive cancer patients. These inhibitors exhibit high toxicity, less efficacy, and specificity against RET. The development of drug-resistant mutations in RET protein further deteriorates this situation. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to design novel drug-like compounds using a fragment-based drug designing strategy to overcome these issues. About 18 known inhibitors from diverse chemical classes were fragmented and bred to form novel compounds against RET proteins. The inhibitory activity of the resultant 115 hybrid molecules was evaluated using molecular docking and RF-Score analysis. The binding free energy and chemical reactivity of the compounds were computed using MM-GBSA and density functional theory analysis, respectively. The results from our study revealed that the developed hybrid molecules except for LF21 and LF27 showed higher reactivity and stability than Pralsetinib. Ultimately, the process resulted in three hybrid molecules namely LF1, LF2, and LF88 having potent inhibitory activity against RET proteins. The scrutinized molecules were then subjected to molecular dynamics simulation for 200 ns and MM-PBSA analysis to eliminate a false positive design. The results from our analysis hypothesized that the designed compounds exhibited significant inhibitory activity against multiple RET variants. Thus, these could be considered as potential leads for further experimental studies.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Drug Design , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/therapeutic use
11.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 28(8): 1906-1909, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714589

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic is challenging the management of cancer patients. In this article, we present two patients diagnosed with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) + non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma (NSCL CA), infected with COVID-19, who had a previous multi-line therapy with Brigatinib and Lorlatinib, and received Favipiravir for their current infection. CASE REPORTS: A 58-year-old man and a 65-year-old woman were diagnosed as ALK ( + ) NSCL CA. Both patients received tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for lung cancer when diagnosed with COVID-19. No adverse effects were observed with the concurrent use of Favipiravir, an antiviral drug currently used for COVID-19 and TKI. MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME: Considering the pharmacokinetic effects of favipiravir and the ALK inhibitor TKI's used on our cases (Brigatinib-Lorlatinib), the concurrent use of these drugs was safe and prevented the delay in the primary treatment of the malignancy of our patients. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, these are the only reported cases diagnosed as ALK ( + ) NSCL CA who received favipiravir because of COVID-19 while using TKI, and both patients recovered completely without any side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactams, Macrocyclic/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 24(5): 645-650, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712340

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 is highly contagious; since it was first identified, the virus has rapidly spread to more than 100 countries and was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization (WHO). This disease presents several challenges when managing patients with leukemia. We review the information about chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and COVID-19: risk factors, prognosis, and the role of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). RECENT FINDINGS: At present, we find no data suggesting that patients with CML-chronic phase (CML-CP) are at higher risk of infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) than the general healthy population. TKIs had been proposed to fight the SARS-CoV-2-related disease (COVID-19). CML patients should continue receiving their TKIs if they have COVID-19 disease. The role of TKIs as protective factors against SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with CML should be confirmed by large-scale epidemiologic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/epidemiology , Pandemics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1626, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661980

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is one of the biggest health challenges of recent decades. Among the causes of mortality triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the development of an inflammatory "cytokine storm" (CS) plays a determinant role. Here, we used transcriptomic data from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients undergoing a CS to obtain gene-signatures associated to this pathology. Using these signatures, we interrogated the Connectivity Map (CMap) dataset that contains the effects of over 5000 small molecules on the transcriptome of human cell lines, and looked for molecules which effects on transcription mimic or oppose those of the CS. As expected, molecules that potentiate immune responses such as PKC activators are predicted to worsen the CS. In addition, we identified the negative regulation of female hormones among pathways potentially aggravating the CS, which helps to understand the gender-related differences in COVID-19 mortality. Regarding drugs potentially counteracting the CS, we identified glucocorticoids as a top hit, which validates our approach as this is the primary treatment for this pathology. Interestingly, our analysis also reveals a potential effect of MEK inhibitors in reverting the COVID-19 CS, which is supported by in vitro data that confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Male , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sex Factors , Transcriptome/genetics
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(3): 2303-2309, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648443

ABSTRACT

Global vaccination effort and better understanding of treatment strategies provided a ray of hope for improvement in COVID-19 pandemic, however, in many countries, the disease continues to collect its death toll. The major pathogenic mechanism behind severe cases associated with high mortality is the burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-6, IFNγ and others, resulting in multiple organ failure. Although the exact contribution of each cytokine is not clear, we provide an evidence that the central mediator of cytokine storm and its devastating consequences may be TNF. This cytokine is known to be involved in activated blood clotting, lung damage, insulin resistance, heart failure, and other conditions. A number of currently available pharmaceutical agents such as monoclonal antibodies and soluble TNF receptors can effectively prevent TNF from binding to its receptor(s). Other drugs are known to block NFkB, the major signal transducer molecule used in TNF signaling, or to block kinases involved in downstream activation cascades. Some of these medicines have already been selected for clinical trials, but more work is needed. A simple, rapid, and inexpensive method of directly monitoring TNF levels may be a valuable tool for a timely selection of COVID-19 patients for anti-TNF therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Patient Selection , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology
17.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 39-50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641982

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation is an important component of the pathophysiology of COVID-19. A large body of literature has reported the effect of immune-based therapies in patients with COVID-19, with some remarkable successes such as the use of steroids or anti-cytokine therapies. However, challenges in clinical decision-making arise from the complexity of the disease phenotypes and patient heterogeneity, as well as the variable quality of evidence from immunotherapy studies. This Review aims to support clinical decision-making by providing an overview of the evidence generated by major clinical trials of host-directed therapy. We discuss patient stratification and propose an algorithm to guide the use of immunotherapy strategies in the clinic. This will not only help guide treatment decisions, but may also help to design future trials that investigate immunotherapy in other severe infections.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24442, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577650

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic interventions targeting viral infections remain a significant challenge for both the medical and scientific communities. While specific antiviral agents have shown success as therapeutics, viral resistance inevitably develops, making many of these approaches ineffective. This inescapable obstacle warrants alternative approaches, such as the targeting of host cellular factors. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the major respiratory pathogen of infants and children worldwide, causes respiratory tract infection ranging from mild upper respiratory tract symptoms to severe life-threatening lower respiratory tract disease. Despite the fact that the molecular biology of the virus, which was originally discovered in 1956, is well described, there is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment against RSV infection. Here, we demonstrate that targeting host factors, specifically, mTOR signaling, reduces RSV protein production and generation of infectious progeny virus. Further, we show that this approach can be generalizable as inhibition of mTOR kinases reduces coronavirus gene expression, mRNA transcription and protein production. Overall, defining virus replication-dependent host functions may be an effective means to combat viral infections, particularly in the absence of antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/genetics , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/metabolism , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/antagonists & inhibitors , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/genetics , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
20.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559466

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) represented, in the past ten years, an important target for the development of new therapeutic agents that could be useful for cancer and autoimmune disorders. To date, five compounds, able to block BTK in an irreversible manner, have been launched in the market, whereas many reversible BTK inhibitors (BTKIs), with reduced side effects that are more useful for long-term administration in autoimmune disorders, are under clinical investigation. Despite the presence in the literature of many articles and reviews, studies on BTK function and BTKIs are of great interest for pharmaceutical companies as well as academia. This review is focused on compounds that have appeared in the literature from 2017 that are able to block BTK in an irreversible or reversible manner; also, new promising tunable irreversible inhibitors, as well as PROTAC molecules, have been reported. This summary could improve the knowledge of the chemical diversity of BTKIs and provide information for future studies, particularly from the medicinal chemistry point of view. Data reported here are collected from different databases (Scifinder, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Pubmed) using "BTK" and "BTK inhibitors" as keywords.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/chemistry , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/classification , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Treatment Outcome
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