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J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 55, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965824


BACKGROUND: Infections by viruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 could cause organ inflammations such as myocarditis, pneumonia and encephalitis. Innate immunity to viral nucleic acids mediates antiviral immunity as well as inflammatory organ injury. However, the innate immune mechanisms that control viral induced organ inflammations are unclear. METHODS: To understand the role of the E3 ligase TRIM18 in controlling viral myocarditis and organ inflammation, wild-type and Trim18 knockout mice were infected with coxsackievirus B3 for inducing viral myocarditis, influenza A virus PR8 strain and human adenovirus for inducing viral pneumonia, and herpes simplex virus type I for inducing herpes simplex encephalitis. Mice survivals were monitored, and heart, lung and brain were harvested for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Real-time PCR, co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, luciferase assay, flow cytometry, over-expression and knockdown techniques were used to understand the molecular mechanisms of TRIM18 in regulating type I interferon (IFN) production after virus infection in this study. RESULTS: We find that knockdown or deletion of TRIM18 in human or mouse macrophages enhances production of type I IFN in response to double strand (ds) RNA and dsDNA or RNA and DNA virus infection. Importantly, deletion of TRIM18 protects mice from viral myocarditis, viral pneumonia, and herpes simplex encephalitis due to enhanced type I IFN production in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that TRIM18 recruits protein phosphatase 1A (PPM1A) to dephosphorylate TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which inactivates TBK1 to block TBK1 from interacting with its upstream adaptors, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thereby dampening antiviral signaling during viral infections. Moreover, TRIM18 stabilizes PPM1A by inducing K63-linked ubiquitination of PPM1A. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that TRIM18 serves as a negative regulator of viral myocarditis, lung inflammation and brain damage by downregulating innate immune activation induced by both RNA and DNA viruses. Our data reveal that TRIM18 is a critical regulator of innate immunity in viral induced diseases, thereby identifying a potential therapeutic target for treatment.

Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Myocarditis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Virus Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/genetics , Mice , Myocarditis/genetics , Myocarditis/virology , Protein Phosphatase 2C , RNA , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
Curr Drug Deliv ; 18(10): 1595-1610, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110175


OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has promptly spread worldwide. This study aimed to predict mature miRNA sequences in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, their effects on protein-protein interactions in the affected cells, and gene-drug relationships to detect possible drug candidates. METHODS: Viral hairpin structure prediction, classification of hairpins, mutational examination of precursor miRNA candidate sequences, Minimum Free Energy (MFE) and regional entropy analysis, mature miRNA sequences, target gene prediction, gene ontology enrichment, and Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) analysis, and gene-drug interactions were performed. RESULTS: A total of 62 candidate hairpins were detected by VMir analysis. Three hairpin structures were classified as true precursor miRNAs by miRBoost. Five different mutations were detected in precursor miRNA sequences in 100 SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes. Mutations slightly elevated MFE values and entropy in precursor miRNAs. Gene ontology terms associated with fibrotic pathways and immune system were found to be enriched in PANTHER, KEGG and Wiki pathway analysis. PPI analysis showed a network between 60 genes. CytoHubba analysis showed SMAD1 as a hub gene in the network. The targets of the predicted miRNAs, FAM214A, PPM1E, NUFIP2 and FAT4, were downregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infected A549 cells. CONCLUSION: miRNAs in the SARS-CoV-2 virus genome may contribute to the emergence of the Covid-19 infection by activating pathways associated with fibrosis in the cells infected by the virus and modulating the innate immune system. The hub protein between these pathways may be the SMAD1, which has an effective role in TGF signal transduction.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Epigenesis, Genetic , MicroRNAs , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Cadherins , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Protein Phosphatase 2C , RNA-Binding Proteins , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , COVID-19 Drug Treatment