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1.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDWeeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure, some children develop a severe, life-threatening illness called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with MIS-C, and a severe hyperinflammatory response ensues with potential for cardiac complications. The cause of MIS-C has not been identified to date.METHODSHere, we analyzed biospecimens from 100 children: 19 with MIS-C, 26 with acute COVID-19, and 55 controls. Stools were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and plasma was examined for markers of breakdown of mucosal barrier integrity, including zonulin. Ultrasensitive antigen detection was used to probe for SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia in plasma, and immune responses were characterized. As a proof of concept, we treated a patient with MIS-C with larazotide, a zonulin antagonist, and monitored the effect on antigenemia and the patient's clinical response.RESULTSWe showed that in children with MIS-C, a prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the GI tract led to the release of zonulin, a biomarker of intestinal permeability, with subsequent trafficking of SARS-CoV-2 antigens into the bloodstream, leading to hyperinflammation. The patient with MIS-C treated with larazotide had a coinciding decrease in plasma SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen levels and inflammatory markers and a resultant clinical improvement above that achieved with currently available treatments.CONCLUSIONThese mechanistic data on MIS-C pathogenesis provide insight into targets for diagnosing, treating, and preventing MIS-C, which are urgently needed for this increasingly common severe COVID-19-related disease in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Haptoglobins/physiology , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Protein Precursors/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Antigens, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Haptoglobins/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Male , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Permeability/drug effects , Proof of Concept Study , Protein Precursors/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Precursors/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
4.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 21(4): 397-404, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142579

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), a novel biomarker, has recently gained interest particularly with regards to its potential in assisting clinicians' decision making in patients with suspicion of infection in the emergency department (ED). A group of international experts, with research and experience in MR-proADM applications, produced this review based on their own experience and the currently available literature. AREAS COVERED: The review provides evidence related to MR-proADM as a triaging tool in avoiding unnecessary admissions to hospital and/or inadequate discharge, and identifying patients most at risk of deterioration. It also covers the use of MR-proADM in the context of COVID-19. Moreover, the authors provide a proposal on how to incorporate MR-proADM into patients' clinical pathways in an ED setting. EXPERT OPINION: The data we have so far on the application of MR-proADM in the ED is promising. Incorporating it into clinical scoring systems may aid the clinician's decision making and recognizing the 'ill looking well' and the 'well looking ill' sooner. However there are still many gaps in our knowledge especially during the ongoing COVID-19 waves. There is also a need for cost-effectiveness analysis studies especially in the era of increasing cost pressures on health systems globally.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Infections/blood , Protein Precursors/blood , Algorithms , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Pathways , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infections/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5121, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117669

ABSTRACT

Mid Regional pro-ADM (MR-proADM) is a promising novel biomarker in the evaluation of deteriorating patients and an emergent prognosis factor in patients with sepsis, septic shock and organ failure. It can be induced by bacteria, fungi or viruses. We hypothesized that the assessment of MR-proADM, with or without other inflammatory cytokines, as part of a clinical assessment of COVID-19 patients at hospital admission, may assist in identifying those likely to develop severe disease. A pragmatic retrospective analysis was performed on a complete data set from 111 patients admitted to Udine University Hospital, in northern Italy, from 25th March to 15th May 2020, affected by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Clinical scoring systems (SOFA score, WHO disease severity class, SIMEU clinical phenotype), cytokines (IL-6, IL-1b, IL-8, TNF-α), and MR-proADM were measured. Demographic, clinical and outcome data were collected for analysis. At multivariate analysis, high MR-proADM levels were significantly associated with negative outcome (death or orotracheal intubation, IOT), with an odds ratio of 4.284 [1.893-11.413], together with increased neutrophil count (OR = 1.029 [1.011-1.049]) and WHO disease severity class (OR = 7.632 [5.871-19.496]). AUROC analysis showed a good discriminative performance of MR-proADM (AUROC: 0.849 [95% Cl 0.771-0.730]; p < 0.0001). The optimal value of MR-proADM to discriminate combined event of death or IOT is 0.895 nmol/l, with a sensitivity of 0.857 [95% Cl 0.728-0.987] and a specificity of 0.687 [95% Cl 0.587-0.787]. This study shows an association between MR-proADM levels and the severity of COVID-19. The assessment of MR-proADM combined with clinical scoring systems could be of great value in triaging, evaluating possible escalation of therapies, and admission avoidance or inclusion into trials. Larger prospective and controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1743-1751, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the ability of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) to identify disease severity in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in comparison to conventional inflammatory biomarkers and clinical scores. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In an observational trial, COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients were enrolled. MR-proADM, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and lactic acid (LA) were measured in all patients at admission (T0), at 24 hours (T1) and in the third (T3) and fifth day (T5) of hospitalization. The aims of this study were to determine the role of MR-proADM to detect patients with high risk of mortality and compare the prognostic value of MR-proADM with commonly used clinical scores (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score - SOFA score, Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II score - APACHE II score, and Simplified Acute Physiological score II - SAPS II score). RESULTS: Twenty-one COVID-19 ARDS patients admitted to the Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU) were enrolled. The median MR-proADM values were 2.28, 2.41, 1.96 and 1.89 nmol/L at T0, T1, T3 and T5, respectively. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 52.4%. Mean MR-proADM T0 value was significantly higher in non-survivors compared with survivors (3.5 vs. 1.1 nmol/L, p < 0.05). No significant differences were found for the other inflammatory biomarkers. In terms of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), MR-proADM showed a similar discriminatory power compared with APACHE II, SOFA and SAPS II score (0.81, 0.91, 0.70 and 0.78, respectively). The optimal MR-proADM cut-point cut-off point was 1.07 nmol/L, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 71%. CONCLUSIONS: MR-proADM, in addition to the clinical scores, could be useful to predict outcome in COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/blood , Protein Precursors/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , APACHE , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Italy , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
7.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(5): e13511, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early identification of patients at high risk of progression to severe COVID-19 constituted an unsolved challenge. Although growing evidence demonstrates a direct association between endotheliitis and severe COVID-19, the role of endothelial damage biomarkers has been scarcely studied. We investigated the relationship between circulating mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) levels, a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. METHODS: Prospective observational study enrolling adult patients with confirmed COVID-19. On admission to emergency department, a blood sample was drawn for laboratory test analysis. Primary and secondary endpoints were 28-day all-cause mortality and severe COVID-19 progression. Area under the curve (AUC) and multivariate regression analysis were employed to assess the association of the biomarker with the established endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients were enrolled. During hospitalization, 25 (25.3%) cases progressed to severe disease and the 28-day mortality rate was of 14.1%. MR-proADM showed the highest AUC to predict 28-day mortality (0.905; [CI] 95%: 0.829-0.955; P < .001) and progression to severe disease (0.829; [CI] 95%: 0.740-0.897; P < .001), respectively. MR-proADM plasma levels above optimal cut-off (1.01 nmol/L) showed the strongest independent association with 28-day mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 10.470, 95% CI: 2.066-53.049; P < .005) and with progression to severe disease (HR: 6.803, 95% CI: 1.458-31.750; P = .015). CONCLUSION: Mid-regional proadrenomedullin was the biomarker with highest performance for prognosis of death and progression to severe disease in COVID-19 patients and represents a promising predictor for both outcomes, which might constitute a potential tool in the assessment of prognosis in early stages of this disease.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Mortality , Peptide Fragments/blood , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Disease Progression , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(5): 995-1004, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a vasoactive peptide with key roles in reducing vascular hyperpermeability and thereby improving endothelial stability during infection. While MR-proADM is useful for risk stratification in patients with sepsis, clinical data about prediction accuracy in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) is currently missing. METHODS: We included consecutively adult patients hospitalized for confirmed COVID-19 at a tertiary care center in Switzerland between February and April 2020. We investigated the association of MR-proADM levels with in-hospital mortality in logistic regression and discrimination analyses. RESULTS: Of 89 included COVID-19 patients, 19% (n=17) died while in the hospital. Median admission MR-proADM levels (nmol/L) were increased almost 1.5-fold increased in non-survivors compared to survivors (1.3 [interquartile range IQR 1.1-2.3]) vs. 0.8 [IQR 0.7-1.1]) and showed good discrimination (area under the curve 0.78). An increase of 1 nmol/L of admission MR-proADM was independently associated with a more than fivefold increase in in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4-21.4, p=0.015). An admission MR-proADM threshold of 0.93 nmol/L showed the best prognostic accuracy for in-hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 60% and a negative predictive value of 97%. Kinetics of follow-up MR-proADM provided further prognostic information for in-hospital treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of MR-proADM on admission and during hospital stay were independently associated with in-hospital mortality and may allow a better risk stratification, and particularly rule-out of fatal outcome, in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Peptide Fragments/blood , Protein Precursors/blood , Adrenomedullin/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kinetics , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Br J Haematol ; 192(4): 714-719, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978695

ABSTRACT

Endothelial cell (EC) activation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary microvascular occlusion, which is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Consistent with EC activation, increased plasma von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) levels have been reported in COVID-19. Importantly however, studies in other microangiopathies have shown that plasma VWF propeptide (VWFpp) is a more sensitive and specific measure of acute EC activation. In the present study, we further investigated the nature of EC activation in severe COVID-19. Markedly increased plasma VWF:Ag [median (interquatile range, IQR) 608·8 (531-830)iu/dl] and pro-coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) levels [median (IQR) 261·9 (170-315) iu/dl] were seen in patients with severe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Sequential testing showed that these elevated VWF-FVIII complex levels remained high for up to 3 weeks. Similarly, plasma VWFpp levels were also markedly elevated [median (IQR) 324·6 (267-524) iu/dl]. Interestingly however, the VWFpp/VWF:Ag ratio was reduced, demonstrating that decreased VWF clearance contributes to the elevated plasma VWF:Ag levels in severe COVID-19. Importantly, plasma VWFpp levels also correlated with clinical severity indices including the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Sepsis-Induced Coagulopathy (SIC) score and the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (P/F ratio). Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that sustained fulminant EC activation is occurring in severe COVID-19, and further suggest that VWFpp may have a role as a biomarker in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Protein Precursors/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
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