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1.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(2)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704326

ABSTRACT

Protein lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is an important type of posttranslational modification that is associated with a wide range of biological processes. The identification of Kcr sites is critical to better understanding their functional mechanisms. However, the existing experimental techniques for detecting Kcr sites are cost-ineffective, to a great need for new computational methods to address this problem. We here describe Adapt-Kcr, an advanced deep learning model that utilizes adaptive embedding and is based on a convolutional neural network together with a bidirectional long short-term memory network and attention architecture. On the independent testing set, Adapt-Kcr outperformed the current state-of-the-art Kcr prediction model, with an improvement of 3.2% in accuracy and 1.9% in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Compared to other Kcr models, Adapt-Kcr additionally had a more robust ability to distinguish between crotonylation and other lysine modifications. Another model (Adapt-ST) was trained to predict phosphorylation sites in SARS-CoV-2, and outperformed the equivalent state-of-the-art phosphorylation site prediction model. These results indicate that self-adaptive embedding features perform better than handcrafted features in capturing discriminative information; when used in attention architecture, this could be an effective way of identifying protein Kcr sites. Together, our Adapt framework (including learning embedding features and attention architecture) has a strong potential for prediction of other protein posttranslational modification sites.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Deep Learning , Lysine/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Software , Algorithms , Benchmarking , Computational Biology/methods , Computational Biology/standards , Databases, Factual , Neural Networks, Computer , Phosphorylation , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , User-Computer Interface
2.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686605

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitylation and ISGylation are protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) and two of the main events involved in the activation of pattern recognition receptor (PRRs) signals allowing the host defense response to viruses. As with similar viruses, SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, hijacks these pathways by removing ubiquitin and/or ISG15 from proteins using a protease called PLpro, but also by interacting with enzymes involved in ubiquitin/ISG15 machinery. These enable viral replication and avoidance of the host immune system. In this review, we highlight potential points of therapeutic intervention in ubiquitin/ISG15 pathways involved in key host-pathogen interactions, such as PLpro, USP18, TRIM25, CYLD, A20, and others that could be targeted for the treatment of COVID-19, and which may prove effective in combatting current and future vaccine-resistant variants of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(4): e2102072, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669350

ABSTRACT

Liposomes can efficiently deliver messenger RNA (mRNA) into cells. When mRNA cocktails encoding different proteins are needed, a considerable challenge is to efficiently deliver all mRNAs into the cytosol of each individual cell. In this work, two methods are explored to co-deliver varying ratiometric doses of mRNA encoding red (R) or green (G) fluorescent proteins and it is found that packaging mRNAs into the same lipoplexes (mingle-lipoplexes) is crucial to efficiently deliver multiple mRNA types into the cytosol of individual cells according to the pre-defined ratio. A mixture of lipoplexes containing only one mRNA type (single-lipoplexes), however, seem to follow the "first come - first serve" principle, resulting in a large variation of R/G uptake and expression levels for individual cells leading to ratiometric dosing only on the population level, but rarely on the single-cell level. These experimental observations are quantitatively explained by a theoretical framework based on the stochasticity of mRNA uptake in cells and endosomal escape of mingle- and single-lipoplexes, respectively. Furthermore, the findings are confirmed in 3D retinal organoids and zebrafish embryos, where mingle-lipoplexes outperformed single-lipoplexes to reliably bring both mRNA types into single cells. This benefits applications that require a strict control of protein expression in individual cells.


Subject(s)
Liposomes/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Animals , Mice , Models, Animal , Zebrafish/metabolism
4.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(2): 94, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653404

ABSTRACT

Numerous post-translational modifications (PTMs) govern the collective metabolism of a cell through altering the structure and functions of proteins. The action of the most prevalent PTMs, encompassing phosphorylation, methylation, acylations, ubiquitination and glycosylation is well documented. A less explored protein PTM, conversion of peptidylarginine to citrulline, is the subject of this review. The process of citrullination is catalysed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a family of conserved enzymes expressed in a variety of human tissues. Accumulating evidence suggest that citrullination plays a significant role in regulating cellular metabolism and gene expression by affecting a multitude of pathways and modulating the chromatin status. Here, we will discuss the biochemical nature of arginine citrullination, the enzymatic machinery behind it and also provide information on the pathological consequences of citrullination in the development of inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, periodontitis and COVID-19), cancer and thromboembolism. Finally, developments on inhibitors against protein citrullination and recent clinical trials providing a promising therapeutic approach to inflammatory disease by targeting citrullination are discussed.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Citrullination/physiology , Inflammation/pathology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , Protein-Arginine Deiminases/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Citrulline/biosynthesis , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thromboembolism/pathology
5.
Epigenomics ; 14(3): 153-162, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622527

ABSTRACT

Smoking could predispose individuals to a more severe COVID-19 by upregulating a particular gene known as mdig, which is mediated through a number of well-known histone modifications. Smoking might regulate the transcription-activating H3K4me3 mark, along with the transcription-repressing H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 marks, in a way to favor SARS-CoV-2 entry by enhancing the expression of ACE2, NRP1 and NRP2, AT1R, CTSD and CTSL, PGE2 receptors 2-4, SLC6A20 and IL-6, all of which interact either directly or indirectly with important receptors, facilitating viral entry in COVID-19.


Lay abstract The role of smoking in development of several respiratory diseases has been clearly established. A significant proportion of these deleterious effects is mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, particularly histone modifications. Recent evidence indicates that smoking induces the expression of a mediator known as mdig, which in turn alters the transcription of several key proteins that have been implicated in development of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Dioxygenases/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Histone Demethylases/genetics , Histones/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Smoking/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin D/genetics , Cathepsin D/metabolism , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Methylation , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Neuropilin-2/genetics , Neuropilin-2/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/genetics , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Smoking/metabolism , Smoking/pathology , Virus Internalization
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613826

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid aptamers specific to S-protein and its receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2) virions are of high interest as potential inhibitors of viral infection and recognizing elements in biosensors. Development of specific therapy and biosensors is complicated by an emergence of new viral strains bearing amino acid substitutions and probable differences in glycosylation sites. Here, we studied affinity of a set of aptamers to two Wuhan-type RBD of S-protein expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell line and Pichia pastoris that differ in glycosylation patterns. The expression system for the RBD protein has significant effects, both on values of dissociation constants and relative efficacy of the aptamer binding. We propose glycosylation of the RBD as the main force for observed differences. Moreover, affinity of a several aptamers was affected by a site of biotinylation. Thus, the robustness of modified aptamers toward new virus variants should be carefully tested.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism , Immobilized Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Glycosylation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Saccharomycetales/genetics
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D1-D10, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607482

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue contains 185 papers, including 87 papers reporting on new databases and 85 updates from resources previously published in the Issue. Thirteen additional manuscripts provide updates on databases most recently published elsewhere. Seven new databases focus specifically on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, including SCoV2-MD, the first of the Issue's Breakthrough Articles. Major nucleic acid databases reporting updates include MODOMICS, JASPAR and miRTarBase. The AlphaFold Protein Structure Database, described in the second Breakthrough Article, is the stand-out in the protein section, where the Human Proteoform Atlas and GproteinDb are other notable new arrivals. Updates from DisProt, FuzDB and ELM comprehensively cover disordered proteins. Under the metabolism and signalling section Reactome, ConsensusPathDB, HMDB and CAZy are major returning resources. In microbial and viral genomes taxonomy and systematics are well covered by LPSN, TYGS and GTDB. Genomics resources include Ensembl, Ensembl Genomes and UCSC Genome Browser. Major returning pharmacology resource names include the IUPHAR/BPS guide and the Therapeutic Target Database. New plant databases include PlantGSAD for gene lists and qPTMplants for post-translational modifications. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (https://academic.oup.com/nar). Our latest update to the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection brings the total number of entries to 1645. Following last year's major cleanup, we have updated 317 entries, listing 89 new resources and trimming 80 discontinued URLs. The current release is available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Molecular Biology , Animals , COVID-19 , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Databases, Protein , Genome, Microbial , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mice , Plants/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction
8.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(1): e3508, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604144

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates a bi-directional relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and diabetes. The possibility exists that SARS-CoV-2 could induce diabetes, but it is not yet clear whether this might be a fulminant-type diabetes, autoimmune diabetes, or a new-onset transient hyperglycaemia. This viewpoint discusses mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 might trigger type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Specifically, we looked at the role of post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) and the generation of neoepitopes as a potential mechanism in the induction of islet autoimmunity, and the pathways via which coronavirus infections might exacerbate the formation of PTMs and, in so doing, provoke the onset of T1DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Humans
9.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 143: 106138, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588223

ABSTRACT

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission in neuro-muscular junctions and autonomic ganglia and modulate survival, proliferation and neurotransmitter or cytokine release in the brain and non-excitable cells. The neuronal-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are expressed in the outer mitochondria membrane to regulate the release of pro-apoptotic substances like cytochrome c or reactive oxygen species. In the intracellular environment, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling is ion-independent and triggers intramitochondrial kinases, similar to those activated by plasma membrane nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present review will describe the data obtained during the last five years including, in particular, post-translational glycosylation as a targeting signal to mitochondria, mechanisms of mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling studied with subtype-specific agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators and knockout mice lacking certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, interaction of mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with Bcl-2 family proteins and their involvement in important pathologies like neuroinflammation, liver damage and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Receptors, Nicotinic/genetics , Allosteric Regulation , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mitochondria/metabolism , /pathology , Nicotinic Agonists/pharmacology , Nicotinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1/genetics , Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1/metabolism
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 774340, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581380

ABSTRACT

Prevalence of fungal diseases has increased globally in recent years, which often associated with increased immunocompromised patients, aging populations, and the novel Coronavirus pandemic. Furthermore, due to the limitation of available antifungal agents mortality and morbidity rates of invasion fungal disease remain stubbornly high, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant fungi exacerbates the problem. Fungal pathogenicity and interactions between fungi and host have been the focus of many studies, as a result, lots of pathogenic mechanisms and fungal virulence factors have been identified. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a novel approach to better understand fungal pathogenicities and host-pathogen interactions at protein and protein posttranslational modification (PTM) levels. The approach has successfully elucidated interactions between pathogens and hosts by examining, for example, samples of fungal cells under different conditions, body fluids from infected patients, and exosomes. Many studies conclude that protein and PTM levels in both pathogens and hosts play important roles in progression of fungal diseases. This review summarizes mass spectrometry studies of protein and PTM levels from perspectives of both pathogens and hosts and provides an integrative conceptual outlook on fungal pathogenesis, antifungal agents development, and host-pathogen interactions.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Mycoses , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Proteome/metabolism
11.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551567

ABSTRACT

High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear DNA-binding protein, is a "damage-associated molecular pattern" molecule (DAMP) implicated in both stimulating and inhibiting innate immunity. As reviewed here, HMGB1 is an oxidation-reduction sensitive DAMP bearing three cysteines, and the post-translational modification of these residues establishes its proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities by binding to different extracellular cell surface receptors. The redox-sensitive signaling mechanisms of HMGB1 also occupy an important niche in innate immunity because HMGB1 may carry other DAMPs and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs). HMGB1 with DAMP/PAMP cofactors bind to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) which internalizes the HMGB1 complexes by endocytosis for incorporation in lysosomal compartments. Intra-lysosomal HMGB1 disrupts lysosomal membranes thereby releasing the HMGB1-transported molecules to stimulate cytosolic sensors that mediate inflammation. This HMGB1-DAMP/PAMP cofactor pathway slowed the development of HMGB1-binding antagonists for diagnostic or therapeutic use. However, recent discoveries that HMGB1 released from neurons mediates inflammation via the TLR4 receptor system, and that cancer cells express fully oxidized HMGB1 as an immunosuppressive mechanism, offer new paths to targeting HMGB1 for inflammation, pain, and cancer.


Subject(s)
Disulfides/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Sensory Receptor Cells/metabolism
12.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0162621, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532964

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the etiologic agent of COVID-19, uses its spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral membrane to enter host cells. The S glycoprotein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection and by vaccines. Approximately 35% of the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein consists of carbohydrate, which can influence virus infectivity and susceptibility to antibody inhibition. We found that virus-like particles produced by coexpression of SARS-CoV-2 S, M, E, and N proteins contained spike glycoproteins that were extensively modified by complex carbohydrates. We used a fucose-selective lectin to purify the Golgi-modified fraction of a wild-type SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein trimer and determined its glycosylation and disulfide bond profile. Compared with soluble or solubilized S glycoproteins modified to prevent proteolytic cleavage and to retain a prefusion conformation, more of the wild-type S glycoprotein N-linked glycans are processed to complex forms. Even Asn 234, a significant percentage of which is decorated by high-mannose glycans on other characterized S trimer preparations, is predominantly modified in the Golgi compartment by processed glycans. Three incompletely occupied sites of O-linked glycosylation were detected. Viruses pseudotyped with natural variants of the serine/threonine residues implicated in O-linked glycosylation were generally infectious and exhibited sensitivity to neutralization by soluble ACE2 and convalescent antisera comparable to that of the wild-type virus. Unlike other natural cysteine variants, a Cys15Phe (C15F) mutant retained partial, but unstable, infectivity. These findings enhance our understanding of the Golgi processing of the native SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein carbohydrates and could assist the design of interventions. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which causes COVID-19, uses its spike glycoprotein to enter host cells. The viral spike glycoprotein is the main target of host neutralizing antibodies that help to control SARS-CoV-2 infection and are important for the protection provided by vaccines. The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein consists of a trimer of two subunits covered with a coat of carbohydrates (sugars). Here, we describe the disulfide bonds that assist the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to assume the correct shape and the composition of the sugar moieties on the glycoprotein surface. We also evaluate the consequences of natural virus variation in O-linked sugar addition and in the cysteine residues involved in disulfide bond formation. This information can expedite the improvement of vaccines and therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Disulfides , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Glycosylation , Humans , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Protein Transport , Recombinant Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship
13.
Biochem J ; 478(14): 2789-2791, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526112

ABSTRACT

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone proteins are known as epigenetic marks that demarcate the status of chromatin. These modifications are 'read' by specific reader proteins, which in turn recruit additional factors to modulate chromatin accessibility and the activity of the underlying DNA. Accumulating evidence suggests that these modifications are not restricted solely to histones, many non-histone proteins may function in a similar way through mimicking the histones. In this commentary, we briefly discuss a systematic study of the discovery of histone H3 N-terminal mimicry proteins (H3TMs), and their implications in chromatin regulation and drug discoveries.


Subject(s)
Chromatin/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Animals , Chromatin/genetics , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA/genetics , Humans , Lysine/metabolism , Methylation , Models, Biological
14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(30): 7559-7585, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503906

ABSTRACT

Subunit vaccines based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 provide one of the most promising strategies to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. The detailed characterization of the protein primary structure by mass spectrometry (MS) is mandatory, as described in ICHQ6B guidelines. In this work, several recombinant RBD proteins produced in five expression systems were characterized using a non-conventional protocol known as in-solution buffer-free digestion (BFD). In a single ESI-MS spectrum, BFD allowed very high sequence coverage (≥ 99%) and the detection of highly hydrophilic regions, including very short and hydrophilic peptides (2-8 amino acids), and the His6-tagged C-terminal peptide carrying several post-translational modifications at Cys538 such as cysteinylation, homocysteinylation, glutathionylation, truncated glutathionylation, and cyanylation, among others. The analysis using the conventional digestion protocol allowed lower sequence coverage (80-90%) and did not detect peptides carrying most of the above-mentioned PTMs. The two C-terminal peptides of a dimer [RBD(319-541)-(His)6]2 linked by an intermolecular disulfide bond (Cys538-Cys538) with twelve histidine residues were only detected by BFD. This protocol allows the detection of the four disulfide bonds present in the native RBD, low-abundance scrambling variants, free cysteine residues, O-glycoforms, and incomplete processing of the N-terminal end, if present. Artifacts generated by the in-solution BFD protocol were also characterized. BFD can be easily implemented; it has been applied to the characterization of the active pharmaceutical ingredient of two RBD-based vaccines, and we foresee that it can be also helpful to the characterization of mutated RBDs.


Subject(s)
Cysteine/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Cysteine/chemistry , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Subunits
15.
J Virol ; 95(21): e0135721, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476390

ABSTRACT

One of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virulence factors is the ability to interact with high affinity to the ACE2 receptor, which mediates viral entry into cells. The results of our study demonstrate that within a few passages in cell culture, both the natural isolate of SARS-CoV-2 and the recombinant cDNA-derived variant acquire an additional ability to bind to heparan sulfate (HS). This promotes a primary attachment of viral particles to cells before their further interactions with the ACE2. Interaction with HS is acquired through multiple mechanisms. These include (i) accumulation of point mutations in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the S protein, which increases the positive charge of the surface of this domain, (ii) insertions into the NTD of heterologous peptides containing positively charged amino acids, and (iii) mutation of the first amino acid downstream of the furin cleavage site. This last mutation affects S protein processing, transforms the unprocessed furin cleavage site into the heparin-binding peptide, and makes viruses less capable of syncytium formation. These viral adaptations result in higher affinity of viral particles to heparin, dramatic increase in plaque sizes, more efficient viral spread, higher infectious titers, and 2 orders of magnitude higher infectivity. The detected adaptations also suggest an active role of NTD in virus attachment and entry. As in the case of other RNA-positive (RNA+) viruses, evolution to HS binding may result in virus attenuation in vivo. IMPORTANCE The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a major determinant of viral pathogenesis. It mediates binding to the ACE2 receptor and, later, fusion of viral envelope and cellular membranes. The results of our study demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 rapidly evolves during propagation in cultured cells. Its spike protein acquires mutations in the NTD and in the P1' position of the furin cleavage site (FCS). The amino acid substitutions or insertions of short peptides in NTD are closely located on the protein surface and increase its positive charge. They strongly increase affinity of the virus to heparan sulfate, make it dramatically more infectious for the cultured cells, and decrease the genome equivalent to PFU (GE/PFU) ratio by orders of magnitude. The S686G mutation also transforms the FCS into the heparin-binding peptide. Thus, the evolved SARS-CoV-2 variants efficiently use glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface for primary attachment before the high-affinity interaction of the spikes with the ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Animals , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , DNA, Complementary , Furin/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serial Passage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Attachment
16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(14): 3795-3817, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459010

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, utilizes the mechanism of binding to ACE2 (a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system [RAS]), subsequently mediating a secondary imbalance of the RAS family and leading to severe injury to the host. However, very few studies have been conducted to reveal the mechanism behind the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tumors. Methods: Demographic data extracted from 33 cancer types and over 10,000 samples were employed to determine the comprehensive landscape of the RAS. Expression distribution, pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional regulation and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) as well as genomic alterations, DNA methylation and m6A modification were analyzed in both tissue and cell lines. The clinical phenotype, prognostic value and significance of the RAS during immune infiltration were identified. Results: Low expression of AGTR1 was common in tumors compared to normal tissues, while very low expression of AGTR2 and MAS1 was detected in both tissues and cell lines. Differential expression patterns of ACE in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) were correlated with ubiquitin modification involving E3 ligases. Genomic alterations of the RAS family were infrequent across TCGA pan-cancer program, and ACE had the highest alteration frequency compared with other members. Low expression of AGTR1 may result from hypermethylation in the promoter. Downregulation of RAS family was linked to higher clinical stage and worse survival (as measured by disease-specific survival [DSS], overall survival [OS] or progression-free interval [PFI]), especially for ACE2 and AGTR1 in KIRC. ACE-AGTR1, a classical axis of the RAS family related to immune infiltration, was positively correlated with M2-type macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and immune checkpoint genes in most cancers. Conclusion: ACE, ACE2, AGT and AGTR1 were differentially expressed in 33 types of cancers. PTM of RAS family was found to rely on ubiquitination. ACE2 and AGTR1 might serve as independent prognostic factors for LGG and KIRC. SARS-CoV-2 might modify the tumor microenvironment by regulating the RAS family, thus affecting the biological processes of cancer.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 342-348, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437056

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The S protein is the key viral protein for associating with ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. There are many kinds of posttranslational modifications in S protein. However, the detailed mechanism of palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S remains to be elucidated. In our current study, we characterized the palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S. Both the C15 and cytoplasmic tail of SARS-CoV-2 S were palmitoylated. Fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75 and zinc finger DHHC domain-containing palmitoyltransferase (ZDHHC) inhibitor 2-BP reduced the palmitoylation of S. Interestingly, palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S was not required for plasma membrane targeting of S but was critical for S-mediated syncytia formation and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus particle entry. Overexpression of ZDHHC2, ZDHHC3, ZDHHC4, ZDHHC5, ZDHHC8, ZDHHC9, ZDHHC11, ZDHHC14, ZDHHC16, ZDHHC19, and ZDHHC20 promoted the palmitoylation of S. Furthermore, those ZDHHCs were identified to associate with SARS-CoV-2 S. Our study not only reveals the mechanism of S palmitoylation but also will shed important light into the role of S palmitoylation in syncytia formation and virus entry.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Giant Cells/metabolism , Lipoylation/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , 4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives , 4-Butyrolactone/pharmacology , Acyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0092821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434910

ABSTRACT

Phosphopantetheinyl hydrolase, PptH (Rv2795c), is a recently discovered enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that removes 4'-phosphopantetheine (Ppt) from holo-carrier proteins (CPs) and thereby opposes the action of phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases). PptH is the first structurally characterized enzyme of the phosphopantetheinyl hydrolase family. However, conditions for optimal activity of PptH have not been defined, and only one substrate has been identified. Here, we provide biochemical characterization of PptH and demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes Ppt in vitro from more than one M. tuberculosis holo-CP as well as holo-CPs from other organisms. PptH provided the only detectable activity in mycobacterial lysates that dephosphopantetheinylated acyl carrier protein M (AcpM), suggesting that PptH is the main Ppt hydrolase in M. tuberculosis. We could not detect a role for PptH in coenzyme A (CoA) salvage, and PptH was not required for virulence of M. tuberculosis during infection of mice. It remains to be determined why mycobacteria conserve a broadly acting phosphohydrolase that removes the Ppt prosthetic group from essential CPs. We speculate that the enzyme is critical for aspects of the life cycle of M. tuberculosis that are not routinely modeled. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was the leading cause of death from an infectious disease before COVID, yet the in vivo essentiality and function of many of the protein-encoding genes expressed by M. tuberculosis are not known. We biochemically characterize M. tuberculosis's phosphopantetheinyl hydrolase, PptH, a protein unique to mycobacteria that removes an essential posttranslational modification on proteins involved in synthesis of lipids important for the bacterium's cell wall and virulence. We demonstrate that the enzyme has broad substrate specificity, but it does not appear to have a role in coenzyme A (CoA) salvage or virulence in a mouse model of TB.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzymology , Pantetheine/analogs & derivatives , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , Animals , Cell Wall/metabolism , Female , Humans , Lipids/biosynthesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolism , Pantetheine/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Tuberculosis/pathology , Virulence/physiology
19.
Glycobiology ; 31(9): 1080-1092, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434394

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), started in 2019 in China and quickly spread into a global pandemic. Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is highly conserved and is the most abundant protein in coronaviruses and is thus a potential target for both vaccine and point-of-care diagnostics. N Protein has been suggested in the literature as having posttranslational modifications (PTMs), and accurately defining these PTMs is critical for its potential use in medicine. Reports of phosphorylation of N protein have failed to provide detailed site-specific information. We have performed comprehensive glycomics, glycoproteomics and proteomics experiments on two different N protein preparations. Both were expressed in HEK293 cells; one was in-house expressed and purified without a signal peptide (SP) sequence, and the other was commercially produced with a SP channeling it through the secretory pathway. Our results show completely different PTMs on the two N protein preparations. The commercial product contained extensive N- and O-linked glycosylation as well as O-phosphorylation on site Thr393. Conversely, the native N Protein model had O-phosphorylation at Ser176 and no glycosylation, highlighting the importance of knowing the provenance of any commercial protein to be used for scientific or clinical studies. Recent studies have indicated that N protein can serve as an important diagnostic marker for COVID-19 and as a major immunogen by priming protective immune responses. Thus, detailed structural characterization of N protein may provide useful insights for understanding the roles of PTMs on viral pathogenesis, vaccine design and development of point-of-care diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Phosphorylation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
20.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10079, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406892

ABSTRACT

We modeled 3D structures of all SARS-CoV-2 proteins, generating 2,060 models that span 69% of the viral proteome and provide details not available elsewhere. We found that ˜6% of the proteome mimicked human proteins, while ˜7% was implicated in hijacking mechanisms that reverse post-translational modifications, block host translation, and disable host defenses; a further ˜29% self-assembled into heteromeric states that provided insight into how the viral replication and translation complex forms. To make these 3D models more accessible, we devised a structural coverage map, a novel visualization method to show what is-and is not-known about the 3D structure of the viral proteome. We integrated the coverage map into an accompanying online resource (https://aquaria.ws/covid) that can be used to find and explore models corresponding to the 79 structural states identified in this work. The resulting Aquaria-COVID resource helps scientists use emerging structural data to understand the mechanisms underlying coronavirus infection and draws attention to the 31% of the viral proteome that remains structurally unknown or dark.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/chemistry , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/genetics , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/chemistry , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
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