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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(2): 94, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653404

ABSTRACT

Numerous post-translational modifications (PTMs) govern the collective metabolism of a cell through altering the structure and functions of proteins. The action of the most prevalent PTMs, encompassing phosphorylation, methylation, acylations, ubiquitination and glycosylation is well documented. A less explored protein PTM, conversion of peptidylarginine to citrulline, is the subject of this review. The process of citrullination is catalysed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a family of conserved enzymes expressed in a variety of human tissues. Accumulating evidence suggest that citrullination plays a significant role in regulating cellular metabolism and gene expression by affecting a multitude of pathways and modulating the chromatin status. Here, we will discuss the biochemical nature of arginine citrullination, the enzymatic machinery behind it and also provide information on the pathological consequences of citrullination in the development of inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, periodontitis and COVID-19), cancer and thromboembolism. Finally, developments on inhibitors against protein citrullination and recent clinical trials providing a promising therapeutic approach to inflammatory disease by targeting citrullination are discussed.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Citrullination/physiology , Inflammation/pathology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , Protein-Arginine Deiminases/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Citrulline/biosynthesis , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thromboembolism/pathology
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 342-348, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437056

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The S protein is the key viral protein for associating with ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. There are many kinds of posttranslational modifications in S protein. However, the detailed mechanism of palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S remains to be elucidated. In our current study, we characterized the palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S. Both the C15 and cytoplasmic tail of SARS-CoV-2 S were palmitoylated. Fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75 and zinc finger DHHC domain-containing palmitoyltransferase (ZDHHC) inhibitor 2-BP reduced the palmitoylation of S. Interestingly, palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S was not required for plasma membrane targeting of S but was critical for S-mediated syncytia formation and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus particle entry. Overexpression of ZDHHC2, ZDHHC3, ZDHHC4, ZDHHC5, ZDHHC8, ZDHHC9, ZDHHC11, ZDHHC14, ZDHHC16, ZDHHC19, and ZDHHC20 promoted the palmitoylation of S. Furthermore, those ZDHHCs were identified to associate with SARS-CoV-2 S. Our study not only reveals the mechanism of S palmitoylation but also will shed important light into the role of S palmitoylation in syncytia formation and virus entry.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Giant Cells/metabolism , Lipoylation/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , 4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives , 4-Butyrolactone/pharmacology , Acyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology
3.
Glycobiology ; 31(9): 1080-1092, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434394

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), started in 2019 in China and quickly spread into a global pandemic. Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is highly conserved and is the most abundant protein in coronaviruses and is thus a potential target for both vaccine and point-of-care diagnostics. N Protein has been suggested in the literature as having posttranslational modifications (PTMs), and accurately defining these PTMs is critical for its potential use in medicine. Reports of phosphorylation of N protein have failed to provide detailed site-specific information. We have performed comprehensive glycomics, glycoproteomics and proteomics experiments on two different N protein preparations. Both were expressed in HEK293 cells; one was in-house expressed and purified without a signal peptide (SP) sequence, and the other was commercially produced with a SP channeling it through the secretory pathway. Our results show completely different PTMs on the two N protein preparations. The commercial product contained extensive N- and O-linked glycosylation as well as O-phosphorylation on site Thr393. Conversely, the native N Protein model had O-phosphorylation at Ser176 and no glycosylation, highlighting the importance of knowing the provenance of any commercial protein to be used for scientific or clinical studies. Recent studies have indicated that N protein can serve as an important diagnostic marker for COVID-19 and as a major immunogen by priming protective immune responses. Thus, detailed structural characterization of N protein may provide useful insights for understanding the roles of PTMs on viral pathogenesis, vaccine design and development of point-of-care diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Phosphorylation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
4.
mBio ; 12(4): e0106721, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297962

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ongoing global public crisis. Although viral RNA modification has been reported based on the transcriptome architecture, the types and functions of RNA modification are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the roles of RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in SARS-CoV-2. Our methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) and Nanopore direct RNA sequencing (DRS) analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained m6A modification. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection not only increased the expression of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) but also altered its distribution. Modification of METTL3 expression by short hairpin RNA or plasmid transfection for knockdown or overexpression, respectively, affected viral replication. Furthermore, the viral key protein RdRp interacted with METTL3, and METTL3 was distributed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the presence of RdRp. RdRp appeared to modulate the sumoylation and ubiquitination of METTL3 via an unknown mechanism. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the host m6A modification complex interacted with viral proteins to modulate SARS-CoV-2 replication. IMPORTANCE Internal chemical modifications of viral RNA play key roles in the regulation of viral replication and gene expression. Although potential internal modifications have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the function of the SARS-CoV-2 N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in the viral life cycle is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 RNA underwent m6A modification by host m6A machinery. SARS-CoV-2 infection altered the expression pattern of methyltransferases and demethylases, while the expression level of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) and fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) was linked to the viral replication. Further study showed that METTL3 interacted with viral RNA polymerase RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which influenced not only the distribution but also the posttranslational modification of METTL3. Our study provided evidence that host m6A components interacted with viral proteins to modulate viral replication.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Virus Replication/genetics , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Methylation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Glycobiology ; 31(9): 1080-1092, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231033

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), started in 2019 in China and quickly spread into a global pandemic. Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is highly conserved and is the most abundant protein in coronaviruses and is thus a potential target for both vaccine and point-of-care diagnostics. N Protein has been suggested in the literature as having posttranslational modifications (PTMs), and accurately defining these PTMs is critical for its potential use in medicine. Reports of phosphorylation of N protein have failed to provide detailed site-specific information. We have performed comprehensive glycomics, glycoproteomics and proteomics experiments on two different N protein preparations. Both were expressed in HEK293 cells; one was in-house expressed and purified without a signal peptide (SP) sequence, and the other was commercially produced with a SP channeling it through the secretory pathway. Our results show completely different PTMs on the two N protein preparations. The commercial product contained extensive N- and O-linked glycosylation as well as O-phosphorylation on site Thr393. Conversely, the native N Protein model had O-phosphorylation at Ser176 and no glycosylation, highlighting the importance of knowing the provenance of any commercial protein to be used for scientific or clinical studies. Recent studies have indicated that N protein can serve as an important diagnostic marker for COVID-19 and as a major immunogen by priming protective immune responses. Thus, detailed structural characterization of N protein may provide useful insights for understanding the roles of PTMs on viral pathogenesis, vaccine design and development of point-of-care diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Phosphorylation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
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