Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 3 de 3
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20987, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483149


Acid suppressants are widely-used classes of medications linked to increased risks of aerodigestive infections. Prior studies of these medications as potentially reversible risk factors for COVID-19 have been conflicting. We aimed to determine the impact of chronic acid suppression use on COVID-19 infection risk while simultaneously evaluating the influence of social determinants of health to validate known and discover novel risk factors. We assessed the association of chronic acid suppression with incident COVID-19 in a 1:1 case-control study of 900 patients tested across three academic medical centers in California, USA. Medical comorbidities and history of chronic acid suppression use were manually extracted from health records by physicians following a pre-specified protocol. Socio-behavioral factors by geomapping publicly-available data to patient zip codes were incorporated. We identified no evidence to support an association between chronic acid suppression and COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.17, P = 0.515). However, several medical and social features were positive (Latinx ethnicity, BMI ≥ 30, dementia, public transportation use, month of the pandemic) and negative (female sex, concurrent solid tumor, alcohol use disorder) predictors of new infection. These findings demonstrate the value of integrating publicly-available databases with medical data to identify critical features of communicable diseases.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Social Determinants of Health , Aged , Behavior , COVID-19/psychology , California , Case-Control Studies , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Factual , Female , Gastroenterology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Geography , Histamine H2 Antagonists/pharmacology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proton Pump Inhibitors/pharmacology , Risk Factors , Social Class
Physiol Rep ; 8(24): e14649, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000668


Discovering therapeutics for COVID-19 is a priority. Besides high-throughput screening of compounds, candidates might be identified based on their known mechanisms of action and current understanding of the SARs-CoV-2 life cycle. Using this approach, proton pump (PPIs) and sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitors (NHEIs) emerged, because of their potential to inhibit the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs; exosomes and/or microvesicles) that could promote disease progression, and to directly disrupt SARs-CoV-2 pathogenesis. If EVs exacerbate SARs-CoV-2 infection as suggested for other viruses, then inhibiting EV release by PPIs/NHEIs should be beneficial. Mechanisms underlying inhibition of EV release by these drugs remain uncertain, but may involve perturbing endosomal pH especially of multivesicular bodies where intraluminal vesicles (nascent exosomes) are formed. Additionally, PPIs might inhibit the endosomal sorting complex for transport machinery involved in EV biogenesis. Through perturbing endocytic vesicle pH, PPIs/NHEIs could also impede cleavage of SARs-CoV-2 spike protein by cathepsins necessary for viral fusion with the endosomal membrane. Although pulmonary epithelial cells may rely mainly on plasma membrane serine protease TMPRSS2 for cell entry, PPIs/NHEIs might be efficacious in ACE2-expressing cells where viral endocytosis is the major or a contributing entry pathway. These pharmaceutics might also perturb pH in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate and Golgi compartments, thereby potentially disrupting viral assembly and glycosylation of spike protein/ACE2, respectively. A caveat, however, is that facilitation not inhibition of avian infectious bronchitis CoV pathogenesis was reported in one study after increasing Golgi pH. Envelope protein-derived viroporins contributed to pulmonary edema formation in mice infected with SARs-CoV. If similar pathogenesis occurs with SARs-CoV-2, then blocking these channels with NHEIs could ameliorate disease pathogenesis. To ascertain their potential efficacy, PPIs/NHEIs need evaluation in cell and animal models at various phases of SARs-CoV-2 infection. If they prove to be therapeutic, the greatest benefit might be realized with the administration before the onset of severe cytokine release syndrome.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proton Pumps/metabolism , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Internalization , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/metabolism
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 70(10): 484-488, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-766206


Although the major therapeutic uses of the proton pump inhibitors are in gastric-acid related diseases, evidences are suggestive of a pleiotropic nature of the compounds. We comment on the probable pathways and cellular machineries via which proton pump inhibitors could show beneficial therapeutic effects against SARS-CoV-2 based on the existing evidences. Proton pump inhibitors have shown antiviral potencies in various in vivo and in vitro studies. Some of the major possible ways through which they can act against SARS-CoV-2 are by exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, via vacuolar ATPase pumps leading to raised endolysosomal pH and by targeting endosomal complexes. The current pandemic has put forward a challenge to find treatment options. Although the potential roles of proton pump inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 have been discussed in recent publications, the clinical evidences for their real-world effectiveness do not point towards a beneficial effect clearly yet. We suggest that although proton pump inhibitors should strongly be considered as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19, larger studies in the form of randomized controlled trials would be required to arrive at a definite conclusion.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology