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2.
Br J Nurs ; 31(15): S30-S36, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990304

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the impact that prolonged use of personal protective equipment (PPE) has on the skin integrity of Canadian health professionals. METHOD: A descriptive, pan-Canadian, cross-sectional, online survey was carried out to explore the type and prevalence of PPE-related skin injury among Canadian health professionals. Convenience sampling was used to disseminate the online survey link to health professionals. RESULTS: There were responses from 757 health professionals. Masks worn included surgical masks (90%), a combination of surgical or N95/KN95 masks (7.7%) and an N95/KN95 mask alone (2.7%). Responses showed 84.6% of providers always wear a mask while at work with 38.5% wearing the same mask all shift; 90% of participants wore protective eye wear. Complications included soreness or pressure injuries behind the ears (70%), new or worsening acne (52%), a runny nose or sneezing (45%), itching (39%), and dry skin (37%). Hand issues included dry skin (53%), red skin (30%), itching (26%), broken skin (20%), rash (16%), and dermatitis (11%) - 51% of respondents did not moisturise their hands. Complications related to gown use included itching (6%), moisture-associated skin damage (5.5%), feeling claustrophobic (4.5%), and new or worsening acne (3%). Increased perspiration due to PPE was experienced in 87.5% of respondents. Some 43% of respondents noted their mental health became worse due to wearing PPE for prolonged periods. CONCLUSION: These findings should be used in the development of guidelines to prevent and manage PPE-related skin injuries among health professionals. Education for professionals should focus on skin protection, prevention of PPE-related skin complications and support for mental health issues.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Pruritus , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(10): 1805-1810, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic persists on a global level, the chronic daily use of face masks within the healthcare system remains an important component of disease prevention and transmission. Increased use of personal protective equipment (PPE) may result in increased rates of occupational dermatoses and adverse skin reactions. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to explore how chronic, prolonged use of N95 masks or simple surgical masks affects the prevalence of adverse skin reactions in Healthcare Workers (HCWs). METHODS: An optional, quantitative, web-based survey was administered to patient-facing HCWs across six network hospitals in a large metropolitan city. Data were analysed to assess the types and sites of adverse skin reactions, and to evaluate correlations between single mask use duration and adverse skin reactions. RESULTS: A total of 230 HCWs responded with 192 endorsing occupational dermatoses. Among the healthcare responders, (n = 192, 83.5%) experienced at least one adverse skin reaction. The most common occupational adverse skin reactions were acne (n = 133, 57.8%), dryness (n = 108, 47.0%) and redness (n = 105, 45.7%). Anatomical areas most commonly affected included the nasal bridge (n = 92, 40.0%), cheeks (n = 92, 40.0%) and chin (n = 91, 39.6%). Acne (P = 0.002), dryness/scaling (P = 0.002), increased pore size (0.003), itch (P = 0.003), nasal bridge scarring (P < 0.001), redness (P < 0.001), frictional erosions (P = 0.001) and ulcerations (P = 0.002) showed a positive correlation to duration of mask use. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged, daily usage of PPE is associated with numerous adverse skin reactions among HCWs with acne being the most commonly seen adverse reaction. Many adverse reactions are associated with prolonged use of single mask.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Erythema , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Pruritus , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(24): e190, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a papulosquamous eruption with generally unknown origin but suspected to be related to viral etiologies. The clinicopathological spectrum of several disorders with viral etiologies has been altered after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The author group could experience coherent histological alterations in PR after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate how the clinicopathological findings of PR were changed after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Patients (n = 11) diagnosed with PR based on the clinical manifestations and skin biopsies between February 2018 and October 2019 and 11 patients in February 2020 and October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed by investigating the medical records. RESULTS: The patients with PR during the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated statistically significant histopathological alterations from classic brisk and dense infiltration pattern to dormant and sparse infiltration and psoriasiform-dominant patterns (P = 0.019). PR was associated with more frequent pruritus during the pandemic period (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, PR demonstrated a significant histopathological alteration with more frequent pruritus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The comparative results about clinicopathological findings of PR will provide a useful reference for dermatologists in the diagnostic process of PR in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pityriasis Rosea , Humans , Pandemics , Pityriasis Rosea/diagnosis , Pityriasis Rosea/epidemiology , Pityriasis Rosea/pathology , Pruritus/etiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(7): 645-648, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the otorhinolaryngological problems caused by mask-wearing in the coronavirus disease 2019 era. METHODS: A survey with 26 questions was sent by e-mail to 576 individuals. RESULTS: The most frequently worn masks were three-layer surgical ear loop masks (n = 434, 80.1 per cent), followed by N95 or filtering facepiece code 2 masks (n = 58, 10.7 per cent), and cloth masks (n = 50, 9.2 per cent). The most bothersome symptoms caused by mask-wearing were difficulty in nasal breathing (n = 227, 41.8 per cent), nasal itching and pain (n = 93, 17.2 per cent), earache (n = 88, 16.2 per cent), difficulty in expressing oneself (n = 73, 13.5 per cent), difficulty in understanding speech (n = 56, 10.3 per cent), and ear itching (n = 5, 0.9 per cent). CONCLUSION: The problems associated with mask-wearing may result in avoidance of wearing them. Thus, there is a need for new methods that will reduce the problems related to mask-wearing, to increase their use in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Earache , Humans , Nose , Pharynx , Pruritus
6.
J Tissue Viability ; 31(2): 213-220, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851676

ABSTRACT

AIM: This systematic review was carried out to examine pressure ulcers in healthcare staff due to the use of protective equipment during COVID-19 pandemic and the precautions taken to prevent these injuries. METHOD: Relevant studies were retrospectively searched. Seven English keywords identified from MESH were used while searching. The search was carried out in five international databases by trying various combinations of these words during February 15-25, 2021. This systematic review was updated by rescanning databases on December 20, 2021 and a total of 611 studies were attained. RESULTS: 17 studies which met the study inclusion criteria, which were conducted mostly through online survey method in different study designs and which included a total of 24,889 healthcare professionals were examined. The incidence of PPE-related pressure ulcers was found to be between 30% and 92.8%. Grade I pressure ulcers were the most common (44.1%-82%). The incidence of skin problems except PPE-related pressure ulcers such as itching, redness and dry skin was found to be between 42.8-88.1%. Risk factors that frequently played a role in the development of PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems were longer use of PPE and sweating. PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems were more frequent over the nose (nasal bone/nasal bridge), ears, forehead and cheeks. PPE-related itching, redness and dry skin mostly occurred. Several dressing applications were found to be effective in the prevention of PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems that might develop especially on the facial region. CONCLUSION: PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems were found to be higher among healthcare professionals. Data regarding the sealing of dressing applications against viral transmission in the prevention of PPE-related pressure ulcers and other skin problems are limited. It is estimated that future studies will be performed to prevent device-related pressure ulcers in healthcare workers. It is suggested that there is a need to conduct studies with larger samples where expert researchers make observations for pressure ulcers in order to determine the prevalence and incidence of PPE-related pressure ulcers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Pruritus , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(8): 1292-1299, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in the adolescence is a high burden disease, and its treatment can be very challenging due to paucity of approved systemic drugs for this age and their side-effects. Dupilumab was recently approved for treatment of adolescent AD. OBJECTIVES: A multicentre, prospective, real-world study on the effectiveness and safety of dupilumab in adolescents (aged from ≥12 to <18 years) with moderate-to-severe AD was conducted. The main AD clinical phenotypes were also examined. METHODS: Data of adolescents with moderate-to-severe AD treated with dupilumab at label dosage for 16 weeks were collected. Treatment outcome was assessed by EASI, NRS itch, NRS sleep loss and CDLQI scores at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment. The clinical scores were also evaluated according to clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-nine adolescents were enrolled in the study. Flexural eczema and head and neck eczema were the most frequent clinical phenotypes, followed by hand eczema and portrait-like dermatitis. Coexistence of more than 1 phenotype was documented in 126/139 (88.5%) adolescents. Three patients (2.1%) contracted asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and 1 of the discontinued dupilumab treatment before the target treatment period. A significant improvement in EASI, NRS itch, NRS sleep loss and CDLQI was observed after 16 weeks of treatment with dupilumab. This outcome was better than that observed in clinical trials. Dupilumab resulted effective in all AD phenotypes, especially in diffuse eczema. Twenty-eight (20.1%) patients reported adverse events, conjunctivitis and flushing being the most frequent. None of patients discontinued dupilumab due to adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: Dupilumab in adolescent AD showed excellent effectiveness at week 16 with consistent improvement of all clinical scores. Moreover, dupilumab showed a good safety profile also in this COVID-19 pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Eczema , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pruritus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
mSphere ; 7(2): e0091521, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741581

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is a global health issue, and vaccination is the main strategy to control this pandemic. In this study, 189 participants received BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccine, and 133 of them recorded adverse events (AEs) daily for 4 weeks after vaccination. Their neutralizing antibody against SARS-CoV-2 was determined with live virus microneutralization (vMN) assay. The vMN geometric mean titer (GMT) on day 56 was 129.9 (95% confidence interval [CI],108.6 to 155.2) in the BNT162b2 group and 13.1 (95% CI, 11.2 to 15.3) in the CoronaVac group. Day 56 vMN GMT was 147.9 (95% CI, 118.9 to 184.1) in females and 129.9 (95% CI, 108.6 to 155.2) in males receiving BNT162b2, while it was 14.0 (95% CI, 11.6 to 17.0) in females and 11.4 (95% CI, 8.7 to 15.0) in males receiving CoronaVac. Injection site pain (88.8%) and redness (77.5%) were the most commonly BNT162b2-related AEs, and injection site pain (37.7%) and tiredness (26.4%) were more frequent in the CoronaVac group. Women showed a higher frequency of headache (45.7% versus 29.4%) and joint pain (26.1 versus 14.7%) than men in BTN162b2 group. Headache (26.5% versus 0%) and tiredness (38.2% versus 5.3%) were more common in women than in men vaccinated with CoronaVac. No correlation between any AE and antibody response was observed in BNT162b2 or CoronaVac platforms. After taking the gender factor into account, in the BNT162b2 group, a low correlation between day 21 vMN titer and redness (rho = 0.34) or itching (rho = 0.32) was presented in females, and a low correlation between day 56 vMN titer and fever (rho = 0.35) was presented in males. Taken together, AEs could have a low correlation with BNT162b2 vaccine response. IMPORTANCE Effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are vital tools for containing the COVID-19 pandemic by increasing population immunity. While currently available vaccines can elicit antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 with high efficacy, the associated side effects may cause vaccine hesitancy. Our work is important in that we have thoroughly analyzed the correlation between immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 and CoronaVac) in the study. Our results showed that women had higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than men after receiving BNT162b2 or CoronaVac. Furthermore, a low correlation was observed between day 21 vMN titer and local reactions (redness and itching) in females, as well as between day 56 vMN titer and fever in males receiving BNT162b2. Thus, common side effects are not always a negative impact of vaccination but may serve as an indicator of immunogenicity of vaccines. Our study may help in increasing the public's acceptance and confidence over COVID-19 vaccination and ultimately achieving the goal of containing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Headache , Humans , Male , Pain , Pandemics , Pruritus , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(6): 790-796, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673165

ABSTRACT

Scalp dysesthesia is an abnormal sensation of the scalp in the absence of cutaneous disease. It is characterized by a burning and/or itching sensation and can be related to a variety of neurogenic or psychogenic causes. This condition is extremely bothersome and is also common- especially among the geriatric population, in women, in patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients with psychiatric history. However, despite its prevalence in many populations, there are limited data about its causes and characteristics. Given its limited cutaneous manifestations, it is also easily misdiagnosed and an underrecognized cause of scalp pruritus in the dermatological community. Therefore, education on scalp dysesthesia is paramount to helping physicians identify and provide appropriate treatment for these patients. This review focuses predominantly on the neurogenic causes (with a brief review of psychogenic itch) of scalp dysesthesia and the therapeutics that have been found to be effective for this condition. Neurogenic causes of scalp dysesthesia occur with damage to the central or peripheral pathways of itch sensation, resulting in modification and heightened sensitivity of nerves that result in abnormal sensations in the absence of or out of proportion to external stimuli. A comprehensive review of etiologies is provided here, ranging from lesions to the central nervous system caused by cervical spine disease, trigeminal trophic syndrome, tumor, stroke, and multiple sclerosis, to small-fiber neuropathies caused by diabetes, brow lifts, keloid, and burn scarring. Recently, there have also been reports of scalp dysesthesias associated with post-infectious COVID-19. Treatment options tailored toward disease severity and different causes of disease will also be discussed. By elucidating the different mechanisms and therapeutic treatments of scalp dysesthesia, we hope to provide clinicians with the tools to identify and treat this condition as well as encourage further research into its etiologies and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Aged , Female , Humans , Paresthesia/etiology , Pruritus/etiology , Scalp , Skin Diseases/complications
12.
J Postgrad Med ; 67(3): 174-176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485286

ABSTRACT

Scleredema adultorum of Buschke is a rare disorder of the connective tissue, involving the skin. Here, we present a 61-year-old male, who is a known case of compensated liver cirrhosis with a past history of being treated for autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, who presented with complaints of alopecia, skin tightening, dry skin, pruritus, and woody indurated plaques on the skin of the upper back, shoulder, and arms. Skin biopsy of the arm revealed the characteristic features of scleredema. He was extensively evaluated for known literature-cited causes of scleredema, and the work up revealed a negative result. He was also found to be hypothyroid on presentation. Hence, we present a case of scleredema occurring in a patient with hypothyroidism and chronic liver disease, which to our knowledge is being described for the first time in literature.


Subject(s)
Hypothyroidism/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Scleredema Adultorum/diagnosis , Alopecia/etiology , Betamethasone/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fusidic Acid/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pruritus/etiology , Thyrotoxicosis/complications
13.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(10): 941-947, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemics has obliged to using different types of personal protective devices (PPD) for a prolonged time of the day, especially in the Health Centers, with preference of surgical masks (SM) during the first pandemic waves. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the eventual changes of the nasal respiratory condition during continuous SM wearing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen healthcare professionals filled a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire for the detection of eventual nasal breathing impairment or symptoms. Nasal resistance and flow values were obtained via the active anterior rhinomanometry (AAR) that was performed under the basal condition, as well as immediately after wearing the surgical mask (SM) and 3 h after its continuous use. RESULTS: The increase of inspiratory resistance was significantly correlated to the reduction of the maximum flux, when comparing SM parameters to the basal ones (r = -0.70, p < .05). At VAS evaluation, SM wearing showed to induce itching in 70% of the subjects, nasal dryness in 55%, nasal blockage in 50%, headache in 39%, watery nasal discharge in 20% and sneezing in 18%. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The SMs do not induce evident physiological variations of the nasal function due to a compensatory respiratory mechanism that, despite a progressive increase of nasal resistances, is not inducing significant changes of the nasal fluxes.


Subject(s)
Masks/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Manometry , Medical Staff, Hospital , Middle Aged , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Pandemics , Pruritus/etiology , Rhinorrhea/etiology , Sneezing , Visual Analog Scale
15.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 46(8): 1504-1510, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, various adverse skin reactions to long-term mask wearing have been reported. AIM: To assess the clinical features of mask-induced dermatoses and to recommend prevention and treatment options. METHODS: From April to August 2020, questionnaires including topics such as demographic information, pre-existing skin disorders, reported mask-related symptoms, daily mask-wearing duration and frequency, types of masks used and whether the participant was a healthcare worker, were distributed to patients in 12 hospitals. Dermatologists assessed skin lesions, confirmed diagnosis and recorded treatments. RESULTS: Itchiness was the most frequent symptom, mostly affecting the cheeks. The most common skin disease was new-onset contact dermatitis (33.94%), followed by new-onset acne (16.97%) and worsening of pre-existing acne (16.97%). Daily wearing of masks was significantly (P = 0.02) associated with new-onset contact dermatitis. More than half of patients with pre-existing skin problems experienced disease worsening while wearing masks. Longer duration of wearing (> 6 h/day, P = 0.04) and use of cotton masks (P < 0.001) significantly increased acne flare-up. Healthcare workers had a higher incidence of skin disease. Skin lesions were generally mild and well tolerated with topical treatment. The study had some limitations: the effect of seasonal characteristics and other risk factors were not assessed, and the patients were visiting dermatological clinics and had interest in their skin status, thus, there may have been selection bias. CONCLUSION: Mask-induced/-triggered dermatoses contribute to increase the dermatological burden during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Personnel, Hospital , Acne Vulgaris/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pruritus/etiology , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
J Investig Med ; 69(8): 1426-1433, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329062

ABSTRACT

The management of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in the era of SARS-CoV-2 is challenging given minimal published clinical data. We used a large cohort of patients with AIH across the USA to investigate the differences in known risk factors for severe SARS-CoV-2 and AIH characteristics among patients who experienced symptoms consistent with COVID-19 illness versus those who did not. Additionally, we explored the effect of living through the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the extrahepatic symptoms and behaviors of patients with AIH. An invitation to complete a COVID-19-specific questionnaire was publicized in well-established social media cohorts of patients with AIH. Eligibility criteria were age ≥18 years, US residency, and an AIH diagnosis by a physician. A total of 420 individuals were eligible for the study. Symptoms consistent with COVID-19 were reported in 11% (n=48) with 3 patients requiring hospitalizations. Body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m2 (23% vs 10%, p=0.01) and exposure to house (33% vs 3%, p=0.0001) or work (38% vs 17%, p=0.02) contacts with COVID-19 were factors found higher in those with symptoms. Cirrhosis or steroid use or immunosuppression was not significantly different between symptomatic and non-symptomatic groups. Worsening fatigue (45% vs 30%, p=0.06), anxiety (89% vs 70%, p=0.08), and itch (40% vs 18%, p=0.03) were more common among those reporting COVID-19 symptoms compared with those without. BMI >40 kg/m2 and exposure to contacts with COVID-19 illness but not cirrhosis or immunosuppression were associated with increased risk of COVID-19 illness in patients with AIH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Pandemics , Pruritus , United States/epidemiology
18.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(236): 399-401, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257582

ABSTRACT

As the current COVID-19 pandemic is evolving, skin lesions are being reported more, the most common skin manifestation being morbilliform rashes. We describe a patient of severe COVID-19 infection, 48-year-old who initially presented with fever, cough and constitutional symptoms who developed morbilliform macular rashes during his illness. The rash appeared on 6th day of illness in the trunk, arms with sparing of palms and soles, associated with itching. He later developed features of the cytokine-storm syndrome. The exact mechanism for the rashes is yet to be elaborated, however, it is postulated that it is either due to immune-mediated vasodilation or micro thrombosis secondary to low-grade-coagulopathy associated with COVID-19. Recognition of rashes as a feature of this disease is particularly significant to clinicians as it aids in early diagnosis, particularly in resource-poor countries. There is no evident association, however, between the severity and the rashes in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pruritus , SARS-CoV-2
19.
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