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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(24): e190, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a papulosquamous eruption with generally unknown origin but suspected to be related to viral etiologies. The clinicopathological spectrum of several disorders with viral etiologies has been altered after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The author group could experience coherent histological alterations in PR after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate how the clinicopathological findings of PR were changed after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Patients (n = 11) diagnosed with PR based on the clinical manifestations and skin biopsies between February 2018 and October 2019 and 11 patients in February 2020 and October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed by investigating the medical records. RESULTS: The patients with PR during the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated statistically significant histopathological alterations from classic brisk and dense infiltration pattern to dormant and sparse infiltration and psoriasiform-dominant patterns (P = 0.019). PR was associated with more frequent pruritus during the pandemic period (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, PR demonstrated a significant histopathological alteration with more frequent pruritus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The comparative results about clinicopathological findings of PR will provide a useful reference for dermatologists in the diagnostic process of PR in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pityriasis Rosea , Humans , Pandemics , Pityriasis Rosea/diagnosis , Pityriasis Rosea/epidemiology , Pityriasis Rosea/pathology , Pruritus/etiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(6): 790-796, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673165

ABSTRACT

Scalp dysesthesia is an abnormal sensation of the scalp in the absence of cutaneous disease. It is characterized by a burning and/or itching sensation and can be related to a variety of neurogenic or psychogenic causes. This condition is extremely bothersome and is also common- especially among the geriatric population, in women, in patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients with psychiatric history. However, despite its prevalence in many populations, there are limited data about its causes and characteristics. Given its limited cutaneous manifestations, it is also easily misdiagnosed and an underrecognized cause of scalp pruritus in the dermatological community. Therefore, education on scalp dysesthesia is paramount to helping physicians identify and provide appropriate treatment for these patients. This review focuses predominantly on the neurogenic causes (with a brief review of psychogenic itch) of scalp dysesthesia and the therapeutics that have been found to be effective for this condition. Neurogenic causes of scalp dysesthesia occur with damage to the central or peripheral pathways of itch sensation, resulting in modification and heightened sensitivity of nerves that result in abnormal sensations in the absence of or out of proportion to external stimuli. A comprehensive review of etiologies is provided here, ranging from lesions to the central nervous system caused by cervical spine disease, trigeminal trophic syndrome, tumor, stroke, and multiple sclerosis, to small-fiber neuropathies caused by diabetes, brow lifts, keloid, and burn scarring. Recently, there have also been reports of scalp dysesthesias associated with post-infectious COVID-19. Treatment options tailored toward disease severity and different causes of disease will also be discussed. By elucidating the different mechanisms and therapeutic treatments of scalp dysesthesia, we hope to provide clinicians with the tools to identify and treat this condition as well as encourage further research into its etiologies and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Aged , Female , Humans , Paresthesia/etiology , Pruritus/etiology , Scalp , Skin Diseases/complications
4.
J Postgrad Med ; 67(3): 174-176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485286

ABSTRACT

Scleredema adultorum of Buschke is a rare disorder of the connective tissue, involving the skin. Here, we present a 61-year-old male, who is a known case of compensated liver cirrhosis with a past history of being treated for autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, who presented with complaints of alopecia, skin tightening, dry skin, pruritus, and woody indurated plaques on the skin of the upper back, shoulder, and arms. Skin biopsy of the arm revealed the characteristic features of scleredema. He was extensively evaluated for known literature-cited causes of scleredema, and the work up revealed a negative result. He was also found to be hypothyroid on presentation. Hence, we present a case of scleredema occurring in a patient with hypothyroidism and chronic liver disease, which to our knowledge is being described for the first time in literature.


Subject(s)
Hypothyroidism/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Scleredema Adultorum/diagnosis , Alopecia/etiology , Betamethasone/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fusidic Acid/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pruritus/etiology , Thyrotoxicosis/complications
5.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(10): 941-947, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemics has obliged to using different types of personal protective devices (PPD) for a prolonged time of the day, especially in the Health Centers, with preference of surgical masks (SM) during the first pandemic waves. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the eventual changes of the nasal respiratory condition during continuous SM wearing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen healthcare professionals filled a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire for the detection of eventual nasal breathing impairment or symptoms. Nasal resistance and flow values were obtained via the active anterior rhinomanometry (AAR) that was performed under the basal condition, as well as immediately after wearing the surgical mask (SM) and 3 h after its continuous use. RESULTS: The increase of inspiratory resistance was significantly correlated to the reduction of the maximum flux, when comparing SM parameters to the basal ones (r = -0.70, p < .05). At VAS evaluation, SM wearing showed to induce itching in 70% of the subjects, nasal dryness in 55%, nasal blockage in 50%, headache in 39%, watery nasal discharge in 20% and sneezing in 18%. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The SMs do not induce evident physiological variations of the nasal function due to a compensatory respiratory mechanism that, despite a progressive increase of nasal resistances, is not inducing significant changes of the nasal fluxes.


Subject(s)
Masks/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Manometry , Medical Staff, Hospital , Middle Aged , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Pandemics , Pruritus/etiology , Rhinorrhea/etiology , Sneezing , Visual Analog Scale
7.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 46(8): 1504-1510, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, various adverse skin reactions to long-term mask wearing have been reported. AIM: To assess the clinical features of mask-induced dermatoses and to recommend prevention and treatment options. METHODS: From April to August 2020, questionnaires including topics such as demographic information, pre-existing skin disorders, reported mask-related symptoms, daily mask-wearing duration and frequency, types of masks used and whether the participant was a healthcare worker, were distributed to patients in 12 hospitals. Dermatologists assessed skin lesions, confirmed diagnosis and recorded treatments. RESULTS: Itchiness was the most frequent symptom, mostly affecting the cheeks. The most common skin disease was new-onset contact dermatitis (33.94%), followed by new-onset acne (16.97%) and worsening of pre-existing acne (16.97%). Daily wearing of masks was significantly (P = 0.02) associated with new-onset contact dermatitis. More than half of patients with pre-existing skin problems experienced disease worsening while wearing masks. Longer duration of wearing (> 6 h/day, P = 0.04) and use of cotton masks (P < 0.001) significantly increased acne flare-up. Healthcare workers had a higher incidence of skin disease. Skin lesions were generally mild and well tolerated with topical treatment. The study had some limitations: the effect of seasonal characteristics and other risk factors were not assessed, and the patients were visiting dermatological clinics and had interest in their skin status, thus, there may have been selection bias. CONCLUSION: Mask-induced/-triggered dermatoses contribute to increase the dermatological burden during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Personnel, Hospital , Acne Vulgaris/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pruritus/etiology , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
11.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 216, 2020 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several recent studies suggest the possibility of a skin rash being a clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this case report is to bring attention to skin manifestations in the early stage of COVID-19 in order to support frontline physicians in their crucial activity of case identification. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is an Italian 32-year-old female nurse who had several close contacts with multiple patients with COVID-19 as part of her professional workload. On March 13, 2020, the patient developed an itchy, erythematous papular rash (sparing only her face, scalp, and abdomen), which lasted for 10 days. The rash was accompanied by a feeling of general fatigue that gradually worsened over the following days and has continued for 5 months (until the end of July 2020). During the first week of remote assessment carried out by her general practitioner, the patient gradually developed a dry cough, intermittent fever, and diarrhoea and then had a positive test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Her skin manifestations disappeared completely 48 days after the onset of the disease, followed by the disappearance of the dry cough. CONCLUSIONS: In light of recent studies, this case report suggests that skin manifestations, when taken into account with other situational factors (such as profession and patient history) should be taken into proper consideration by frontline physicians as possibly being caused by SARS-CoV-2. Early identification of COVID-19 is a key part of the strategy of case detection and case isolation. To enhance this activity, further research is needed to establish frequency, symptoms, signs, and pathogenesis of skin manifestations in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Exanthema/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pruritus/etiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Contact Dermatitis ; 83(2): 115-121, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, cases of adverse skin reactions related to the wearing of masks have been observed. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the short-term effects of N95 respirators and medical masks, respectively, on skin physiological properties and to report adverse skin reactions caused by the protective equipment. METHODS: This study used a randomized crossover design with repeated measurements. Twenty healthy Chinese volunteers were recruited. Skin parameters were measured on areas covered by the respective masks and on uncovered skin 2 and 4 hours after donning, and 0.5 and 1 hour after removing the masks, including skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, pH, and sebum secretion. Adverse reactions were clinically assessed, and perceived discomfort and non-compliance measured. RESULTS: Skin hydration, TEWL, and pH increased significantly with wearing the protective equipment. Erythema values increased from baseline. Sebum secretion increased both on the covered and uncovered skin with equipment-wearing. There was no significant difference in physiological values between the two types of equipment. More adverse reactions were reported following a N95 mask use than the use of a medical mask, with a higher score of discomfort and non-compliance. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that skin biophysical characters change as a result of wearing a mask or respirator. N95 respirators were associated with more skin reactions than medical masks.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Erythema/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Pain/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pruritus/etiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/adverse effects , Skin , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sebum , Young Adult
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20603, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593909

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new coronavirus was found in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and spread rapidly throughout the country, attracting global attention. On February 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease caused by 2019-nCoV coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). With the increasing number of cases, health care workers (HCWs) from all over China volunteered to work in Hubei Province. Because of the strong infectivity of COVID-19, HCWs need to wear personal protective equipment (PPE), such as N95 masks, latex gloves, and protective clothing. Due to the long-term use of PPE, many adverse skin reactions may occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.Questionnaires were used for the research; a quantitative study was carried out to determine the incidence of adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.A total of 61 valid questionnaires were collected. The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing N95 masks were nasal bridge scarring (68.9%) and facial itching (27.9%). The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing latex gloves were dry skin (55.7%), itching (31.2%), and rash (23.0%). The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing protective clothing were dry skin (36.1%) and itching (34.4%).When most HCWs wear PPE for a long period of time, they will experience adverse skin reactions. The incidence of adverse skin reactions to the N95 mask was 95.1%, that to latex gloves was 88.5%, and that to protective clothing was 60.7%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Skin Diseases/etiology , COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Contact/etiology , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Protective Clothing/adverse effects , Pruritus/etiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(5): e13477, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154930

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, that broke out in December 2019. In just 4 months it has spread to almost every country in the world and up to April 18, 2020, the virus has infected more than two million people. Itch is the most common symptom in dermatology and a frequent one of systemic diseases. The association of itch and viral diseases has been widely documented; however, the actual prevalence of itch in the patients suffering from new the SARS-CoV-2 infection is still unknown. In this paper, we present a review of the available literature on the topic of itch in the affected population. Moreover, we have also analyzed different aspects of itch associated with COVID-19 pandemic, not directly related to the viral infection. Those included use of chemicals, hand sanitizers, common use of personal protective equipment and psychosocial stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pruritus/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pruritus/chemically induced , Stress, Psychological/complications
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