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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703889

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) reduces time to clinical improvement in hospitalized COVID -19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen. Dexamethasone improves survival in those requiring oxygen support. Data is lacking on the efficacy of combination therapy in patients on mechanical ventilation. We analyzed for comparative outcomes between Corticosteroid (CS) therapy with combined Corticosteroid and Remdesivir (CS-RDV) therapy. We conducted an observational cohort study of patients aged 18 to 90 with COVID-19 requiring ventilatory support using TriNetX (COVID-19 Research Network) between January 20, 2020, and February 9, 2021. We compared patients who received at least 48 hours of CS-RDV combination therapy to CS monotherapy. The primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality rates in propensity-matched (PSM) cohorts. Secondary outcomes were Length of Stay (LOS), Secondary Bacterial Infections (SBI), and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), and Pseudomonas infections. We used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and stratified log-rank tests. Of 388 patients included, 91 (23.5%) received CS-RDV therapy, and 297 (76.5%) received CS monotherapy. After propensity score matching, with 74 patients in each cohort, all-cause mortality was 36.4% and 29.7% in the CS-RDV and CS therapy, respectively (P = 0.38). We used a Kaplan-Meier with a log-rank test on follow up period (P = 0.23), and a Hazards Ratio model (P = 0.26). SBI incidence was higher in the CS group (13.5% vs. 35.1%, P = 0.02) with a similar LOS (13.4 days vs. 13.4 days, P = 1.00) and similar incidence of MRSA/Pseudomonas infections (13.5% vs. 13.5%, P = 1.00) in both the groups. Therefore, CS-RDV therapy is non-inferior to CS therapy in reducing 28-day all-cause in-hospital mortality but associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of SBI in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Treatment Outcome
2.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13687, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether behavioral precautions adopted during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also influenced the spreading and multidrug resistance (MDR) of ESKAPEEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii [AB], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia Coli, [EC]) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in adult patients admitted to our COVID-19-free surgical ICU. Only patients staying in ICU for more than 48 hours were included. The ESKAPEEc infections recorded during the COVID-19 period (June 1, 2020 - February 28, 2021) and in the corresponding pre-pandemic period (June 1, 2019 - February 28, 2020) were compared. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to rule out possible confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients in the COVID-19 period and 132 in the pre-COVID-19 period were investigated. The ESKAPEEc infections were documented in 23 (13.3%) and 35 (26.5%) patients in the pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods, respectively (p = 0.005). Demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, ICU death rate, and 28-day hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, no AB was recorded during COVID-19 period, (p = 0.017), while extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing EC infections significantly decreased (p = 0.017). Overall, the ESKAPEEc isolates during pandemic less frequently exhibited multidrug-resistant (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a robust adherence to hygiene measures together with human contact restrictions in a COVID-19 free ICU might also restrain the transmission of ESKAPEEc pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii , Aged , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/transmission , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/transmission , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus , Visitors to Patients
4.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 98(4): 115199, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741168

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 positive (194) and negative (212) pneumonia patients were selected to analyze bacterial pathogens coinfection. Results showed that 50% of COVID-19 patients were coinfected or carried bacterial pathogens. Bordetella pertussis infection rate was significantly higher in positive patients. Consequently, preventions should be taken to control bacterial pathogens coinfection in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Bordetella pertussis/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/pathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(10): e13319, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired bloodstream infections (BSI) in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, single-centre study was conducted in Northern Italy. The primary study objectives were as follows: (a) to assess the incidence rate of ICU-acquired BSI and (b) to assess the cumulative risk of developing ICU-acquired BSI. RESULTS: Overall, 78 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. Forty-five episodes of ICU-acquired BSI were registered in 31 patients, with an incidence rate of 47 episodes (95% confidence interval [CI] 35-63) per 1000 patient-days at risk. The estimated cumulative risk of developing at least one BSI episode was of almost 25% after 15 days at risk and possibly surpassing 50% after 30 days at risk. In multivariable analysis, anti-inflammatory treatment was independently associated with the development of BSI (cause-specific hazard ratio [csHR] 1.07 with 95% CI 0.38-3.04 for tocilizumab, csHR 3.95 with 95% CI 1.20-13.03 for methylprednisolone and csHR 10.69 with 95% CI 2.71-42.17 for methylprednisolone plus tocilizumab, with no anti-inflammatory treatment as the reference group; overall P for the dummy variable = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of BSI was high, and the cumulative risk of developing BSI increased with ICU stay. Further study will clarify if the increased risk of BSI we detected in COVID-19 patients treated with anti-inflammatory drugs is outweighed by the benefits of reducing any possible pro-inflammatory dysregulation induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Candidemia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Enterobacter aerogenes , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae
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