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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(4): e28, 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A rapid decline in immunity and low neutralizing activity against the delta variant in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccinees has been observed. This study describes an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breakthrough infections caused by the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant in a psychiatric closed ward. METHODS: Data from epidemic intelligence service officers were utilized to obtain information regarding demographic, vaccination history, and clinical data along with SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results for a COVID-19 outbreak that occurred in a closed psychiatric ward. RESULTS: Among the 164 residents, 144 (87.8%) received two doses of vaccines and 137 (95.1%) of them received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. The mean interval between the second vaccination and COVID-19 diagnosis was 132.77 ± 40.68 days. At the time of detection of the index case, SARS-CoV-2 had spread throughout the ward, infecting 162 of 164 residents. The case-fatality ratio was lower than that in the previously reported outbreak before the vaccination (1.2%, 2/162 vs. 6.9%, P = 0.030). Prolonged hospitalization occurred in 17 patients (11.1%) and was less prevalent in the vaccinated group than in the unvaccinated group (8.5% vs. 25.0%, P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight that while vaccination can reduce mortality and the duration of hospitalization, it is not sufficient to prevent an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant in the present psychiatric hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
2.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(12): 884-891, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566104

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicated that psychiatric inpatients with severe mental illness (SMI) are at a greater risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. However, there is still little data about the impact of comorbid COVID-19 infection on the course and outcome of acute exacerbations in this population. We conducted a prospective historically matched case control study. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of acute psychiatric inpatients with SMI and comorbid COVID-19 (n = 21) were compared with those of historically-matched non-COVID-19 controls with SMI (n = 42). The outcomes for acute inpatients with SMI and COVID-19 were also investigated. The new-onset SMI rate was relatively higher (23.8%) in the COVID-19 group, which has characteristics similar to those of the non-COVID-19 group except for working status (p < 0.05). The COVID-19 group had a high rate of relapse (47.6%) within 6 months of discharge. Our study suggests that patients with SMI who contracted SARS-CoV-2 may have a higher rate of new-onset mental disorder. Considering the high rate of relapse during the pandemic, chronically ill patients with SMI and COVID-19 should be closely monitored after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , Symptom Flare Up , Turkey/epidemiology
3.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(12): 884-891, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494112

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicated that psychiatric inpatients with severe mental illness (SMI) are at a greater risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. However, there is still little data about the impact of comorbid COVID-19 infection on the course and outcome of acute exacerbations in this population. We conducted a prospective historically matched case control study. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of acute psychiatric inpatients with SMI and comorbid COVID-19 (n = 21) were compared with those of historically-matched non-COVID-19 controls with SMI (n = 42). The outcomes for acute inpatients with SMI and COVID-19 were also investigated. The new-onset SMI rate was relatively higher (23.8%) in the COVID-19 group, which has characteristics similar to those of the non-COVID-19 group except for working status (p < 0.05). The COVID-19 group had a high rate of relapse (47.6%) within 6 months of discharge. Our study suggests that patients with SMI who contracted SARS-CoV-2 may have a higher rate of new-onset mental disorder. Considering the high rate of relapse during the pandemic, chronically ill patients with SMI and COVID-19 should be closely monitored after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , Symptom Flare Up , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 110: 110304, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410756

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present investigation aimed at evaluating differences in psychiatric hospitalizations in Italy during and after the lockdown due to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), compared to the same periods in 2018 and 2019. METHODS: We obtained and analyzed anonymized data on psychiatric admissions (n = 4550) from 12 general hospital psychiatric wards (GHPWs) in different Italian regions (catchment area = 3.71 millions of inhabitants). Using a mixed-effects Poisson regression model, we compared admission characteristics across three periods: (a) March 1-June 30, 2018 and 2019; (b) March 1-April 30, 2020 (i.e., lockdown); and (c) May 1-June 30, 2020 (i.e., post-lockdown). RESULTS: During the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a 41% reduction (IRR = 0.59; p < 0.001, CI: 0.45-0.79) in psychiatric admissions in the enrolled GHPWs with respect to the 2018 and 2019 control period. Conversely, admission rates in the post-lockdown period were similar to those observed in the control period. Notably, a consistent and significant reduction in psychiatric hospitalizations of older patients (aged >65 years) was observed in the lockdown (40%; IRR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.44-0.82) and post-lockdown (28%; IRR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54-0.96) periods. Long-stay admissions (>14 days) increased (63%; IRR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.32-2.02) during the lockdown and decreased by 39% thereafter (IRR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.75). A significant 35% increase in patients reporting suicidal ideation was observed in the post-lockdown period, compared to the rate observed in the 2018 and 2019 control period (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01-1.79). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with changes in the number of psychiatric admissions, particularly for older patients and long-stay hospitalizations. Increased admission of patients reporting suicidal ideation in the post-lockdown period merits special attention. Further studies are required to gain insight into the observed phenomena.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113776, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062564

ABSTRACT

Inpatient psychiatric facilities can face significant challenges in containing infectious outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology, testing data, and containment protocols of COVID-19 in a large academic medical center during the height of the COVID-19 outbreak. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted on hospitalized individuals on five inpatient psychiatric units from March 1st to July 8th, 2020. Demographic data collected include age, race, gender, ethnicity, diagnosis, and admission status (one or multiple admissions). In addition, a Gantt chart was used to assess outbreak data and timelines for one unit. Testing data was collected for patients admitted to inpatient psychiatric units, emergency room visits, and employees. 964 individuals were hospitalized psychiatrically. The study population included ethnically diverse patients with various mental illnesses. We also describe infection prevention strategies, screening, and triage protocols utilized to safely continue patient flow during and beyond the study period with a low patient and employee infection rate. In summary, our study suggests that early implementation of triage, screening, extensive testing, and unit-specific interventions can help prevent and contain the spread of COVID-19 in inpatient psychiatric units and help facilitate safe delivery of care during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Triage , Academic Medical Centers/standards , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Middle Aged , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/standards , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Triage/standards , Triage/statistics & numerical data
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055057

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency with profound mental health consequences. The psychiatric emergency department (ED) plays a key role during this mental health crisis. This study aimed to investigate differences in admissions at a Swiss psychiatric ED from 1 April to 15 May during a "pandemic-free" period in 2016 and a "during-pandemic" period in 2020. The study included 579 consultations at psychiatric ED in the "during-pandemic" period and 702 in the "pandemic-free" period. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify variables associated with psychiatric admissions during the pandemic. A reduction in total psychiatric ED admissions was documented during COVID-19. Logistic regression analysis predicted the independent variable (ED admission during the pandemic) and estimated odds ratio (OR) for being unmarried/not in a relationship, arrival in an ambulance, suicidal behavior, behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation. Though only statistically significant in bivariate analysis, patients were also more likely to be involuntarily hospitalized. This picture appears to be reversed from a sociodemographic and clinical point of view to our observation of psychiatric ED consultation in 2016. These findings highlight that the reduction in psychiatric ED admissions during the pandemic seems to be associated with living alone and more severe psychopathologies, which must alert psychiatrists to ensure access to mental health care in times of pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Health , Switzerland/epidemiology
7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1054-1063, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living in group situations or with dementia are more vulnerable to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Older people and those with multimorbidity have higher mortality if they become infected than the general population. However, no systematic study exists of COVID-19-related outcomes in older inpatients in psychiatric units, who comprise people from these high-risk groups. We aimed to describe the period prevalence, demographics, symptoms (and asymptomatic cases), management, and survival outcomes of COVID-19 in the older inpatient psychiatric population and people with young-onset dementia in five National Health Service Trusts in London, UK, from March 1 to April 30, 2020. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we collected demographic data, mental health diagnoses, clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, symptoms, management, and COVID-19-related outcome data of inpatients aged 65 years or older or with dementia who were already inpatients or admitted as inpatients to five London mental health Trusts between March 1 and April 30, 2020, and information about available COVID-19-related resources (ie, testing and personal protective equipment). Patients were determined to have COVID-19 if they had a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, or had relevant symptoms indicative of COVID-19, as determined by their treating physician. We calculated period prevalence of COVID-19 and analysed patients' characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. FINDINGS: Of 344 inpatients, 131 (38%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period (period prevalence 38% [95% CI 33-43]). The mean age of patients who had COVID-19 was 75·3 years (SD 8·2); 68 (52%) were women and 47 (36%) from ethnic minority groups. 16 (12%) of 131 patients were asymptomatic and 121 (92%) had one or more disease-related comorbidity. 108 (82%) patients were compulsorily detained. 74 (56%) patients had dementia, of whom 13 (18%) had young-onset dementia. On average, sites received COVID-19 testing kits 4·5 days after the first clinical COVID-19 presentation. 19 (15%) patients diagnosed with COVID-19 died during the study period, and their deaths were determined to be COVID-19 related. INTERPRETATION: Patients in psychiatric inpatient settings who were admitted without known SARS-CoV-2 infection had a high risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared with those in the community and had a higher proportion of deaths from COVID-19 than in the community. Implementation of the long-standing policy of parity of esteem for mental health and planning for future COVID-19 waves in psychiatric hospitals is urgent. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Dementia/physiopathology , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
8.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(3): 242-246, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883467

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the effects of COVID-19 and the lockdown measures adopted in England on patients with acute mental illness. METHODS: The authors analyzed referrals to the crisis resolution and home treatment (CRHT) team and inpatient admissions to acute adult wards, at Leicestershire Partnership National Health Service Trust, an integrated community and mental health trust in the United Kingdom. Number of CRHT referrals and inpatient admissions during a 4-week period starting March 16, 2020 ("COVID-19 period"), was studied and compared with the same period in 2018 and 2019 ("control periods"). Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted during the COVID-19 period were compared with those admitted during the 2019 control period. RESULTS: The number of CRHT referrals and inpatient admissions were lower during the COVID-19 period, compared with the control periods, by approximately 12% and 20%, respectively. Patients admitted during the COVID-19 period were significantly more often detained under the Mental Health Act and were considered to pose a risk of aggression. The pattern of diagnoses differed significantly between 2020 and 2019. A higher percentage of patients admitted during the COVID-19 period were diagnosed as having nonaffective psychotic disorders (52% versus 35%) or bipolar disorder (25% versus 15%), and fewer received a diagnosis of depression (8% versus 16%), anxiety disorder (0% versus 3%), adjustment disorder (0% versus 8%), emotionally unstable personality disorder (6% versus 15%), or any other personality disorder (0% versus 5%) (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the pandemic has profoundly affected care by acute mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commitment of Mentally Ill/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Acute Disease , Adult , Commitment of Mentally Ill/legislation & jurisprudence , England , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health Services/legislation & jurisprudence , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data
9.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(3): 293-298, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe key characteristics, interventions, and outcomes of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak within an inpatient geriatric psychiatry unit at the University of Washington Medical Center - Northwest. METHODS: After identifying 2 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection on March 11, 2020, we conducted an outbreak investigation and employed targeted interventions including: screening of patients and staff; isolation and cohorting of confirmed cases; serial testing; and enhanced infection prevention measures. RESULTS: We identified 10 patients and 7 staff members with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thirty percent of patients (n = 3) remained asymptomatic over the course of infection. Among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, fever (n = 5, 50%) and cough (n = 4, 40%) were the most common symptoms. Median duration of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity was 25.5 days (interquartile range [IQR] 22.8-41.8) among symptomatic patients and 22.0 days (IQR 19.5-25.5) among asymptomatic patients. Median initial (19.0, IQR 18.7-25.7 vs 21.7, IQR 20.7-25.6) and nadir (18.9, IQR 18.2-20.3 vs 19.8, IQR 17.0-20.7) cycle threshold values were similar across symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic infection was common in this cohort of hospitalized, elderly individuals despite similar duration of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity and cycle threshold values among symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Geriatric Psychiatry/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Washington/epidemiology
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