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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 482-490, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20239353

ABSTRACT

En estudios preliminares objetivamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas (SP) entre alumnos de Anatomía, con mayor impacto entre los recursantes o aquellos con actividades laborales. La causa del uso es multifactorial, pero se destacan factores de riesgo y precipitantes como la carga horaria de la currícula, exigencias de estudio, el distrés por el afrontamiento cadavérico negativo, el nuevo contexto educativo y la cantidad de horas de sueño. El objetivo fue comparar la prevalencia de uso de SP entre las cohortes de 2011-2019, con focalización en los factores determinantes conductuales. Estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo mediante encuesta estandarizada y anónima en 945 alumnos (año 2011= 122; año 2013= 158; año 2015=204; año 2017= 228; año 2019= 233). Se aplicaron parámetros estadísticos, se definió la significación como p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). En el caso de ansiolíticos benzodiacepínicos, se asoció con falta de sueño y distrés por el afrontamiento negativo al estudio con cadáveres. En las cohortes comparadas por el lapso de 9 años hallamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas con tendencia al incremento. Las variables actividad laboral y recursante fueron determinantes para el uso de sustancias, y se asociaron cuestiones relativas a la adaptabilidad universitaria y afrontamiento de estudio negativo con el cadáver; todos con incidencia pedagógica en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje.


SUMMARY: In preliminary studies, we observed a high prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances (PS) among Anatomy students, with a greater impact among recurrent students or those with work activities. The cause of use is multifactorial, but risk and precipitating factors stand out, such as the workload of the curriculum, study demands, distress due to negative cadaveric coping, the new educational context and the number of hours of sleep. The objective was to compare the prevalence of SP use between the 2011-2019 cohorts, with a focus on behavioral determinants. Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study using a standardized and anonymous survey in 945 students (year 2011= 122; year 2013= 158; year 2015=204; year 2017= 228; year 2019= 233). Statistical parameters were applied, significance was defined as p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). In the case of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, it was associated with lack of sleep and distress due to negative coping with the study with cadavers. In the cohorts compared for a period of 9 years, we found a high prevalence of psychoactive substance use with an increasing trend. The variables work activity and recurrence were determinants for the use of substances, and issues related to university adaptability and negative study coping with the corpse were associated; all with pedagogical impact on the teaching and learning process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Anatomy/education , Argentina , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Death , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Dissection/education , Dissection/psychology , Psychological Distress
2.
In Vivo ; 37(3): 1198-1204, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: A recommendation of radiotherapy for patients with malignant gliomas may trigger emotional distress. Frequency and risk factors of this complication were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prevalence of six emotional problems and 11 potential risk factors were evaluated in 103 patients irradiated for grade II-IV gliomas. p-Values <0.0045 were considered significant. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients (74%) had ≥1 emotional problem. Prevalence of specific emotional problems ranged between 23% and 63%. Associations were found between ≥5 physical problems and worry (p=0.0010), fear (p=0.0001), sadness (p=0.0023), depression (p=0.0006), and loss of interest (p=0.0006), and Karnofsky performance score ≤80 and depression (p=0.0002). Trends were found for physical problems and nervousness (p=0.040), age ≥60 years and depression (p=0.043) or loss of interest (p=0.045), grade IV glioma and sadness (p=0.042), and ≥2 involved sites and loss of interest (p=0.022). CONCLUSION: Three-fourths of glioma patients had pre-radiotherapy emotional distress. Psychological support should be offered very soon, particularly for high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Glioma , Psychological Distress , Humans , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Glioma/radiotherapy , Glioma/pathology , Radiotherapy Dosage , Risk Factors
3.
BMJ Ment Health ; 26(1)2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based mental health interventions to support healthcare workers (HCWs) in crisis settings are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of a mental health intervention in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms in HCWs, relative to enhanced care as usual (eCAU), amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an analyst-blind, parallel, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. We recruited HCWs with psychological distress from Madrid and Catalonia (Spain). The intervention arm received a stepped-care programme consisting of two WHO-developed interventions adapted for HCWs: Doing What Matters in Times of Stress (DWM) and Problem Management Plus (PM+). Each intervention lasted 5 weeks and was delivered remotely by non-specialist mental health providers. HCWs reporting psychological distress after DWM completion were invited to continue to PM+. The primary endpoint was self-reported anxiety/depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-Anxiety and Depression Scale) at week 21. FINDINGS: Between 3 November 2021 and 31 March 2022, 115 participants were randomised to stepped care and 117 to eCAU (86% women, mean age 37.5). The intervention showed a greater decrease in anxiety/depression symptoms compared with eCAU at the primary endpoint (baseline-adjusted difference 4.4, 95% CI 2.1 to 6.7; standardised effect size 0.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.2). No serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Brief stepped-care psychological interventions reduce anxiety and depression during a period of stress among HCWs. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our results can inform policies and actions to protect the mental health of HCWs during major health crises and are potentially rapidly replicable in other settings where workers are affected by global emergencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04980326.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Health Personnel/psychology
4.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher weight gain and psychological distress compared to those without PCOS. While COVID-19 restrictions led to population level adverse changes in lifestyle, weight gain and psychological distress, their impact on people with PCOS is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact the 2020 COVID-19 restrictions had on weight, physical activity, diet and psychological distress for Australians with PCOS. METHODS: Australian reproductive-aged women participated in an online survey with assessment of weight, physical activity, diet and psychological distress. Multivariable logistic and linear regression were used to examine associations between PCOS and residential location with health outcomes. RESULTS: On adjusted analysis, those with PCOS gained more weight (2.9%; 95% CI; 0.027-3.020; p = 0.046), were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations (OR 0.50; 95% CI; 0.32-0.79; p = 0.003) and had higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.75; p = 0.019) but no differences in psychological distress compared to women without PCOS. CONCLUSIONS: People with PCOS were more adversely affected by COVID-19 restrictions, which may worsen their clinical features and disease burden. Additional health care support may be necessary to assist people with PCOS to meet dietary and physical activity recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Psychological Distress , Sedentary Behavior , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Weight Gain , Exercise , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/epidemiology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/psychology , Diet , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics
5.
Soc Work Health Care ; 62(6-7): 243-262, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238580

ABSTRACT

Medical social workers are essential members of healthcare teams, especially during a pandemic. Their scope of practice includes conducting psychological assessments, coordinating social services, connecting patients to resources that address social determinants of health, discharge planning, and patient advocacy. Social workers' experiences of psychological distress were unique even before the COVID-19 pandemic; their work demands a high amount of emotional investment as they frequently witness others' pain and suffering and navigate various daily challenges and crises. This study explores psychological distress experienced by medical social workers and the coping strategies used by these professionals during the pandemic prior to the COVID-19 vaccine rollout. Faced with conflicting information from state and federal agencies, social workers dealt with resource shortages, took on additional roles and responsibilities, and contended with regular value conflicts and ethical dilemmas. Our findings indicate that medical social workers are not sufficiently protected or prioritized in their workplaces and that infrastructure to support social workers' emotional wellbeing is lacking. Distinct themes that emerged from the data under the umbrella of psychological distress include feeling unprotected, overburdened, and undervalued. We discuss a need for targeted policy and sustainability-oriented solutions to improve coping and resilience, mitigate psychological distress, and prevent burnout among medical social workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Workers , COVID-19 Vaccines , Adaptation, Psychological , Health Personnel/psychology
6.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234576

ABSTRACT

University students have been identified as a population sub-group vulnerable to food insecurity. This vulnerability increased in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess factors associated with food insecurity among university students and the differences between students with and without children. A cross-sectional survey of (n = 213) students attending one university in Western Australia measured food insecurity, psychological distress, and socio-demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with food insecurity. Forty-eight percent of students who responded to the survey had experienced food insecurity in 2020. International students who were studying in Australia were nine times more likely to experience food insecurity than domestic students (AOR = 9.13; 95% CI = 2.32-35.97). International students with children were more likely to experience food insecurity than international students without children (p < 0.001) and domestic students with (p < 0.001) or without children (p < 0.001). For each unit increase in depression level, the likelihood of experiencing food insecurity increased (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.12-2.33). Findings show a higher prevalence of food insecurity among international university students and students with children during the COVID-19 pandemic and that food insecurity was associated with higher levels of psychological distress. These findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to mitigate the risk of food insecurity among Australian university students, particularly among international students, students with children, and those experiencing psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Child , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Western Australia/epidemiology , Universities , Pandemics , Food Supply , Australia/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Food Insecurity
7.
Psychol Trauma ; 15(5): 888-894, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234244

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine psychological stress experienced by parents and posttraumatic emotional stress experienced by children during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: The study has cross-sectional design and included parents who have 3- to 10 year-old children studying at kindergartens and primary schools under the Yozgat Directorate of National Education in Turkey, and who volunteered to participate in the study. The study was completed with 1,109 parents. School administrators were informed of the study and an online data collection form was distributed through parent WhatsApp groups. RESULTS: Fathers at or above the age of 37 were found to have lower Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10-PDS) scores (p < .05). In the study, K10-PDS scores of parents working as health care employees and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) scores of their children were significantly higher than those of other groups (p < .05). K10-PDS scores of parents with children in the 3-6 age group who had behavioral changes, increased screen usage, and disturbed sleep and diet were found to be higher than those of other groups (p < .05). According to regression analysis K10-PDS scores of parents significantly explained 34% of children's PEDS score (R² = .340) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study determined that COVID-19 causes children to experience posttraumatic stress disorder. In addition, the study found increased stress levels of parents and children experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4165-4174, 2022 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241653

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to present the dramas experienced by Brazilian artists during the COVID-19 pandemic. This investigation is nested in one of the axes of broader research on the social impacts of the pandemic in Brazil. Initially, we argue that a pandemic is a critical event with multiple scales, which affects populations unevenly, as is the case of art world professionals, an unorthodox field in terms of specialties and remuneration, which was already suffering from the impacts of reduced investments in public policies in the cultural sector since the mid-2010s. Given the measures to face the pandemic, among which are restrictions on gatherings, artistic events were prohibited, and professionals could not act conventionally, generating economic problems and psychological distress. This paper explores the dramatic report of some of these professionals, highlighting the strategies adopted to cope with the crisis due to the impossibility of performing, the scarcity of public policies for the sector, and the national political and economic elite disdain for the arts and culture. In-depth interviews were conducted with scenic artists, musicians, and DJs from August to December 2020.


O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os dramas experenciados por artistas brasileiros durante o período da pandemia da COVID-19. A investigação integra um dos eixos de uma pesquisa mais ampla, acerca dos impactos sociais da pandemia no Brasil. Inicialmente, argumenta-se que a pandemia é um evento crítico com múltiplas escalas, que impacta de modos desiguais as populações, como é o caso dos profissionais do mundo artístico, em si mesmo um campo heterodoxo em termos de especialidades, remuneração, que já vinha sofrendo com os impactos da redução de investimentos em políticas públicas na área cultural desde meados da década de 2010. Tendo em vista as medidas de enfrentamento à pandemia, dentre as quais a restrição às aglomerações, os eventos artísticos foram interditos e os profissionais impossibilitados de atuar de maneira convencional, gerando problemas de ordem econômica e sofrimento psíquico. O artigo explora o relato dramático de alguns desses profissionais, destacando as estratégias adotadas para fazer frente à crise decorrente da impossibilidade de atuação, da escassez de políticas públicas para o setor e o desdém às artes e à cultura por parte da elite política e econômica nacional. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com artistas cênicos, músicos e DJs entre os meses de agosto e dezembro de 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Anxiety
9.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1056768, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231259

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2-virus. COVID-19 has officially been declared as the latest in the list of pandemics by WHO at the start of 2020. This study investigates the associations among decrease in economic activity, gender, age, and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic considering the economic status and education level of countries using multinational surveys. Methods: Online self-report questionnaires were administered in 15 countries which were spontaneously participate to 14,243 respondents in August 2020. Prevalence of decrease in economic activity and psychological distress was stratified by age, gender, education level, and Human Development Index (HDI). With 7,090 of female (49.8%), mean age 40.67, 5,734 (12.75%) lost their job and 5,734 (40.26%) suffered from psychological distress. Results: Associations among psychological distress and economic status, age, and gender was assessed using multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for country and education as random effects of the mixed model. We then measured the associations between HDI and age using multivariate logistic regression. Women had a higher prevalence of psychological distress than men with 1.067 Odds ratio, and younger age was significantly associated with decrease in economic activity for 0.998 for age increasing. Moreover, countries with lower HDI showed a higher prevalence of decrease in economic activity, especially at lower education levels. Discussion: Psychological distress due to COVID-19 revealed a significant association with decrease in economic activity, women, and younger age. While the proportion of decrease in economic activity population was different for each country, the degree of association of the individual factors was the same. Our findings are relevant, as women in high HDI countries and low education level in lower HDI countries are considered vulnerable. Policies and guidelines for both financial aid and psychological intervention are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 348, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing undergraduates' academic self-efficacy is a significant factor in determining their learning motivation, cognition, and emotions. It has a significant impact on improving academic performance and achieving learning goals. METHODS: To explore the mechanism of psychological distress affecting the academic self-efficacy of nursing undergraduates, the generalized anxiety disorder scale-7, patient health questionnaire-9, academic self-efficacy scale, perceived social support scale and mindful attention awareness scale were conducted. RESULTS: Model fitness indexes of the structural equation model is good (CMIN/DF = 1.404, RMSEA = 0.042, GFI = 0.977, IFI = 0.977, TLI = 0.954, CFI = 0.975, NFI = 0.923). Structural equation model analysis showed that social support and mindfulness were the mediating variables of psychological distress on academic self-efficacy. Mediating variables accounted for 44% of the total effect value (- 0.3) with a value of - 0.132. Three paths were verified: psychological distress indirectly affected academic self-efficacy through social support (- 0.064); psychological distress indirectly affected academic self-efficacy through mindfulness (- 0.053); psychological distress indirectly affected academic self-efficacy through social support and mindfulness (- 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Social support and mindfulness play significant mediating roles in the effect of psychological distress on academic self-efficacy, and the chain mediating role of social support and mindfulness is also significant. Educators may mitigate the impact of psychological distress on academic self-efficacy by enhancing students' social support and mindfulness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Psychological Distress , Humans , Self Efficacy , Students/psychology , Social Support
11.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1158698, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327111

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aims to shed light on parent-child relationships and the psychological health of parents from low-income families after the easing of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 553 parents of children aged 13-24 years in low-income community settings. The Parent-Child Conflict scale of the Parental Environment Questionnaire (PEQ) was used to measure parent-child conflict. Psychological distress was assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale short form (DASS-21). Results: The study revealed a low level of parent-child conflict in the overall study population, with a median PEQ of 48.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 36 to 48). Concerning demographics, married parents reported a likelihood of having a higher level of parent-child conflict over 3 times higher than single parents (OR = 3.18 95%, CI 1.30-7.75). More parent-child conflicts were also found in parents aged 60-72 years old who were unemployed, retired, or housewives and from lower-income groups. In regard to lifestyle factors, a higher level of physical activity and having enough sleep were associated with lower levels of parent-child conflict. Only approximately 1% of the participants reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress. Discussion: Low risk exists for parent-child conflict and psychological sequelae following the easing of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, which could be due to various support measures implemented by the government. Vulnerable parents identified as being at risk of parent-child conflict warrant attention in future advocacy efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Parents/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 369, 2023 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal in Canada introduced accompanying patients (APs) into the breast cancer care trajectory. APs are patients who have been treated for breast cancer and have been integrated into the clinical team to expand the services offered to people affected by cancer. This study describes the profiles of the people who received the support and explores whether one-offs vs ongoing encounters with APs influence their experience of care, on self-efficacy in coping with cancer, and on their level of psychological distress. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out among patients to compare patients who had one encounter with an AP (G1) with those who had had several encounters (G2). Five questionnaires were administered on socio-demographic characteristics, care pathway, evaluation of the support experience, self-efficacy in coping with cancer, and level of psychological distress. Logbooks, completed by the APs, determined the number of encounters. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between the number of encounters, patient characteristics, care pathway, number of topics discussed, self-efficacy measures in coping with cancer, and level of psychological distress. RESULTS: Between April 2020 and December 2021, 60% of 535 patients who were offered support from an AP accepted. Of these, one hundred and twenty-four patients participated in the study. The study aimed to recruit a minimum of 70 patients with the expectation of obtaining at least 50 participants, assuming a response rate of 70%. There were no differences between G1 and G2 in terms of sociodemographic data and care pathways. Statistical differences were found between G1 and G2 for impacts on and the return to daily life (p = 0.000), the return to the work and impacts on professional life (p = 0.044), announcement of a diagnosis to family and friends (p = 0.033), and strategies for living with treatment under the best conditions (p = 0.000). Significant differences were found on the topics of cancer (p = 0.000), genetic testing (p = 0.023), therapeutic options (p = 0.000), fatigue following treatment (p = 0.005), pain and discomfort after treatment or surgery (p = 0.000), potential emotions and their management (p = 0.000) and the decision-making processes (p = 0.011). A significant relationship was found between the two groups for patients' ability to cope with cancer (p = 0.038), and their level of psychological distress at different stages of the care pathway (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows differences between one-time and ongoing support for cancer patients. It highlights the potential for APs to help patients develop self-efficacy and cope with the challenges of cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Psychological Distress , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Self Efficacy , Adaptation, Psychological , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 312, 2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Taiwanese government implemented stringent preventative health measures to curb the spread of COVID-19. However, these measures negatively affected the physical activity behaviors and psychological distress of individuals. In this study, we investigated the effects of Taiwan's COVID-19 alert-based restrictions on the physical activity behaviors and psychological distress of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 500 community-dwelling older adults were randomly sampled from a health promotion center in Taiwan. Telephone interviews were conducted between May 11, 2021, and August 17, 2021, which coincided with the Level 3 alert period when group physical activities were prohibited. Telephone interviews were again conducted between June 20, 2022, and July 4, 2022, after the alert level was reduced to Level 2 but group physical activities were prohibited period. Through the telephone interviews, data regarding the participants' physical activity behaviors (type and amount) and 5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5) scores were collected. Moreover, data regarding physical activity behaviors were collected from the records of our previous health promotion programs, which were conducted before the national alert period. The obtained data were analyzed. RESULTS: The alert levels influenced physical activity behaviors. Because of strict regulations, physical activity amount decreased during the Level 3 alert period and did not recover rapidly during the Level 2 alert period. Instead of engaging in group exercises (e.g., calisthenics and qigong), the older adults chose to exercise alone (e.g., strolling, brisk walking, and biking). Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 alert level has a significant influence on the amount of physical activity for participants (p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.256), with pairwise comparisons showing that the physical activity amount decreased significantly across the three time periods (p < 0.05). The psychological distress of the participants did not appear to change during the regulation period. Although the participants' overall BSRS-5 score was slightly lower during the Level 2 alert period compared to the Level 3 alert period, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.264, Cohen's d = 0.08) based on a paired t-test. However, the levels of anxiety (p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.23) and inferiority (p = 0.034, Cohen's d = 0.159) were considerably higher during the Level 2 alert period than during the Level 3 alert period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that Taiwan's COVID-19 alert levels influenced the physical activity behaviors and psychological distress of community-dwelling older adults. Time is required for older adults to regain their prior status after their physical activity behaviors and psychological distress were affected by national regulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Independent Living , Taiwan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Exercise/physiology
14.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285788, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322031

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related stigmatization of affected people or people at risk of infection has been shown to enhance the reluctance of affected individuals to use health services and reduce their mental health. It is thus highly important to gain a thorough understanding of COVID-19-related stigmatization. The present study's first aim was to explore stigmatization profiles of experienced stigmatization (anticipated stigmatization, internalized stigmatization, enacted stigmatization, disclosure concerns) and stigmatization practices in 371 German people at high risk of infection using latent class analyses. The second aim was to investigate the relationship between stigmatization profiles and psychological distress via multiple regression analysis taking into account other possible negative and positive risk factors. Our results showed two stigmatization profiles: "high stigmatization group" and "low stigmatization group". Belonging to the "high stigmatization group" was significantly correlated with higher levels of psychological distress. Other risk factors significantly related to psychological distress were mental health disorders in the past, exposure to COVID-19, fear related to COVID-19, perceived risk of being infected, lower perceived self-efficacy, and lower subjective knowledge about COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Psychological Distress , Humans , Stereotyping , Depression/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology
15.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e294, 2022 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine factors potentially associated with psychological distress among undergraduate students during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed data of 958 undergraduates (median age 20 y; 56.8% women) from a Web-based, self-administered questionnaire survey conducted from August to September 2020. Prevalence ratios (PRs) for psychological distress defined as 5 points or over of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) were calculated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The proportion of psychological distress was 40.0%. In the mutually-adjusted model, the following were significantly associated with psychological distress: decreases in household income to 50-99% of the prepandemic amount compared with no change (PR = 1.48), newly experiencing unpaid wages compared with no experience (PR = 1.44), insufficient money to buy necessities compared with no shortage (PR = 1.45), receiving a student loan or scholarship compared with none (PR = 1.27), and communication 1 to 3 times a month compared with at least once a week (PR = 1.22). In contrast, school closure during the pandemic compared with no closure was inversely associated with psychological distress (PR = 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Among undergraduate students in Japan, economic difficulties significantly predicted psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
16.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 77(7): 468-473, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previously improving UK mortality trends stalled around 2012, with evidence implicating economic policy as the cause. This paper examines whether trends in psychological distress across three population surveys show similar trends. METHODS: We report the percentages reporting psychological distress (4+ in the 12-item General Health Questionnaire) from Understanding Society (Great Britain, 1991-2019), Scottish Health Survey (SHeS, 1995-2019) and Health Survey for England (HSE, 2003-2018) for the population overall, and stratified by sex, age and area deprivation. Summary inequality indices were calculated and segmented regressions fitted to identify breakpoints after 2010. RESULTS: Psychological distress was higher in Understanding Society than in SHeS or HSE. There was slight improvement between 1992 and 2015 in Understanding Society (with prevalence declining from 20.6% to 18.6%) with some fluctuations. After 2015 there is some evidence of a worsening in psychological distress across surveys. Prevalence worsened notably among those aged 16-34 years after 2010 (all three surveys), and aged 35-64 years in Understanding Society and SHeS after 2015. In contrast, the prevalence declined in those aged 65+ years in Understanding Society after around 2008, with less clear trends in the other surveys. The prevalence was around twice as high in the most deprived compared with the least deprived areas, and higher in women, with trends by deprivation and sex similar to the populations overall. CONCLUSION: Psychological distress worsened among working-age adults after around 2015 across British population surveys, mirroring the mortality trends. This indicates a widespread mental health crisis that predates the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Humans , Female , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 346, 2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that more than 10% of pregnant women are affected by psychological problems. The current COVID-19 pandemic has increased mental health problems in more than half of pregnant women. The present study compared the effectiveness of virtual (VSIT) and semi-attendance Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) techniques on the improvement of the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress of pregnant women with psychological distress. METHODS: This study was conducted on 96 pregnant women with psychological distress in a 2-arm parallel-group, randomized control trial between November 2020 and January 2022. The semi-attendance SIT received treatment for six sessions, sessions 1, 3 and 5 as individual face-to-face and sessions 2, 4 and 6 as virtual once a week for 60 min continuously [n = 48], and the virtual SIT received six sessions simultaneously once a week for 60 min (n = 48) in pregnant women of 14-32 weeks' gestation referred to two selected hospitals. The primary outcome of this study was BSI-18 [Brief Symptom Inventory] and NuPDQ-17 [Prenatal Distress Questionnaire]. The secondary outcomes were the PSS-14 [Cohen's General Perceived Stress Scale]. Both groups completed questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, pregnancy-specific stress, and generally perceived stress questionnaires before and after the treatment. RESULTS: The post-intervention results showed that the stress inoculation training technique in both VSIT and SIT interventions effectively reduced anxiety, depression, psychological distress, pregnancy-specific stress and general perceived stress [P < 0.01]. Also, the SIT interventions on decreasing anxiety [P < 0.001, η2 = 0.40], depression [P < 0.001, η2 = 0.52] and psychological distress [P < 0.001, η2 = 0.41] were more considerable than that of VSIT. However, There was no significant difference between SIT and VSIT intervention in terms of their effects on pregnancy-specific stress [P < 0.38, η2 = 0.01] and general stress [P < 0.42, η2 = 0.008]. CONCLUSION: The semi-attendance SIT group has been a more effective and practical model than the VSIT group, for reducing psychological distress. Therefore, semi-attendance SIT is recommended for pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women , Depression/psychology , Pandemics , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Stress, Psychological/psychology
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 237: 103937, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314238

ABSTRACT

Increasing attention has been recently paid to the influences of the COVID-19 outbreak on the human psyche due to its potentially detrimental after-effects. However, little is known about the effects of practices introduced to contain the COVID-19 outbreak, such as social isolation and lockdowns, on individuals' psychological problems and well-being, or how a fear of COVID-19 amplifies or reduces these effects. Using a sample of 2680 Vietnamese adults, data were collected between 15 August and 15 November 2021 through an online-based survey. This study adopted a moderated mediation model. Remarkably, the fear of COVID-19 was not only found to significantly exacerbate the adverse effects of psychological distress on life satisfaction, but it also significantly decreased the impact of COVID-19 practices on satisfaction with life. The fear of COVID-19 significantly moderated the mediation effect of psychological distress on the relationship between COVID-19 practices and life satisfaction. This study makes significant and novel contributions to our extant knowledge about the destructive consequences of COVID-19. The findings of our study can benefit policymakers and practitioners and include valuable recommendations on how to avert psychological crises and increase individuals' well-being during or after a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Fear , Disease Outbreaks
19.
Psychol Med ; 52(5): 824-833, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated lockdown could be considered a 'perfect storm' for increases in emotional distress. Such increases can only be identified by studies that use data collected before and during the pandemic. Longitudinal data are also needed to examine (1) the roles of previous distress and stressors in emotional distress during the pandemic and (2) how COVID-19-related stressors and coping strategies are associated with emotional distress when pre-pandemic distress is accounted for. METHODS: Data came from a cohort study (N = 768). Emotional distress (perceived stress, internalizing symptoms, and anger), COVID-19-related stressors, and coping strategies were measured during the pandemic/lockdown when participants were aged 22. Previous distress and stressors were measured before COVID-19 (at age 20). RESULTS: On average, participants showed increased levels of perceived stress and anger (but not internalizing symptoms) during the pandemic compared to before. Pre-COVID-19 emotional distress was the strongest predictor of during-pandemic emotional distress, followed by during-pandemic economic and psychosocial stressors (e.g. lifestyle and economic disruptions) and hopelessness, and pre-pandemic social stressors (e.g. bullying victimization and stressful life events). Most health risks to self or loved ones due to COVID-19 were not uniquely associated with emotional distress in final models. Coping strategies associated with reduced distress included keeping a daily routine, physical activity, and positive reappraisal/reframing. CONCLUSIONS: In our community sample, pre-pandemic distress, secondary consequences of the pandemic (e.g. lifestyle and economic disruptions), and pre-pandemic social stressors were more consistently associated with young adults' emotional distress than COVID-19-related health risk exposures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Young Adult
20.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308998

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We determined the prevalence of psychological distress, and the associations between sociodemographic factors, anxiety, depression, COVID-19-related experiences, and psychological distress, among nurses and doctors in Nigeria. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted over a month (1st of July-31st of July 2021) among 434 Health Care Workers (HCWs) [225 (51.8%) nurses and 209 (48.2%) doctors] from two tertiary health facilities in southwestern Nigeria. Binary logistic regression was carried out to determine the factors associated with psychological distress (dependent variable), while the independent variables were anxiety, depression, and COVID-19 experience-related factors. Results: The prevalence of moderate and severe psychological distress was 49.1% and 5.8%, respectively. Individuals who had the first degree had significantly lower odds (AOR: 0.43; p = 0.037) of experiencing psychological distress while being a nurse (AOR: 2.03; p = 0.014), higher levels of anxiety (1.28; p < 0.001), and depression (AOR: 1.17; p = 0.005) were associated with significantly higher odds of experiencing moderate to severe levels of psychological distress. Conclusion: There is a high level of psychological distress experienced by these health workers. Hence, they will benefit from strategies to reduce their distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nigeria/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Health Personnel
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