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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205380

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de controle para conter a disseminação do vírus, como o distanciamento social, trouxeram mudanças à rotina das pessoas, mundialmente. Esse contexto pode gerar impactos adversos para a saúde mental dos indivíduos, especialmente, àqueles em maior vulnerabilidade, os idosos. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar na literatura os impactos reais e/ou potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental de idosos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura com buscas realizadas na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, que utilizou a seguinte estratégia de busca: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Foram critérios de inclusão: artigos acessados na íntegra, sem distinção de ano e idioma, indexados até o dia 11 de novembro de 2020; e os critérios de exclusão: artigos com fuga do escopo da pesquisa, revisões de literatura, arquivos multimídia e duplicados. Foram encontrados 241 registros, e após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade estabelecidos restaram 27 artigos para discussão. Dentre os impactos reais/potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental dos idosos, abordados nos estudos, destaca-se a ansiedade, depressão, solidão, estresse, sensação de medo ou pânico, tristeza, suicídio/ideação suicida e insônia. Apesar disso, considera-se que há uma quantidade ainda escassa de estudos voltados especificamente para a população idosa que permitam aprofundar as discussões sobre esse tema.


The COVID-19 pandemic and control measures to contain the spread of the virus, such as social detachment, have brought changes to people's routine, worldwide. This context can generate adverse impacts on the mental health of individuals, especially those most vulnerable, the older adults. The aim of this study was to analyze in the literature the real and / or potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the older adults. It is an integrative literature review with searches performed in the Virtual Health Library, which used the following search strategy: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID- 19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Inclusion criteria were: articles accessed in full, without distinction of year and language, indexed until November 11, 2020; and exclusion criteria: articles with escape the scope of the research, literature reviews, multimedia and duplicate files, 241 records were found, and after applying the established eligibility criteria, 27 articles remained for discussion, among the actual / potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older people, addressed in the studies, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, feeling of fear or panic, sadness, suicide / suicidal ideation and insomnia stand out. Despite this, there is still a small amount studies specifically aimed at the older population that allow further discussions on this topic.


La pandemia de covid-19 y las medidas de control para contener la propagación del virus, como el distanciamiento social, han supuesto cambios en la rutina de las personas en todo el mundo. Este contexto puede generar impactos adversos a la salud mental de los individuos, especialmente a los más vulnerables, los ancianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar en la literatura los impactos reales y/o potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos. Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica integradora con búsquedas realizadas en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, que utilizó la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: (Coronavirus OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (elderly OR aged) AND ("Mental Health" OR "Mental Health"). Los criterios de inclusión fueron: artículos accedidos en su totalidad, independientemente del año y el idioma, indexados hasta el 11 de noviembre de 2020; y los criterios de exclusión: artículos que estuvieran fuera del ámbito de la investigación, revisiones bibliográficas, archivos multimedia y duplicados. Se encontraron un total de 241 registros, y tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad establecidos, quedaron 27 artículos para su discusión. Entre los impactos reales/potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos, abordados en los estudios, destacan la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad, el estrés, la sensación de miedo o pánico, la tristeza, la ideación suicida/suicida y el insomnio. A pesar de ello, se considera que todavía hay una escasa cantidad de estudios dirigidos específicamente a la población de edad avanzada que permitan profundizar en las discusiones sobre este tema.


Subject(s)
Aged/psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/psychology , Panic , Suicide/psychology , Aging/physiology , Depression/psychology , Fear/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Psychological Distress , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Loneliness/psychology
3.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(10): 421-430, 2022 10 12.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146154

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study explores the relationship between emotional support, perceived risk and mental health outcomes among health care workers, who face high rates of burnout and mental distress since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicentred online survey of health care workers in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic evaluated coping strategies, confidence in infection control, impact of previous work during the 2003 SARS outbreak and emotional support. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Of 3852 participants, 8.2% sought professional mental health services while 77.3% received emotional support from family, 74.0% from friends and 70.3% from colleagues. Those who felt unsupported in their work had higher odds ratios of experiencing moderate and severe symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.69), PTSD (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.58-2.25) and depression (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.57-2.25). Nearly 40% were afraid of telling family about the risks they were exposed to at work. Those who were able to share this information demonstrated lower risk of anxiety (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.48-0.69), PTSD (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.41-0.56) and depression (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.47-0.65). CONCLUSION: Informal sources of support, including family, friends and colleagues, play an important role in mitigating distress and should be encouraged and utilized more by health care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2193, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in psychological distress associated with COVID-19 remain unclear in the U.S. This study aims to investigate the associations between social determinants of health and COVID-19-related psychological distress across different racial/ethnic groups in the US (i.e., non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanic, non-Hispanic Asians, and non-Hispanic African Americans). METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data from the 2020 California Health Interview Survey Adult Data Files (N = 21,280). Adjusting for covariates-including age, gender, COVID-19 pandemic challenges, and risk of severe illness from COVID-19-four sets of weighted binary logistic regressions were conducted. RESULTS: The rates of moderate/severe psychological distress significantly varied across four racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.001), with the highest rate found in the Hispanic group. Across the five domains of social determinants of health, we found that unemployment, food insecurity, housing instability, high educational attainment, usual source of health care, delayed medical care, and low neighborhood social cohesion and safety were associated with high levels of psychological distress in at least one racial/ethnic group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that Hispanic adults face more adverse social determinants of health and are disproportionately impacted by the pandemic. Public health practice and policy should highlight social determinants of heath that are associated with different racial/ethnic groups and develop tailored programs to reduce psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Humans , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Determinants of Health , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 732, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has induced high levels of stress. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between emotional stress (COVID-19 related fear, anger, frustration, and loneliness) and the use of coping strategies among adults in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from adults aged 18 years and above were collected through an online survey from July to December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19 related fear (fear of infection and infecting others with COVID-19), anger, frustration, and loneliness. The independent variables were coping strategies (use of phones to communicate with family and others, video conferencing, indoor exercises, outdoor exercises, meditation/mindfulness practices, engaging in creative activities, learning a new skill, following media coverage related to COVID-19) and alcohol consumption. Five logistic regression models were developed to identify the factors associated with each dependent variables. All models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables (age, sex at birth, and the highest level of education). RESULTS: Respondents who consumed alcohol, followed media coverage for COVID-19 related information, and who spoke with friends or family on the phone had higher odds of having fear of contracting COVID-19 or transmitting infection to others, and of feeling angry, frustrated, or lonely (p < 0.05). Respondents who exercised outdoors (AOR: 0.69) or learned a new skill (AOR: 0.79) had significantly lower odds of having fear of contracting COVID-19. Respondents who practiced meditation or mindfulness (AOR: 1.47) had significantly higher odds of feeling angry. Those who spoke with friends and family on the phone (AOR: 1.32) and exercised indoors (AOR: 1.23) had significantly higher odds of feeling frustrated. Those who did video conferencing (AOR: 1.41), exercised outdoors (AOR: 1.32) and engaged with creative activities (AOR: 1.25) had higher odds of feeling lonely. CONCLUSION: Despite the significant association between emotional stress and use of coping strategies among adults in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic, it appears that coping strategies were used to ameliorate rather than prevent emotional stress. Learning new skills and exercising outdoors were used to ameliorate the fear of contracting COVID-19 in older respondents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adaptation, Psychological , Fear/psychology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of COVID-19, public health policies and public opinions changed from stringent preventive measures against spread of COVID-19 to policies accommodating life with continued, diminished risk for contracting COVID-19. Poland is a country that demonstrated severe psychological impact and negative mental health. The study aims to examine psychological impact and changes in levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among three cross-sectional samples of Polish people and COVID-19-related factors associated with adverse mental health. METHODS: In total, 2324 Polish persons participated in repeated cross-sectional studies across three surveys: Survey 1 (22 to 26 March 2020), Survey 2 (21 October to 3 December 2020), and Survey 3 (3 November to 10 December 2021). Participants completed an online survey, including Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), demographics, knowledge, and concerns of COVID-19 and precautionary measures. RESULTS: A significant reduction of IES-R scores was seen across surveys, while DASS-21 scores were significantly higher in Survey 2. There was significant reduction in the frequency of following COVID-19 news, recent COVID-19 testing, and home isolation from Survey 1 to 3. Being emale was significantly associated with higher IES-R and DASS-21 scores in Surveys 1 and 2. Student status was significantly associated with higher DASS-21 across surveys. Chills, myalgia, and fatigue were significantly associated with high IES-R or DASS-21 scores across surveys. Frequency of wearing masks and perception that mask could reduce risk of COVID-19 were significantly associated with higher IES-R and DASS-21 scores. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The aforementioned findings indicate a reduction in the level of the measured subjective distress andin the frequency of checking COVID-19 news-related information across three periods during the pandemic in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Policy
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 987366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123471

ABSTRACT

Background: To reduce the transmission of COVID-19, many teachers across the globe, including teachers in China, were required to teach online. This shift to online teaching can easily result in psychological need thwarting (PNT) of teachers' psychological basic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), leaving them vulnerable to negative psychological outcomes. Resulting negative emotional state may lead to problematic internet use (PIU), which can lead to further psychological distress, forming a vicious cycle. Methods: The present study was conducted using a cross-lagged panel model (with longitudinal data) and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) (with cross-sectional data). The aims were to investigate (i) the reciprocal relationships between two specific forms of PIU [problematic social media use (PSMU) and problematic gaming (PG)] and psychological distress among schoolteachers, and (ii) the influence of administrators' support on schoolteachers' PIU through a cross-level serial mediation model (PNT of online teaching was the first mediator and psychological distress was the second mediator affected by PNT of online teaching). Primary and secondary schoolteachers (N = 980; mean age = 34.76; 82.90% females) participated in two surveys (Time 1: mid-November 2021; Time 2: early-January 2022). Results: Results indicated that (i) high psychological distress at Time 1 was associated with increased levels of PSMU and PG at Time 2. Inversely, PG at Time 1 was associated with increased psychological distress at Time 2, although PSMU at Time 1 did not have a significant influence on psychological distress at Time 2; (ii) during Time 1, increased administrative support contributed to alleviating teachers' psychological needs thwarting of online teaching, thereby lowering their psychological distress which, in turn, resulted in a decrease in PG. Conclusion: PG had a stronger negative influence on teachers' psychological distress than PSMU. To relieve teachers' PG, administrative support can alleviate teachers' psychological needs thwarting of online teaching and psychological distress. Based on this finding, school managers must consider effective ways to support teachers during mandatory online teaching.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Internet Use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Schools
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 833, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 infection (COVID-19) pandemic is a new global outbreak disease. According to the Taiwan Centers for Diseases Control statement, hospitals had to change their corresponding measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The frequency of parental visits to the special care nursery was reduced from three times to once daily. Visiting was not permitted from April 4 to May 10, 2020, and rooming-in with healthy neonates was discontinued, which could increase maternal postpartum distress. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether COVID-19 prevention increased maternal psychological distress. METHODS: This prospective study used convenience sampling to enroll healthy mothers who had just delivered via normal spontaneous delivery. Based on the neonates' status and visiting times, mothers were grouped into no-rooming-in, rooming-in, no-visiting, and one-visit/day groups. Mothers' baseline characteristics were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and t-test. Salivary cortisol levels and scores of Chinese versions of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were evaluated on postpartum days 1 and 3 and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test. RESULTS: There were 16, 58, 28, and 47 women categorized as no-rooming-in, rooming-in, no-visit, and one-visit/day groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between groups in mothers' baseline characteristics and postpartum salivary cortisol levels. The PSS on day 3 was significantly higher than on day 1 in every group (p < 0.001). The PSS increasing trend in the no-rooming-in group was significantly greater than that in the no-visit group (p = 0.02) and significantly greater in the rooming-in group than that in the one-visit/day group (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Postpartum stress increased for all mothers and was an even more significant response to the COVID-19 pandemic than the stress associated with neonates' hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Prospective Studies , Postpartum Period/psychology , Mothers/psychology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During major pandemics such as COVID-19, the fear of being infected, uncertain prognoses, and the imposition of restrictions may result in greater odds of emotional and psychological distress. Hence, the present study examines the predictors of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, and how they differ by gender. METHODS: Data of 2,756 adults aged 18 years and above from a cross-sectional online survey conducted between July and October 2020 was used for this study. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out. The results were presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with their respective confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Lower odds of psychological distress were found among males compared to females and among individuals aged 45-64 or 65-84 years compared to those aged 18-44. The odds of psychological distress decreased with a rise in income, with individuals whose annual income was greater than or equal to $100,000 being less likely to experience psychological distress compared to those whose income was less than $20,000. The odds of psychological distress were higher among residents of Ontario compared to residents of Quebec. Similarly, the odds of psychological distress were higher among individuals who reported experiencing COVID-19 symptoms compared to those who did not report any COVID-19 symptoms. The disaggregated results by gender showed that age, province, and self-reported COVID-19 symptoms had significant associations with psychological distress in both males and females, but these effects were more pronounced among females compared to males. In addition, income was negatively associated with psychological distress for both males and females, with this effect being stronger among males. CONCLUSION: Five exposure variables (gender, age, province, experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, and total annual income in 2019) significantly predicted the likelihood of reporting psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. Clearly, there is an imminent need to provide mental health support services to vulnerable groups. Additionally, interventions and policies aimed at combating psychological distress during pandemics such as COVID-19 should be gender specific.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Ontario/epidemiology
10.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277757, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119324

ABSTRACT

Grounded in an ecodevelopment perspective, in the current study we examined unique and moderating effects of daily COVID-19 prevalence (social contexts) on effects of COVID-19 related risk and protective factors such as emotional distress (individual contexts) and employment (working from home and unemployment status; family contexts) on family functioning among 160 recent immigrant families in Israel. In general, results indicate several unique effects of COVID-19 related factors (such as COVID-19 emotional distress, unemployment, and remote work arrangements) on both parents' and adolescents' reports of family functioning. However, results indicated that there were more significant associations between COVID-19 factors (e.g., emotional distress and COVID-19 prevalence) and family functioning indicators with adolescents, than with parents. The effects of COVID-19 factors (e.g., emotional distress and remote work arrangements) were moderated by daily COVID-19 prevalence (new cases and deaths). We discuss ways in which interventionists can contribute to pandemic-related research to promote optimal family functioning among immigrant families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Humans , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Israel/epidemiology , Employment , Disease Outbreaks
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277174, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116998

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the mental health of hospital workers. During the prolonged pandemic, hospital workers may experience much more severe psychological distress, leading to an increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to investigate changes in psychological effects on hospital workers over 12 months from the beginning of the pandemic and clarify factors associated with psychological distress and suicide-related ideation 1-year after the pandemic's beginning. These repeated, cross-sectional surveys collected demographic, mental health, and stress-related data from workers in 2 hospitals in Yokohama, Japan. The first survey, conducted in March-April 2020, contained the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) assessing general distress and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) assessing event-related distress. In the second survey in March 2021, hospital workers at the same two hospitals were reassessed using the same questionnaire, and Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was added to assess their suicide-related ideation. The findings of the first and second surveys revealed that the average score of GHQ-12 (3.08 and 3.73, respectively), the IES-R total score (6.8 and 12.12, respectively), and the prevalence rates of severe general distress (35.0% and 44.0%, respectively) and severe event-related distress (7.0% and 17.1%, respectively) deteriorated. The second survey showed that 8.6% of the hospital workers were experiencing suicide-related ideation. Both the general and event-related distress were associated with suicide-related ideation. In these surveys, mental health outcomes among the hospital workers deteriorated over one year from the pandemic's beginning, and their severe psychological distress was the risk factor for the suicide-related ideation. Further studies are needed to compare the psychological effects on hospital workers during and after the prolonged pandemic and to explore appropriate measures to support hospital workers' mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Suicide , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hospitals
12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 707-718, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111422

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on public health, including healthcare workers and healthcare systems, worldwide. Aims: To investigate COVID-19-related psychological impact on healthcare workers in 12 Arab countries. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based online survey conducted between 4 May and 8 June 2020. We evaluated stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Insomnia Severity Index. Results: A total of 2879 respondents from 12 Arab countries completed the survey. Anxiety, depression, stress, and insomnia were reported by 48.9%, 50.6%, 41.4% and 72.1% of respondents, respectively. Lower-middle- and lower-income countries had a significantly higher prevalence of all the psychological outcomes than high-income countries. The prevalence of mental health symptoms was higher among healthcare workers aged 30-39 years, those who worked > 44 hours per week, and those in contact with COVID-19 cases, as well as healthcare workers who were not satisfied with the preventive measures. The prevalence of mental health symptoms was lower among male healthcare workers. Conclusion: COVID-19 had a considerable impact on the mental and psychological health of healthcare workers in Arab countries. This was aggravated by the geopolitical location of some Arab countries and social norms usually observed during the month of Ramadan. Being a physician or a young healthcare worker, and long working hours were risk factors for greater psychological impact of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Arabs , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Psychological Distress
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110094

ABSTRACT

This study examined the association between resilience and psychological distress in healthcare workers, the general population, and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, PsycInfo, Science Direct, and Nursing and Allied Health databases. Included articles examined healthcare workers (e.g., physicians and nurses), the general population, and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies of exposure to other infectious diseases related to epidemics or pandemics (e.g., SARS and MERS) were excluded. This study was performed following the Cooper matrix review method and PRISMA guidelines, followed by a meta-analysis of study results using R version 4.1.2. A random effect model was used for the pooled analysis. This study was registered with PROSPERO (registration No. CRD42021261429). Based on the meta-analysis, we found a moderate negative relationship between overall resilience and psychological distress (r = -0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.45 to -0.38, p < 0.001). For the subgroup analysis, a moderately significant negative relationship between overall resilience and psychological distress was found among healthcare workers (r = -0.39, 95% CI: -0.44 to -0.33, p < 0.001), which was weaker than in the general population (r = -0.45, 95% CI: -0.50 to -0.39, p < 0.001) and in patients (r = -0.43; 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.33; p < 0.001). This association was robust, although the heterogeneity among individual effect sizes was substantial (I2 = 94%, 99%, and 74%, respectively). This study revealed a moderate negative relationship between resilience and psychological distress in healthcare workers, the general population, and patients. For all these populations, interventions and resources are needed to improve individuals' resilience and ability to cope with psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic and in future disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Resilience, Psychological , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110069

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused serious health problems that affected people around the globe. This study aims to understand the physical distress (PhyD), psychological distress (PsyD), and coping experiences among people infected with COVID-19, develop a grounded theory, and examine PhyD, PsyD, and coping among people infected with COVID-19. A sequential exploratory mixed methods strategy is employed. A qualitative procedure is based on a grounded theory; data collection includes observation and in-depth interviews with 25 participants, aged 18 years and above. The quantitative one included 180 participants. Content analysis was applied using the Strauss and Corbin method, and ATLAS.ti software. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and the independent t-test were used. Results: The six major themes, including (1) severity of COVID-19 symptoms, (2) death anxiety, (3) uncertainty, (4) barrier to healthcare access, (5) compliance and self-regulation coping (6) post-COVID-19 effects. PhyD, PsyD, and coping were all at a moderate level. The relationship between PhyD, PsyD, and coping was positive. The prevalence in post-COVID-19 effects was 70% (95% CI 63.3-76.4%). There were higher amounts in women than men. The most frequent residual symptoms were decreased activity tolerance (40%), fatigue (33.3%), anxiety and fear of abnormal lungs (33.3%), dyspnea (27.8%), allergy (24.4%), and lung impairment (22.2%). Moreover, the prevalence of more than two symptoms was 54% (95% CI 47.2-61.7%). This study considers that the healthcare providers should be concerned with sufficient healthcare services. Interventions are needed for supporting their recovery from COVID-19 effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Services , Adaptation, Psychological
15.
Am J Nurs ; 122(11): 57, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103100

ABSTRACT

A journalist investigates and offers a way forward.


Subject(s)
Grief , Nurses , Physicians , Psychological Distress , Humans , Physicians/psychology , Nurses/psychology
16.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The city-wide COVID-19 lockdown has resulted in psychological anguish, which may have an impact on dietary consumption. This study's dual goals are to show how Chinese food consumption was altered before and after the lockdown, and to examine the nutrient density for the psychologically affected group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 652 people from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Macao was conducted with the aid of a web-based questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, related environmental factors, nutrient consumption, food recommendations, and psychological distress were all measured. 516 trustworthy data revealed that two nutrient-poor foods were consumed less frequently during the lockdown than they were before to the COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., salty snacks and alcoholic beverages). People who endured high levels of psychological distress in particular tended to consume more. Particularly, those who experienced high levels of psychological distress had a tendency to consume far more alcohol than people who only experienced low levels of stress. Comparing the time before the COVID-19 to the present, there has statistically been an increase in the frequency of family members recommending diets. According to research, by food advice, individuals who experience psychological distress should consume more nutrient-dense foods (78.7%) than nutrient-poor ones (61.9%). Thus, food advice plays a role in mediating the relationship between psychological distress and dietary decisions for nutrient-rich (b = 0.186, p < 0.001) or nutrient-poor (b = 0.187, p < 0.001) food groups. This study provides insights for lowering psychological distress through dietary consumption, where the exact mechanisms underlying these connections have not been thoroughly elucidated. It encourages nutrition research by recommending practical nutrition education from family and environmental activities. Chronic psychological anguish may have a crucial relationship to secure access to food and a balanced diet. Along with nutrition instruction, it is critical to develop skills in interventions such as food procurement and culinary knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Snacks , Nutrients
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e059860, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors for workplace bullying and mental health outcomes among workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A nationwide online survey was conducted from August to September 2020 in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 16 384 workers (men: n=9565; women: n=6789). MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLES: Workplace bullying was measured by one item from the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire; severe psychological distress according to the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (≥13) and suicidal ideation by one item. Prevalence ratios were calculated by modified Poisson regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders such as gender, age, occupational characteristics and a prior history of depression. RESULTS: Overall, 15% of workers experienced workplace bullying, 9% had severe psychological distress and 12% had suicidal ideation during the second and third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The results of this study showed men, executives, managers and permanent employees had a higher risk of bullying than women or part-time workers. Increased physical and psychological demands were common risk factors for bullying, severe psychological distress and suicidal ideation. Starting to work from home was a significant predictor for adverse mental health outcomes but a preventive factor against workplace bullying. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed different high-risk groups for bullying or mental health during the pandemic. Any intervention to decrease workplace bullying or mental health problems should focus not only on previously reported vulnerable workers but also workers who have experienced a change in work style or job demands.


Subject(s)
Bullying , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Psychological Distress , Male , Female , Humans , Suicidal Ideation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Workplace/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
18.
J Neurol ; 269(12): 6202-6210, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: An earlier follow-up study from the CogEx rehabilitation trial showed little change in symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress during the first COVID-19 lockdown compared to pre-pandemic measurements. Here, we provide a second follow-up set of behavioral data on the CogEx sample. METHODS: This was an ancillary, longitudinal follow-up study in CogEx, a randomized controlled trial of exercise and cognitive rehabilitation in people with progressive MS involving 11 centres in North America and Europe. Only individuals impaired on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) were included. Participants repeated the COVID Impact survey administered approximately a year later and completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety and MS symptoms that had been obtained at the trial baseline and during the first COVID Impact survey. Participants who completed the second COVID Impact follow-up were included. To identify predictors of the participants' ratings of their mental and physical well-being, step-wise linear regression was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 131 participants who completed the first COVID impact survey, 74 participants completed the second follow-up survey (mean age 52 (SD = 6.4) years, 62.2% female, mean disease duration 16.4 (SD = 9.0) years, median EDSS 6.0). Pandemic restrictions prevented data collection from sites in Denmark and England (n = 57). The average time between measurements was 11.4 (SD = 5.56) months. There were no significant differences in age, sex, EDSS, disease course and duration between those who participated in the current follow-up study (n = 74) and the group that could not (n = 57). One participant had COVID in the time between assessments. Participants now took a more negative view of their mental/psychological well-being (p = 0.0001), physical well-being (p = 0.0009) and disease course (p = 0.005) compared to their last assessment. Depression scores increased on the HADS-depression scale (p = 0.01) and now exceeded the clinically significant threshold of ≥ 8.0 for the first time. Anxiety scores on the HADS remained unchanged. Poorer mental well-being was predicted by HADS depression scores (p = 0.012) and a secondary-progressive disease course (p = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: A longer follow-up period revealed the later onset of clinically significant depressive symptoms on the HADS and a decline in self-perceptions of mental and physical well-being associated with the COVID-19 pandemic relative to the first follow-up data point. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on September 20th 2018 at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov having identifier NCT03679468. Registration was performed before recruitment was initiated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis , Psychological Distress , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Pandemics , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/diagnosis
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090168

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and related disruptions have not only affected university students' learning and academic outcomes, but also other issues, such as food security status, mental health and employment. In Australia, international students faced additional pressures due to sudden border closures and lack of eligibility for government-provided financial support. This study explored the experiences of domestic and international university students residing in Australia during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic across a range of outcomes. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between July and September 2020 at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. The online survey included food insecurity status, mental health (psychological distress), disruptions to study, employment and sleep. A total of 105 students (n = 66 domestic and n = 39 international) completed the survey. Respondents reported having food insecurity (41.9%) and psychological distress (52.2%, with high and very high levels), with international students reporting significantly higher food insecurity (OR = 9.86 (95% CI 3.9-24.8), p < 0.001) and psychological distress scores (t(90) = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.30 to 8.81, p = 0.009) than domestic students. About one quarter of all respondents reported disruptions to study and employment status around the time of the survey. When asked what government support should be provided for international students, 'financial aid' was the most frequently suggested form of support. This research may help governments and educational institutions design appropriate support, particularly financial and psychological, for both international and domestic university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Australia/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Food Insecurity
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090151

ABSTRACT

Psychosocial job stressors increase the risk of mental health problems for the workers in health and social services (HSS). Although previous studies suggest that the accumulation of two or more stressors is detrimental to mental health, few studies have examined the synergistic interaction of accumulating job stressors. We examined survey responses from 9855 Finnish HSS workers in a cross-sectional study design from 2021. We conducted an interaction analysis of high job demands, low rewards and low workplace social capital on psychological distress, focusing on the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Additionally, we analysed the interaction of job demands, low rewards and COVID-19 burden (extra workload and emotional load). Our analysis showed that the total RERI for the job stressors on psychological distress was considerable (6.27, 95% CI 3.14, 9.39). The total excess risk was caused by two-way interactions, especially between high demands and low rewards and by the three-way interaction of all stressors. The total RERI for job demands, low reward and COVID-19 burden (3.93, 95% CI 1.15, 6.72), however, was caused entirely by two-way interaction between high demands and low rewards. Mental health interventions tackling high demands, low rewards and low social capital are jointly needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Pandemics , Workplace/psychology , Workload/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Job Satisfaction
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