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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(17)2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738524

ABSTRACT

Since the initiation of the COVID-19 lockdown, Italian parents have been forced to manage their children at home. The present study aimed at investigating the psychological distress of parents during the lockdown, identifying contributing factors. An online survey was administered to 833 participants from 3 to 15 April 2020. Mediation and moderated mediation models were run to explore the association between parent neuroticism and parent distress, mediated by child hyperactivity-inattention and child emotional symptoms, and the moderating effect of living only with child(ren) on the direct and indirect effects of parent neuroticism on parent distress. For parents living only with child(ren), high levels of psychological distress depended exclusively on their levels of neuroticism. For parents living with at least one other person in addition to child(ren), distress levels were also mediated by child behavioral and emotional difficulties. Motherhood emerged as a significant factor contributing to greater distress. Furthermore, parent psychological distress decreased in line with increased child age. The results confirm that neuroticism is an important risk factor for mental health. Preventive measures should be primarily target multicomponent families with younger children and directed towards parents who are already known to present emotional instability and to parents of children who have received local mental health assistance for behavioral and/or emotional difficulties.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Family , Parents/psychology , Personality , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Betacoronavirus , Child , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics , Problem Behavior
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 426, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological status of the general population in mainland China during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to explore the factors influencing psychological distress, in order to provide the basis for further psychological intervention programs. METHODS: We administered three questionnaires on-line to a convenience sample of the general population from different regions of mainland China from February 1 to February 4, 2020. We used the Mandarin versions of the six-item Kessler psychological distress scale (K6), the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). We also collected demographic data and other information related to the COVID-19 outbreak. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing psychological distress. RESULTS: Of 1607 respondents, 1588 returned valid questionnaires and were included in the analysis. Nearly one quarter (22.8%) had high levels of psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 13). Individuals with higher psychological distress were more likely to be unmarried, spend more than 6 h per day searching for information about COVID-19, more frequently adopt a passive coping style, and report less social support than those with lower psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak in China has a great impact on the mental health status of the general population. Active coping strategies and increased social support are significantly correlated with decreased psychological distress, and may serve as the basis for psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Social Support , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Public Health/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Sleep Med ; 75: 12-20, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731180

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global health emergency. The extreme actions aimed to reduce virus diffusion have profoundly changed the lifestyles of the Italian population. Moreover, fear of contracting the infection has generated high levels of anxiety. This study aimed to understand the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on sleep quality, general anxiety symptomatology, and psychological distress. Methods: An online survey collected information on socio-demographic data and additional information concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, sleep quality, sleep disorders, generalized anxiety symptoms, psychological distress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology related to COVID-19 were assessed. Results: This study included 2291 respondents. The results revealed that 57.1% of participants reported poor sleep quality, 32.1% high anxiety, 41.8% high distress, and 7.6% reported PTSD symptomatology linked to COVID-19. Youth and women, those uncertain regarding possible COVID-19 infection, and greater fear of direct contact with those infected by COVID-19 had an increased risk of developing sleep disturbances, as well as higher levels of anxiety and distress. Finally, a significant relationship between sleep quality, generalized anxiety, and psychological distress with PTSD symptoms related to COVID-19 was evidenced. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic appears to be a risk factor for sleep disorders and psychological diseases in the Italian population, as previously reported in China. These results should be used as a starting point for further studies aimed to develop psychological interventions to minimize the brief and long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Italy , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology
4.
Pflege ; 33(4): 247-255, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723140

ABSTRACT

Between dream and distress - Setting up and running a cohort ward for COVID-19 Patients at an acute hospital - A case study Abstract. Background: In the context of the pandemic, hospitals must be able to care for COVID-19 patients within a very short timeframe. OBJECTIVE: Description of the setting up of a cohort ward for patients with COVID-19 on a surgical ward including the development of the nursing team. METHODS: The intrinsic retrospective case study describes the situation, identifies special phenomena in a reflective manner and links them to existing knowledge. Data were anecdotal, routine data were collected in the context of nursing practice development. RESULTS: Setting up the cohort ward in a Swiss hospital consisted of structural and technical planning, infection control measures, the establishment of interprofessional structures, and internal communication. During the four-week operation, 71 patients were treated. The use of practice development methodology initiated a cultural change. The reflection describes a field of tension between "dream and distress": As a dream, the lived experience of optimal care, with well-functioning processes, sufficient material, sufficient personnel and a very good interprofessional cooperation was evaluated. Distress in the form of high infection rates as well as psychological and physical stress did not occur. After the cohort ward was closed, there was a risk working back in normal operations based on existing economical and organizational conditions, with the knowledge that a different cooperation and organization is possible. CONCLUSIONS: Positive experiences from the "crisis mode" should be used to further develop essential operations during normal times.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Retrospective Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
5.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 100, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress is highly prevalent among migraineurs during public health emergencies. The coronavirus disease 2019 (nCOV-2019) has created mass panic in China due to its highly contagious by contact and aerosols and lack of effective treatment. However, the emotion status of migraineurs stayed unclear during the nCOV-2019 outbreak. OBJECTIVE: To understand psychological distress of migraineurs by comparing with common population and identify potential high-risk factors of severe psychological distress among migraine patients. METHOD: We enrolled the migraineurs treated at the department of Neurology of West China Hospital and healthy controls with age- and sex-matched to migraineurs. Data on clinicodemographics and psychological distress in the month of February 2020 (during in the nCOV-2019 outbreak in China) were collected. We used the Kessler 6-item (K-6) scale to assess psychological distress. Potential risk factors of severe psychological distress were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The 144 migraineurs and 150 controls were included in the study. Migraineurs showed significantly higher K-6 scores than controls (P < 0.001). Migraine attack frequency in previous 30 days and time spent paying attention to outbreak showed significant in multivariate logistic regression with respective odds ratios of 2.225 (95%CI 1.361-3.628, P = 0.001) and 1.589 (95% 1.117-2.26, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: During public health outbreaks, healthcare professionals should focus not only on controlling and reducing migraine attack but also on mental health of migraineurs, especially those with high frequency migraine attack.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Migraine Disorders , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 402, 2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused serious psychological problems, including panic attack, anxiety, stress, and depression. The main objective of this study was to measure the prevalence and compare the severity of this psychological distress among four groups of an Iranian population. METHOD: In a cross-sectional survey, the mental health status of four groups of an Iranian society including community population, patients with COVID-19, medical staff, and medical students were investigated by the self-report questionnaire of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). DASS-21 questionnaire and the demographic data sheet were filled out by the participants. All statistical analyses were done using R version 3.6.1 software. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. ANOVA test was used to compare the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression between the four study groups. RESULTS: Of the 886 participants in this survey, 554 (62.5%) were men and 332 (37.5%) were women, and the mean ± standard division of age was 40.91 ± 10.7 years. Among these participants, 241 (27.2%) were selected from community population, 221 (24.9%) were patients with COVID-19, 217 (24.5%) were medical staff, and 207 (23.4%) were medical students. The mean score of stress, anxiety, and depression in medical students and patients with COVID-19 was significantly higher than in medical staff and community population (P < 0.05). Overall, the anxiety score in men was higher than that in women (27.4 ± 4.6 vs. 26.48 ± 4.8, P = 0.006), and unmarried participants had a significantly higher depression score compared with the married group (27.5 ± 4.8 vs. 26.7 ± 4.6, P = 0.023). In addition, the score of depression was higher in female medical staff (27.08 ± 4.6 vs. 25.33 ± 4.3, P = 0.011) and community population (26.6 ± 4.3 vs. 25.3 ± 4.3, P = 0.02) than in male. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients and medical students in contact with these patients were at a high risk for mental illness due to lower experience compared with professional medical staff and community population. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of psychological distress for outbreaks should become a routine part of preparedness efforts worldwide.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7869-7879, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: On March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of a new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), to be a pandemic. From the beginning, Italy (in particular the Northern regions) was the first large European country to be hit and one of the most affected countries worldwide. This had a significant impact on the workload and psychological health of health workers. The aim of this web-based cross-sectional study is to assess the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on Italian doctors' well-being and psychological distress, in respect of demographic and occupational characteristics, lifestyle and habits during the lockdown period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a web-based cross-sectional survey based on Google® Forms to collect data. The participation was available during the lockdown period that started in Italy on March 9, 2020 and it was voluntary and anonymous. The questionnaire explored demographic and occupational variables, lifestyle and habits during the lockdown, perceived well-being and psychological distress. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. RESULTS: Our study reported the very alarming psychological conditions of Italian doctors, especially among those who worked in the most affected regions, where a level of psychological distress of 93.8% and poor well-being of 58.9% were registered. These percentages were even higher in the case of female hospital workers with low job seniority, and those caring for COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reported a significant psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Italian doctors, particularly among those working in the most affected regions of the country. Further studies are necessary to better understand the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on doctors' well-being and mental health over time, in order to implement effective prevention measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Italy , Loneliness , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine , Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039832, 2020 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690497

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has exposed healthcare professionals (HCPs) to exceptional situations that can lead to increased anxiety (ie, infection anxiety and perceived vulnerability), traumatic stress and depression. We will investigate the development of these psychological disturbances in HCPs at the treatment front line and second line during the COVID-19 pandemic over a 12-month period in different countries. Additionally, we will explore whether personal resilience factors and a work-related sense of coherence influence the development of mental health problems in HCPs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to carry out a sequential qualitative-quantitative mixed-methods design study. The quantitative phase consists of a longitudinal online survey based on six validated questionnaires, to be completed at three points in time. A qualitative analysis will follow at the end of the pandemic to comprise at least nine semistructured interviews. The a priori sample size for the survey will be a minimum of 160 participants, which we will extend to 400, to compensate for dropout. Recruitment into the study will be through personal invitations and the 'snowballing' sampling technique. Hierarchical linear regression combined with qualitative data analysis, will facilitate greater understanding of any associations between resilience and mental health issues in HCPs during pandemics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study participants will provide electronic informed consent. All recorded data will be stored on a secured research server at the study site, which will only be accessible to the investigators. The Bern Cantonal Ethics Committee has waiv ed the need for ethical approval (Req-2020-00355, 1 April 2020). There are no ethical, legal or security issues regarding the data collection, processing, storage and dissemination in this project. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13694948.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Occupational Exposure , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Research Design , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Cogitare enferm ; 25: e73571, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-677822

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: refletir sobre o processo de morrer e morte de pacientes com Covid-19 à luz da espiritualidade. DESENVOLVIMENTO: em meio à pandemia provocada pelo novo Coronavírus, mais uma vez nos defrontamos com a temida morte, com um agravante: mortes em números crescentes e marcadas pela ausência da oportunidade de um momento para despedidas, pacientes morrendo em companhia apenas dos profissionais de saúde, e os corpos seguindo direto para os cemitérios. Cabe-nos discutir um elemento pelo qual a maioria das pessoas busca uma fortaleza, a espiritualidade. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: importa compreender o sentido da espiritualidade por parte dos profissionais de saúde, em busca do apoio aos pacientes em processo de morrer e às famílias enlutadas, o que a torna um potencial integrador e harmonizador das relações interpessoais.


OBJETIVO: reflexionar acerca del proceso de morir y de muerte de pacientes con Covid-19 a la luz de la espiritualidad. DESARROLLO: en razón de la pandemia provocada por el nuevo Coronavirus, una vez más uno se queda delante de la muerte, pero con un agravante: muertes en números crecientes y señaladas por la ausencia da oportunidad de un momento para despedidas, pacientes muriendo solos, en compañía únicamente de los profesionales de salud, y los cuerpos siguiendo directamente a los cementerios. El objetivo es, por lo tanto, discutir un elemento por el cual la mayoría de las personas busca una fuente de fuerza, la espiritualidad. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: es importante comprender el sentido de la espiritualidad por parte de los profesionales de salud, en búsqueda del apoyo a los pacientes en proceso de morir y a las familias enlutadas, lo que los vuelve un potencial integrador y armonizador de las relaciones interpersonales.


OBJECTIVE: to reflect on the dying process and death of patients with Covid-19 in the light of spirituality. DEVELOPMENT: Amid the pandemic caused by the new Coronavirus, we once again face the feared death, with an aggravating factor: increasing number of deaths characterized by the lack of opportunity for the individuals to say goodbye to their loved ones, dying patients accompanied only by health professionals, and bodies taken directly to the cemeteries. It is worth discussing here an element through which most people seek strength: spirituality. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Understanding the sense of spirituality on the part of health professionals, in search of support for dying patients and bereaved families is important, as spirituality can be a potential factor of integration and harmonization of interpersonal relationships.


Subject(s)
Humans , Attitude to Death , Coronavirus Infections , Nurse's Role/psychology , Spirituality , Pandemics , Psychological Distress
12.
J Affect Disord ; 276: 765-774, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are increasingly recognized as a significant and concerning secondary effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. Research on previous epidemics/pandemics suggest that families, particularly mothers, may be at increased risk, but this population has yet to be examined. The current study (1) described prevalence rates of maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms from an online convenience sample during the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) identified risk and protective factors for elevated symptoms, and (3) described current mental health service use and barriers. METHODS: Participants (N = 641) were mothers of children age 0-8 years, including expectant mothers. Mothers completed an online survey assessing mental health, sociodemographic information, and COVID-19-related variables. RESULTS: Clinically-relevant depression was indicated in 33.16%, 42.55%, and 43.37% of mothers of children age 0-18 months, 18 months to 4 years, and 5 to 8 years, respectively. Prevalence of anxiety was 36.27%, 32.62%, and 29.59% for mothers across age groups, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated significant associations between risk factors and depression/anxiety across child age groups. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional data was used to describe maternal mental health problems during COVID-19 limiting the ability to make inferences about the long-term impact of maternal depression and anxiety on family well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal depression and anxiety appear to be elevated in the context of COVID-19 compared to previously reported population norms. Identified risk factors for depression and anxiety across different child age ranges can inform targeted early intervention strategies to prevent long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on family well-being and child development.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Mental Health Services , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Mothers , Prevalence , Young Adult
13.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(5): 471-472, 2020 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656014

ABSTRACT

"The concept of total wellness recognizes that our every thought, word, and behavior affect our greater health and well-being. And we, in turn, are affected not only emotionally but also physically and spiritually."-Greg Anderson.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , Psychological Distress
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(14)2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649123

ABSTRACT

Psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic is not solely limited to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It may also be related to social, cultural, and environmental factors, which may act as additional stressors. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between psychological distress and subjective overload among dentists in different countries, and whether it is associated with COVID-19-related factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1302 dentists from China, India, Israel, Italy, and the UK, who filled out demographics data, COVID-19-related factor questions, subjective overload, and psychological distress scales. Our findings showed that the positive association between subjective overload and psychological distress was different among countries, suggesting higher rate of intensity in Italy compared to China, India, and Israel (the UK was near significance with China and Israel). The interaction variable of the subjective overload × psychological distress was significantly associated with a particular country, with those individuals reporting fear of contracting COVID-19 from patients, fear of their families contracting COVID-19, and receiving enough professional knowledge regarding COVID-19. Given the above, dentists were found to have elevated levels of subjective overload and psychological distress, which differed among the countries, presumably due to certain background issues such as social, cultural, and environmental factors.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dentists/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
15.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 34(7): 270-271, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648015

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer represent a vulnerable population and are at greater risk of developing serious complications as a result of a COVID-19 infection. In response, oncology societies around the world have proposed changes to their standards of care. These changes have helped guide health care providers in prioritizing clinical management of patients with cancer: identifying situations in which urgent intervention is needed and those that can be triaged until the risk of infection has lessened.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Pathways/trends , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Neoplasms , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Psycho-Oncology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/psychology , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Patient Care Management/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Psycho-Oncology/methods , Psycho-Oncology/trends , Psychological Distress
16.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 607-617, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647841

ABSTRACT

Quarantine plays a key role in controlling the pandemic of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study investigated (a) the associations between mandatory quarantine status and negative cognitions (perceived discrimination because of COVID-19 and perceived risk of COVID-19 infection)/mental health status (emotional distress because of COVID-19, probable depression, and self-harm/suicidal ideation), (b) the associations between the negative cognitions and mental health status, and (c) potential mediations between quarantined status and probable depression and self-harm/suicidal ideation via COVID-19-related negative cognitions/emotional distress. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 24,378 students of 26 universities in 16 Chinese cities (February 1-10, 2020). Correlation coefficients, odds ratios (OR), structural equation modeling, and other statistics were used for data analysis. Mandatory quarantined status was significantly and positively associated with perceived discrimination (Cohen's d = 0.62), perceived high/very high risk of infection (OR = 1.61), emotional distress (Cohen's d = 0.46), probable depression (OR = 2.54), and self-harm/suicidal ideation (OR = 4.98). Perceived discrimination was moderately and positively associated with emotional distress (Spearman correlation = 0.44). Associations between perceived risk of infection and mental health variables were significant but relatively weak. Cross-sectional mediation models showed good model fit, but the overall indirect paths via COVID-19-related negative cognitions/emotional distress only accounted for 12-15% of the total effects between quarantined status and probable depression and self-harm/suicidal ideation. In conclusion, quarantined participants were more likely than others to perceive discrimination and exhibit mental distress. It is important to integrate mental health care into the planning and implementation of quarantine measures. Future longitudinal studies to explore mechanisms underlying the mental health impact of quarantines are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Cognition , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Mandatory Programs , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Risk , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
18.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 40(3): 211-214, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643938

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic can cause significant mental health distress among health care professionals (HCPs). We describe the psychological needs of HCPs during COVID-19 and the implementation of Project Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) Coping with COVID (ECHO-CWC) to help HCPs manage COVID-19 distress. METHODS: We used an established rapid implementation approach to accelerate the development and delivery of ECHO-CWC to address the emerging needs of HCPs. Participants' needs were identified using a 10-question survey of participants' perceived risk of COVID-19 and a five-item self-efficacy measure. Implementation outcomes consisted of participant engagement and session satisfaction scores using a five-point Likert scale. RESULTS: A total of 426 participants registered for ECHO-CWC. Needs assessment data (n = 129) showed that most participants reported feeling increased stress at work (84.5%), fear of infecting others (75.2%), and fear of falling ill (70.5%) from COVID-19, yet most participants accepted the risk associated with work during this time (59.7%). Participants were highly satisfied with the initial five sessions (mean = 4.26). DISCUSSION: HCPs reported the greatest concern with fears of infection and infecting others during the acute phase of the pandemic. Using an iterative curriculum design approach and existing implementation frameworks, the ECHO tele-education model can be rapidly mobilized to address HCPs' mental health needs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Services Needs and Demand , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 22(8): 43, 2020 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640028

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to provide quantitative evidence on the psychological impact of epidemic/pandemic outbreaks (i.e., SARS, MERS, COVID-19, ebola, and influenza A) on healthcare workers (HCWs). RECENT FINDINGS: Forty-four studies are included in this review. Between 11 and 73.4% of HCWs, mainly including physicians, nurses, and auxiliary staff, reported post-traumatic stress symptoms during outbreaks, with symptoms lasting after 1-3 years in 10-40%. Depressive symptoms are reported in 27.5-50.7%, insomnia symptoms in 34-36.1%, and severe anxiety symptoms in 45%. General psychiatric symptoms during outbreaks have a range comprised between 17.3 and 75.3%; high levels of stress related to working are reported in 18.1 to 80.1%. Several individual and work-related features can be considered risk or protective factors, such as personality characteristics, the level of exposure to affected patients, and organizational support. Empirical evidence underlines the need to address the detrimental effects of epidemic/pandemic outbreaks on HCWs' mental health. Recommendations should include the assessment and promotion of coping strategies and resilience, special attention to frontline HCWs, provision of adequate protective supplies, and organization of online support services.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/etiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(13)2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639007

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, is a highly contagious infectious disease declared by the World Health Organization to be a pandemic and a global public health emergency. During outbreaks, health care workers are submitted to an enormous emotional burden as they must balance the fundamental "duty to treat" with their parallel duties to family and loved ones. The aims of our study were to evaluate disease perceptions, levels of stress, emotional distress, and coping strategies among medical staff (COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 departments) in a tertiary pulmonology teaching hospital in the first month after the outbreak of COVID-19. One hundred and fifteen health care workers completed four validated questionnaires (the brief illness perception questionnaire, perceived stress scale, the profile of emotional distress emotional, and the cognitive coping evaluation questionnaire) that were afterwards interpreted by one psychologist. There was a high level of stress and psychological distress among health care workers in the first month after the pandemic outbreak. Interestingly, there were no differences between persons that worked in COVID-19 departments versus those working in non-COVID-19 departments. Disease perceptions and coping mechanisms were similar in the two groups. As coping mechanisms, refocusing on planning and positive reappraisal were used more than in the general population. There is no difference in disease perceptions, levels of stress, emotional distress, and coping strategies in medical staff handling COVID-19 patients versus those staff who were not handling COVID-19 patients in the first month after the pandemic outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Romania/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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