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1.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 189-198, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to compare the emotional effects of COVID-19 among three different groups, namely: health personnel, medical students, and a sample of the general population. METHODS: 375 participants were recruited for this study, of which 125 were medical students (preclinical studies, 59; clinical studies, 66), 125 were health personnel (COVID-19 frontline personnel, 59; personnel not related with COVID-19, 66), and 125 belonged to the general population. The PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CPDI scales were used to assess the emotional impact. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure differences between groups, considering potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Regarding CPDI values, all other groups showed reduced values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. However, the general population, preclinical and clinical medical students showed increased PHQ-9 values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. Finally, confounding factors, gender and age correlated negatively with higher CPDI and PHQ-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Being frontline personnel is associated with increased COVID-19-related stress. Depression is associated, however, with other groups not directly involved with the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Female gender and younger age correlated with COVID-19-related depression and stress.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 214-224, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused feelings of anxiety, confusion, and panic among the world population. Due to these psychological changes resulting from the stress produced by the disease, we sought to investigate the psychological impact of the pandemic on the university student community. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1,283 students were surveyed, of which 1,149 students were selected. The majority of the subjects were female, and the overall average age was of 20 years. They were provided with an 82-question online questionnaire divided into four sections; looking for the prevalence of significant symptomatology of major depression and generalised anxiety using the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales; and factors that potentially affect the mental health of our university population. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of significant depression (47.08%) and anxiety (27.06%) symptomatology, considering a score of 10 or more as cut-off point. There was no significant difference in depression and anxiety symptomatology between the health-care students and non-health-care students. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, together with what is observed in the literature, allow us to conclude that the college student population has a high risk of mental illness, and these should be taken into consideration for the search of effective strategies for detection and control of mental health illnesses. Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic is a red flag that shows the need to upgrade mental health programmes in universities and to validate virtual instruments.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Students/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Occupations/education , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychological Tests , Social Determinants of Health , Universities , Young Adult
3.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 166-175, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347800

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the emergence of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the world has faced a pandemic with consequences at all levels. In many countries, the health systems collapsed and healthcare professionals had to be on the front line of this crisis. The adverse effects on the mental health of healthcare professionals have been widely reported. This research focuses on identifying the main factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on surveys, applying the PHQ-9, GAD-7, ISI and EIE-R tests to healthcare professionals from Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: 1028 participants, distributed in: 557 physicians (54.18%), 349 nurses (33.94%), 29 laboratory workers (2.82%), 27 paramedics (2.62%), 52 psychologists (5.05%) and 14 respiratory therapists (1.36%), from 16 of the 24 provinces of Ecuador. Of these, 27.3% presented symptoms of depression, 39.2% anxiety symptoms, 16.3% insomnia and 43.8% symptoms of PTSD, with the 4 types of symptoms ranging from moderate to severe. The most relevant associated factors were: working in Guayas (the most affected province) (OR = 2.18 for depressive symptoms and OR = 2.59 for PTSD symptoms); being a postgraduate doctor (OR = 1.52 for depressive symptoms and OR = 1.57 for insomnia), perception of not having the proper protective equipment (OR = 1.71 for symptoms of depression and OR = 1.57 for symptoms of anxiety) and being a woman (OR = 1.39 for anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals can suffer a significant mental condition that may require psychiatric and psychological intervention. The main associated factors are primarily related to living and working in cities with a higher number of cases and the characteristics of the job, such as being a postgraduate doctor, as well as the perception of security. The main risk factors are primarily related to geographical distribution and job characteristics, such as being a resident physician and self-perception of safety. Further studies are required as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 27(1): 184-190, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) in family medicine (FM) in Croatia work in a demanding environment caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Besides particular circumstances in healthcare, an unknown virus, social distancing, and homeschooling, the capital was hit with the earthquake during the lockdown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of demographic characteristics, professional differences, medical history, and specific stressors on the psychological outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the online questionnaire containing the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was conducted from 1st to 15 May 2020 in FM. RESULTS: HCPs (534, 35% response rate), predominantly female (84.5%), participated in the research. High prevalence of stress (30.9%), anxiety (33.1%), depression (30.7%), and PTSD (33.0%) were found. Female participants had higher results in the anxiety subscale of DASS-21 and IES-R scores. Pre-existing conditions were associated with higher levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and PTSD. The IES-R score for PTSD showed borderline correlation (p = 0.053) with working in regions with the highest incidence of COVID-19. Having schoolchildren made a difference on a stress subscale in DASS-21 (p < 0.043), but the earthquake did not have an impact. CONCLUSION: Family physicians and nurses in FM in Croatia are under a great mental load during the COVID-19 outbreak. Results suggest that HCPs of the female sex, with pre-existing chronic conditions, work in regions with a high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 or have schoolchildren at greater risk of the poor psychological outcome.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Nurses/psychology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Physicians, Family/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Disasters , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Earthquakes , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Stress/diagnosis , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295893

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic enforced social restrictions with abrupt impacts on mental health and changes to health behaviors. From a randomized clinical trial, we assessed the impact of culinary education on home cooking practices, coping strategies and resiliency during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March/April 2020). Participants (n = 28) were aged 25-70 years with a BMI of 27.5-35 kg/m2. The intervention consisted of 12 weekly 30-min one-on-one telemedicine culinary coaching sessions. Coping strategies were assessed through the Brief Coping with Problems Experienced Inventory, and resiliency using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Home cooking practices were assessed through qualitative analysis. The average use of self-care as a coping strategy by the intervention group was 6.14 (1.66), compared to the control with 4.64 (1.69); p = 0.03. While more intervention participants had high (n = 5) and medium (n = 8) resiliency compared to controls (n = 4, n = 6, respectively), this difference was not significant (p = 0.33). Intervention participants reported using home cooking skills such as meal planning and time saving techniques during the pandemic. The key findings were that culinary coaching via telemedicine may be an effective intervention for teaching home cooking skills and promoting the use of self-care as a coping strategy during times of stress, including the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Cooking , Education, Distance/methods , Emotional Adjustment , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Cooking/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/therapy , Psychological Tests , Resilience, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(5): 657-673, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258552

ABSTRACT

New labor market entrants face significant hurdles when searching for a job, with these stressors likely amplified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we consider how COVID-induced job search anxiety-feeling anxious about one's job search due to issues imposed by the pandemic-has the potential to affect adaptive, goal-directed efforts, and maladaptive, goal-avoidant reactions. We theorize that this anxiety can prompt job seekers to engage in problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination, with these experiences relating to whether job seekers engage in various forms of search-related efforts the following week. In particular, we consider whether job seekers are engaging in dream job search effort (i.e., effort toward pursuing one's dream job), as well as focused (i.e., effort toward a selection of carefully screened jobs), exploratory (i.e., effort toward a wide swath of jobs in a broad manner), and haphazard (i.e., effort toward applying for any job without a clear plan) job search effort. Further, we consider how stable beliefs relevant to the pandemic (i.e., belief in conspiracy theories; belief in COVID-19 being a public health crisis) affect the aforementioned relationships. Using a weekly study of 162 new labor market entrants, results indicated that COVID-induced job search anxiety positively related to problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination; problem-solving pondering promoted dream, focused, and exploratory job search effort the following week, whereas affect-focused rumination hindered dream job search effort. Finally, the detrimental effects of COVID-induced job search anxiety via affect-focused rumination were amplified for those who held higher levels of conspiracy theory beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Job Application , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Problem Solving , Psychological Tests , Rumination, Cognitive , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 50(3): 214-224, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253525

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused feelings of anxiety, confusion, and panic among the world population. Due to these psychological changes resulting from the stress produced by the disease, we sought to investigate the psychological impact of the pandemic on the university student community. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1,283 students were surveyed, of which 1,149 students were selected. The majority of the subjects were female, and the overall average age was of 20 years. They were provided with an 82-question online questionnaire divided into four sections; looking for the prevalence of significant symptomatology of major depression and generalised anxiety using the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales; and factors that potentially affect the mental health of our university population. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of significant depression (47.08%) and anxiety (27.06%) symptomatology, considering a score of 10 or more as cut-off point. There was no significant difference in depression and anxiety symptomatology between the health-care students and non-health-care students. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, together with what is observed in the literature, allow us to conclude that the college student population has a high risk of mental illness, and these should be taken into consideration for the search of effective strategies for detection and control of mental health illnesses. Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic is a red flag that shows the need to upgrade mental health programmes in universities and to validate virtual instruments.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Students/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Occupations/education , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Social Determinants of Health , Universities , Young Adult
9.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 50(3): 176-183, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228144

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to determine the usefulness of the Modified (10-item) Scale of Perceived Stress related to COVID-19 (EEP-10-C, for its acronym in Spanish) and to identify the levels of stress perceived by students of medical sciences in Cuba due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, with self-reported data of students from 14 Cuban universities of medical sciences (n=200), through an online survey. The EEP-10-C was used as an instrument to identify stress. Its validity was determined through a confirmatory factor analysis and its internal consistency and reliability was measured by the Cronbach's alpha. A cluster analysis was performed to establish as the cut-off point the centre of the cluster with the highest values of stress perceived by the scale. RESULTS: The average age of the sample was 23.30± 1.91 years, with observed scores of the EEP-10-C between 0 and 29 points (13.25±5.404). When applying the cut-off point ≥25, only two students had high rates of perceived stress. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the instrument (α=0.755). The cut-off point ≥20 was proposed as a reference of high stress perceived for the study population, when applying this one, 14% of students presented high rates of stress. CONCLUSIONS: In Cuba, students of the medical sciences have participated in research and healthcare support, despite which they have presented low levels of stress. The main contribution of the research was the validation of the EEP-10-C for its use in assessing levels of stress in Cuban medical students, proposing the cut-off point ≥20 as a reference of high stress perceived.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Surveys , Psychological Tests , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics , Perception , Reproducibility of Results , Self Report , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 254-257, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, it has been seen that patients recovering from COVID-19 may face a second battle of coping with its mental health ramifications. These psychological issues can even be experienced by patients who were asymptomatic or had mild to moderate symptoms, potentially impacting their quality of life. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective observational study to analyse the psychological impact of COVID-19 in recovered patients who presented as prospective convalescent plasma (CP) donors. An interview for the psychological assessment of the prospective donors was carried out. Depression and anxiety in the participants were assessed by HAM-A, and HAM-D scores and Quality of Life were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF scale. RESULTS: A total of 51 prospective donors were assessed, with a mean age of 34.37 (±9.08) years, with the majority being males (46). No clinically significant depression and anxiety were found on the basis of HAM-D and HAM-A scores. The worst affected quality of life parameter, based on the WHOQOL-BREF scale, was physical quality of life followed by environmental, psychological, and social relationships. Moreover, due to infection, social stigma was experienced by 49.02% of the donors, while 21.97% had anxiety related to convalescent plasma donation as a common livid experience. CONCLUSION: Poor quality of life and social stigma during the recovery phase is prevalent in COVID-19 recovered patients, for which formulation of holistic support strategies are the need of the hour.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Altruism , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Attitude to Health , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/psychology , India , Interpersonal Relations , Interview, Psychological , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Psychological Tests , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Social Stigma , Survivors/psychology , Young Adult
13.
Minerva Surg ; 76(1): 57-61, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity represents a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. Therefore, in order to reduce COVID-19 related comorbidities in obese population a continuation of obesity treatment is needed. However, bariatric procedures were postponed because of COVID-19 restrictions, delaying treatment for obese patients seeking for surgery. This study aimed to test the feasibility of a telematics pre-operative psychological and nutritional assessment as an alternative tool during COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Twenty-six patients were contacted. The pre-operative assessment consisted in 3-weekly one-to-one online sessions and a final in-person multidisciplinary session. The protocol feasibility has been evaluated on the following outcome: rejection rate (%), dropout rate (%), compliance and satisfaction's degree. RESULTS: Eighteen participants completed the whole protocol and 10% dropped-out. Seventy-two percent of participants obtained an excess weight loss ≥5%. All participants were satisfied of the telematics assessment. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 emergency has changed standard hospital procedures and this study could represent a landmark for an online pre-operative assessment method to adopt in case of new restrictions.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nutrition Assessment , Preoperative Care/methods , Psychological Tests , Social Media , Adult , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention , Male , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Patient Dropouts/statistics & numerical data , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Weight Loss
14.
Psychother Psychosom ; 90(3): 200-206, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125222

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The long-lasting threat of COVID-19 makes it necessary to explore strategies to improve coping skills which enable us to master a balanced life in the face of adversity. OBJECTIVE: To unravel the most challenging aspects of COVID-19 in a nonclinical adult population and identify predictors of lost balance and consequent allostatic overload (AO). We examined the role of regular, moderate-intensity formula aerobic exercise (312 meridian exercise) in preventing allostatic overload through increasing well-being. METHODS: An online survey was conducted to measure CO-VID-related allostatic overload according to clinimetric criteria. The Psychosocial Index (PSI), Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire (KSQ), short Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Public Health Surveillance Well-Being Scale -(PHS-WB), and Whiteley-7 were used to explore mental health characteristics. Univariate statistics logistic regression analysis and a general linear model were used. RESULTS: According to 442 valid answers, 217 adults practiced physical exercise (PE) frequently (fPE, 3-5 times/every day) while 120 did it less regularly (1-2 times/week), and 105 did not exercise/practiced irregularly (controls). Restriction-related stressors were most challenging, resulting in AO in 29% (n = 128) of the sample. The main predictors were additional stressors (p = 0.005) and anxiety symptoms (p < 0.001). The prevalence of AO was lower (p = 0.018) in the fPE group when compared to controls. KSQ distress symptoms were also lower in fPE (p < 0.0001), while total well-being was increased (p < 0.001) after adjusting for sex, age, and number of chronic diseases. According to the PHS-WB, both physical and mental well-being were higher (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively) in fPE. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent moderate exercise is associated with better mental and physical well-being and a lower prevalence of AO.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Allostasis/physiology , COVID-19/psychology , Exercise/physiology , Exercise/psychology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Front Public Health ; 8: 590096, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090392

ABSTRACT

Following the outbreak of COVID-19, multidisciplinary research focusing on the long-term effects of the COVID-19 infection and the complete recovery is still scarce. With regards to long-term consequences, biomarkers of physiological effects as well as the psychological experiences are of significant importance for comprehensively understanding the complete COVID-19 recovery. The present research surveys the IgG antibody titers and the impact of COVID-19 as a traumatic experience in the aftermath of the active infection period, around 2 months after diagnosis, in a subset of COVID-19 patients from the first wave (March-April 2020) of the outbreak in Northern Cyprus. Associations of antibody titers and psychological survey measures with baseline characteristics and disease severity were explored, and correlations among various measures were evaluated. Of the 47 serology tests conducted for presence of IgG antibodies, 39 (83%) were positive. We identified trends demonstrating individuals experiencing severe or critical COVID-19 disease and/or those with comorbidities are more heavily impacted both physiologically and mentally, with higher IgG titers and negative psychological experience compared to those with milder disease and without comorbidities. We also observed that more than half of the COVID-19 cases had negative psychological experiences, being subjected to discrimination and verbal harassment/insult, by family/friends. In summary, as the first study co-evaluating immune response together with mental status in COVID-19, our findings suggest that further multidisciplinary research in larger sample populations as well as community intervention plans are needed to holistically address the physiological and psychological effects of COVID-19 among the cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/psychology , Cyprus , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Tests
16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 125: 105129, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074914
17.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(2): 524-532, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045710

ABSTRACT

Anxiety and depression are common mental illnesses among nurses fighting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the precise factors that affect anxiety and depression in this population require further evaluation. This study aimed to explore factors associated with anxiety and depression among nurses fighting COVID-19 in China. We used convenience sampling to recruit 282 nurses fighting COVID-19 in three hospitals. Participants were questioned about demographic characteristics, daily working time, daily sleep duration, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, resilience, and coping styles. Linear regression analysis indicated that resilience (ß = -0.217, P < 0.001), positive coping style (ß = -0.281, P < 0.001), negative coping style (ß = 0.395, P < 0.001), and sleep quality (ß = 0.153, P = 0.010) were predictive factors for anxiety, and the model explained 44.20% (P < 0.001) of variability. Resilience (ß = -0.239, P < 0.001), positive coping style (ß = -0.222, P < 0.001), negative coping style (ß = 0.152, P < 0.001), and sleep quality (ß = 0.104, P = 0.003) were identified as explanatory factors for depression, and the model explained 34.50% (P < 0.001) of variability. The present study suggested that resilience, coping styles, and sleep quality could account for an individual's levels of anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/nursing , Depression/etiology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychological Tests , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(7): 1820-1827, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are a group of stress-sensitive gut-brain disorders. The COVID-19 outbreak has caused immense stress and anxiety among the general public. Strict measures to counter COVID-19 emergency, including physical distancing, have also taken a toll on physical and mental health. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms of functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: An online survey was conducted in Japan for a group of randomly assigned panelists from May 26 to 27, 2020. Each respondent answered a questionnaire on stress, physical distancing, and worries about COVID-19. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed to diagnose FD and IBS (Rome III), and psychological symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: A total of 5157 subjects were finally enrolled, with FD in 8.5%, IBS in 16.6%, and FD-IBS overlap in 4.0%. For both gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms, respondents with FD-IBS overlap showed the worst scores, followed by IBS-alone, then FD-alone respondents. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 11.9% of respondents reported deterioration and 2.8% reported improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms. FD-IBS overlap, psychological disease comorbidity, and stress at work/school were significantly associated with symptom deterioration. Younger age, commuting by public transport, and work/study from home were associated with symptom improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected FD/IBS subjects, with respondents showing FD-IBS overlap syndrome as the most important independent factor associated with deterioration in gastrointestinal symptoms. Physicians need to take extra care of FD/IBS patients in the post-COVID period.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Dyspepsia/diagnosis , Dyspepsia/epidemiology , Dyspepsia/psychology , Female , Health Policy , Health Surveys , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Japan/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
19.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 125: 105111, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974519

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most widely used protocol for activating a stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and other stress-mediating systems. A number of variants of the TSST exist, including ones for children, groups, and virtual reality. All of these versions, though, require in-person assessment. The COVID-19 pandemic has made in-person assessment impossible or extremely difficult and potentially dangerous. The purpose of this study was to validate a completely remote, online, version of the TSST for children. METHOD: A sample of 68 (27 female) 15- and 16-year old participants were administered the TSST-Online (TSST-OL) during the late afternoon hours (3-6 p.m. start time). The participants, judges (one male, one female), and experimenter (female) all joined the assessment from their own homes via the online platform, ZOOM™. Two sessions were conducted, one to obtain consent, explain procedures, work with the family to arrange the computer and room set-up for the TSST-OL and one within two weeks to conduct the procedure. The participants were trained to take their own saliva samples and a saliva sampling kit was mailed to the home in between the first and second session. The samples were then mailed to the researchers within a day of collection. The participant was observed during saliva collection to determine correct procedures were followed. Salivary cortisol, salivary α-amylase and self-reports of stress were measured multiple times over the second session. RESULTS: rmANOVAs yielded a significant effect of trials, for cortisol, F(1.37,90.46) = 15.13, p = .001, sAA, F(2.75,146.68) = 6.91, p = .001, and self-rated stress, F(3.43,222.69) = 118.73, p = .001. There were no significant sex by trials interactions for any measure, although females reported more stress than males, F(1,65) = 9.14, p = .004. For cortisol, from baseline to expected peak (30 min after the onset of speech preparation), the Cohen's effect size was dz = 0.57. Using 1.5 nmol/l (or 0.54 µg/dl) as the criterion for a response (Miller, Plessow, Kirschaum, & Stalder, 2013), 63% of the participants produced a significant increase in cortisol. CONCLUSIONS: The responses to the TSST-OL are consistent with in-person responses among children and adolescents (see recent meta-analysis (Seddon et al., 2020). The protocol is a viable way of assessing reactivity of the HPA axis and other stress systems without needing to bring the participant into the research laboratory. This method will be useful during periods of widespread infection. It should also work to study populations who all live too far from the research laboratory to be assessed in person.


Subject(s)
Internet , Psychological Tests , Psychology, Adolescent/methods , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Male , Online Systems , Pandemics , Psychological Tests/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/chemistry , Salivary alpha-Amylases/analysis , Specimen Handling/methods
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16476, 2020 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834910

ABSTRACT

After the COVID-19 worldwide spread, evidence suggested a vast diffusion of negative consequences on people's mental health. Together with depression and sleep difficulties, anxiety symptoms seem to be the most diffused clinical outcome. The current contribution aimed to examine attentional bias for virus-related stimuli in people varying in their degree of health anxiety (HA). Consistent with previous literature, it was hypothesized that higher HA would predict attentional bias, tested using a visual dot-probe task, to virus-related stimuli. Participants were 132 Italian individuals that participated in the study during the lockdown phase in Italy. Results indicated that the HA level predicts attentional bias toward virus-related objects. This relationship is double mediated by the belief of contagion and by the consequences of contagion as assessed through a recent questionnaire developed to measure the fear for COVID-19. These findings are discussed in the context of cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of anxiety suggesting a risk for a loop effect. Future research directions are outlined.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Attention , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fear , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Tests/statistics & numerical data
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