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Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 22-24, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100747


This work gives an overview of the methods of scenic expression which can be used to help cope with the crisis caused by the global threat of the coronavirus pandemic. The virus is new, the vaccine has not been developed yet and there are no unified prevention and post-prevention policies. In the following lines some modified elements of psychodrama interventions are presented including the ways of preventing the retraumatization of the patient (protagonist). This can be achieved by conscious reliving of the trauma and by activating new, transformative roles to guide the protagonist on his way to recovery.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Patients , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychodrama , Psychological Trauma , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Patients/psychology , Psychological Trauma/etiology , Psychological Trauma/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 686-694, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087888


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to describe the extent of psychological trauma and moral distress in healthcare workers (HCW) working in the intensive care unit (ICU) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Specifically, we review reports on prevalence of mental health symptoms, highlight vulnerable populations and summarize modifiable risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in ICU HCW. RECENT FINDINGS: The pandemic has resulted in a multitude of closely intertwined professional and personal challenges for ICU HCW. High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (14-47%), burnout (45-85%), anxiety (31-60%), and depression (16-65%) have been reported, and these mental health symptoms are often interrelated. Most studies suggest that nurses and female HCW are at highest risk for developing mental health symptoms. The main personal concerns associated with reporting mental health symptoms among ICU HCW were worries about transmitting COVID-19 to their families, worries about their own health, witnessing colleagues contract the disease, and experiencing stigma from their communities. Major modifiable work-related risk factors were experiencing poor communication from supervisors, perceived lack of support from administrative leadership, and concerns about insufficient access to personal protective equipment, inability to rest, witnessing hasty end-of-life decisions, and restriction of family visitation policies. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted ICU HCW worldwide. The psychological trauma, manifesting as posttraumatic stress disorder, burnout, anxiety, and depression, is substantial and concerning. Urgent action by lawmakers and healthcare administrators is required to protect ICU HCW and sustain a healthy workforce.

Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Psychological Trauma , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel/psychology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Intensive Care Units , Psychological Trauma/epidemiology
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 252, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962781


BACKGROUND: This study examined the profiles and correlates of psychological trauma, compliance with preventative measures, vaccine acceptance and participation in voluntary testing during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among the adult population in Hong Kong (n = 3,011). METHODS: Data were collected through a telephone survey between December 2020 and February 2021, using measures of psychological trauma, compliance with preventative measures, reading news reports on COVID-19, vaccine acceptance and willingness to participate in voluntary testing. RESULTS: The prevalence of possible post-traumatic stress disorder was found to be 12.4%. Respondents were generally compliant with routine preventative measures, and approximately half had accepted vaccination and voluntary testing. Participants who had lower levels of education, were unemployed or had no income showed greater psychological trauma symptoms, whereas female, older and more educated participants showed greater compliance with preventative measures. Participants who spent more time watching news reports of COVID-19 had greater psychological trauma, but also greater compliance. Participants who were male, older, had lower education levels or were married showed greater acceptance of vaccination and participation in voluntary testing. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-demographic factors affected both psychological trauma and engagement in health-protective measures at one year after the onset of the pandemic. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

COVID-19 , Psychological Trauma , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
Front Public Health ; 9: 799812, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648866


COVID-19 has created a general state of worry and distress, especially among vulnerable groups such as those with psychiatric diagnoses. Worldwide, psychiatric care provision has drastically suffered during the pandemic, with many patients unable to access proper care, which may have implications for increased mental health consequences in patients with psychiatric disorders (e.g., relapse and suicide). This cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to investigate COVID-19-related trauma and distress among Arab psychiatric population during COVID-19 quarantine. Patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders (N = 168) completed an online survey that comprised the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and a questionnaire on COVID-19-related attitudes/perceptions, sources of information, used protective measures, and socio-demographic information. Respondents commonly reported feeling down-hearted/blue, trouble concentrating, along with symptoms of avoidance and rumination related to the pandemic. Patients with depression and sleep disorders expressed higher COVID-19-related trauma than patients with other disorders. Perceived physical health mediated the effect of co-morbid chronic physical disorders on COVID-19 trauma, psychological distress, perceived vulnerability to COVID-19, and perceived likelihood of recovery in case of contracting COVID-19. Perceived physical health and perceived vulnerability to COVID-19 were strong direct predictors of COVID-19-related trauma and psychological distress. Staying at home negatively predicted COVID-19 trauma and exerted an indirect negative effect on psychological distress via COVID-19 trauma. COVID-19 trauma, age, and marital status directly predicted psychological distress, with COVID-19 trauma being the strongest predictor. Educational level, income, having family members working in the medical field, keeping up to date with the news on deaths/infected cases or the development of COVID-19 drugs or vaccines, satisfaction with available information on COVID-19, and using different protective measures were not associated with significant differences in COVID-19 trauma and psychological distress scores. Immuno-psychiatric interventions should be designed to target COVID-19-trauma and distress among younger single patients with perceived poor physical health, especially those diagnosed with depression and sleep disorders.

COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Psychological Trauma , Sleep Wake Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Independent Living , SARS-CoV-2
Cogn Emot ; 36(1): 9-22, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585562


The current paper used a preregistered set of language dimensions to indicate how scientists psychologically managed the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects. Study 1 evaluated over 1.8 million preprints from and assessed how papers written during the COVID-19 pandemic reflected patterns of psychological trauma and emotional upheaval compared to those written before the pandemic. The data suggest papers written during the pandemic contained more affect and more cognitive processing terms to indicate writers working through a crisis than papers written before the pandemic. Study 2 (N = 74,744 published PLoS One papers) observed consistent emotion results, though cognitive processing patterns were inconsistent. Papers written specifically about COVID-19 contained more emotion than those not written about COVID-19. Finally, Study 3 (N = 361,189 published papers) replicated the Study 2 emotion results across more diverse journals and observed papers written during the pandemic contained a greater rate of cognitive processing terms, but a lower rate of analytic thinking, than papers written before the pandemic. These data suggest emotional upheavals are associated with psychological correlates reflected in the language of scientists at scale. Implications for psychology of language research and trauma are discussed.

COVID-19 , Psychological Trauma , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Writing
Fam Syst Health ; 39(3): 518-525, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528001


The COVID-19 pandemic presented unique biological, psychological, and social threats to health care providers. The failure of local macrosystems placed providers at elevated risk of psychological and physical harm. To reduce the immediate risk of trauma to our local physician workforce, our team initiated a program of proactive psychological first aid in which physicians were regularly contacted by behavioral health colleagues to assess safety conditions and physician's well-being. When threats to the physician's safety were identified, these concerns were escalated to leadership and addressed when possible. When threats to well-being were identified, behavioral health team members provided supportive listening, and, if indicated, provided referral information for appropriate treatment resources. This paper reviews the rationale for this program, addresses ethical concerns, and proposes future directions for responding to threats to safety during events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

COVID-19 , Psychological Trauma , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2
J Am Psychoanal Assoc ; 68(6): 1127-1136, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484178
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477532


Individuals are dependent on institutions (e.g., universities, governments, healthcare systems) to protect their safety and advocate for their needs. When institutions harm the individuals who depend on them, they commit institutional betrayal, which has been associated with numerous negative outcomes in prior research. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, students have entrusted universities to protect both their health and their educational opportunities. However, many universities have failed to meet these expectations, and it is likely that many students experience COVID-19-related institutional betrayal. In two similar studies, we examined the prevalence and correlates of institutional betrayal among undergraduate students at a large, public university in the Northwest United States during the fall 2020 and winter 2021quarters. In both studies, more than half of students endorsed at least one type of COVID-19-related institutional betrayal, and higher institutional betrayal ratings were significantly correlated with both current trauma symptoms and COVID-19-related avoidance and intrusion cognitions. In Study 2, the relationship between COVID-19-related institutional betrayal and current trauma symptoms remained significant, even when controlling for gender, personal and familial COVID-19 infection, and past trauma history. These results indicate that COVID-19 institutional betrayal is common and may be uniquely associated with distress among undergraduate students. We suggest it would behoove university institutions to reduce COVID-19-related institutional betrayal.

Betrayal/psychology , COVID-19 , Psychological Trauma , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Northwestern United States/epidemiology , Psychological Trauma/epidemiology , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Universities
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1964197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467268


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic exposes individuals to multiple stressors, such as quarantine, physical distancing, job loss, risk of infection, and loss of loved ones. Such a complex array of stressors potentially lead to symptoms of adjustment disorder. Objective: This cross-sectional exploratory study examined relationships between risk and protective factors, stressors, and symptoms of adjustment disorder during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Data from the first wave of the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) longitudinal ADJUST Study were used. N = 15,563 participants aged 18 years and above were recruited in eleven countries (Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden) from June to November 2020. Associations between risk and protective factors (e.g. gender, diagnosis of a mental health disorder), stressors (e.g. fear of infection, restricted face-to-face contact), and symptoms of adjustment disorder (ADNM-8) were examined using multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of self-reported probable adjustment disorder was 18.2%. Risk factors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were female gender, older age, being at risk for severe COVID-19 illness, poorer general health status, current or previous trauma exposure, a current or previous mental health disorder, and longer exposure to COVID-19 news. Protective factors related to lower levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were higher income, being retired, and having more face-to-face contact with loved ones or friends. Pandemic-related stressors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder included fear of infection, governmental crisis management, restricted social contact, work-related problems, restricted activity, and difficult housing conditions. Conclusions: We identified stressors, risk, and protective factors that may help identify individuals at higher risk for adjustment disorder.

Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 expone a las personas a múltiples factores estresantes, como la cuarentena, el distanciamiento físico, la pérdida del trabajo, el riesgo de infección, y la pérdida de seres queridos. Esta compleja serie de factores estresantes puede potencialmente conducir a síntomas del trastorno de adaptación.Objetivo: Este estudio exploratorio transversal examinó las relaciones entre los factores de riesgo y de protección, los factores estresantes, y los síntomas del trastorno de adaptación durante el primer año de la pandemia de COVID-19.Métodos: Se utilizaron datos de la primera ola del estudio longitudinal ADJUST de la Sociedad Europea de Estudios de Estrés Traumático (ESTSS en su sigla en inglés). N = 15.563 participantes de 18 años o más fueron reclutados en once países (Austria, Croacia, Georgia, Alemania, Grecia, Italia, Lituania, Países Bajos, Polonia, Portugal, y Suecia) de junio a noviembre de 2020. Se examinaron mediante regresión lineal multivariante las asociaciones entre los factores de riesgo y de protección (p. ej., género, diagnóstico de un trastorno de salud mental), factores estresantes (p. ej., miedo a la infección, contacto restringido cara a cara), y síntomas del trastorno de adaptación (ADNM-8 en su sigla en inglés).Resultados: La prevalencia del trastorno de adaptación probable autoinformado fue del 18,2%. Los factores de riesgo asociados con niveles más altos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación fueron género femenino, edad avanzada, riesgo de enfermedad grave por COVID-19, peor estado de salud general, exposición a un trauma actual o anterior, un trastorno de salud mental actual o anterior, y una exposición más prolongada a las noticias de COVID-19. Los factores de protección relacionados con niveles más bajos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación fueron mayores ingresos, estar jubilado, y tener más contacto cara a cara con sus seres queridos o amigos. Los factores estresantes relacionados con la pandemia que se asociaron con niveles más altos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación incluyeron miedo a la infección, manejo gubernamental de crisis, contacto social restringido, problemas relacionados con el trabajo, actividad restringida, y condiciones de vivienda difíciles.Conclusiones: Identificamos factores estresantes, de riesgo, y protectores que pueden ayudar a identificar a las personas con mayor riesgo de trastorno de adaptación.

Adjustment Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Adjustment Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Protective Factors , Psychological Trauma/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 443-462, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299075


This paper explores how the deadly shadow of COVID-19 passing over the Earth constitutes a collective trauma that frequently opens up or 'triggers' un-remembered personal trauma, and it provides clinical examples of these intersections. The paper further explores how the human imagination, which we normally utilize to make meaning out of traumatic experience, can be hijacked by fear - leading to avoidance of suffering and to illusory formulations and alternative realities such as conspiracy theories. Alternatively, the imagination can be employed in more realistic and creative ways - leading through conscious suffering to healing and wholeness. Which path the imagination takes is shown to depend on the capacity of individuals to feel the full reality of the human condition in general and the exquisite vulnerability of our existence as fragile human beings at this moment in history. Ernest Becker's analysis of our 'denial of death' and his urgency to embrace our common human vulnerability is explored in relation to Jung's early tendency to deny the body. The author proposes that the more creative uses of the imagination, connected to a more humble and realistic apprehension of our common destiny, may be seen in the 'Black Lives Matter' movement that swept the world in the aftermath of the COVID-19 outbreak.

Cet article explore comment l'ombre de mort de la COVID-19, passant sur la terre, constitue un traumatisme collectif qui souvent ouvre ou ravive un traumatisme personnel non-remémoré. L'article fournit des exemples cliniques de telles intersections. Il explore comment l'imagination humaine, que nous utilisons normalement pour donner du sens à nos expériences traumatiques, peut être détournée par la peur. Ceci mène à l'évitement de la souffrance et à des formulations illusoires ou réalités alternatives telles que les théories du complot. Mais l'imagination peut aussi être employée de manières plus réalistes et créatives, nous guidant à travers une souffrance consciente à la guérison et la complétude. Nous montrerons que le choix du chemin que l'imagination emploie dépend de la capacité des personnes à éprouver la pleine réalité de la condition humaine en général et la vulnérabilité magnifique de notre existence en tant qu'êtres humains fragiles à ce moment de l'histoire. L'analyse que fait Ernest Becker de notre 'déni de la mort' et son insistance à épouser notre vulnérabilité humaine commune est étudiée et mise en relation avec la tendance de Jung, au début de son œuvre, à renier le corps. L'auteur propose que les utilisations plus créatives de l'imagination, reliées à une appréhension plus humble et plus réaliste de notre destinée commune, peuvent se retrouver dans le mouvement Black Lives Matter, mouvement qui a balayé le monde à la suite de la flambée de COVID-19.

El presente trabajo explora como la sombra mortal del COVID-19 pasando sobre la tierra constituye un trauma colectivo que frecuentemente abre o 'activa' trauma personal no recordado. Se proveen ejemplos clínicos de estas intersecciones. El escrito además explora cómo la imaginación humana, la cual normalmente utilizamos para encontrar sentido a partir de experiencias traumáticas, puede ser apropiada por el miedo - conduciendo a la evitación del sufrimiento y a formulaciones ilusorias y realidades alternativas tales como las teorías conspirativas. Alternativamente, la imaginación puede ser empleada en modos más realistas y creativos - conduciendo a través del sufrimiento consciente a la sanación y a la integridad. Cual camino toma la imaginación, se muestra que depende de la capacidad de los individuos para sentir la realidad plena de la condición humana en general y la exquisita vulnerabilidad de nuestra existencia como frágiles seres humanos en este momento de la historia. El análisis de nuestra 'negación de la muerte' de Ernest Becker y su urgencia por acoger nuestra común vulnerabilidad humana es explorada con relación a la temprana tendencia en Jung de negar el cuerpo. El autor propone que los usos más creativos de la imaginación, conectados a una aprehensión más humilde y realista de nuestro destino común, puede ser vista en el movimiento Black Lives Matter que recorrió el mundo en las postrimerías del estallido del COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Fear/psychology , Imagination , Political Activism , Psychoanalytic Therapy , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Racism , Adult , Humans , Professional-Patient Relations , Telemedicine
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 399-410, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299074


In the current collective unrest, we and our analysands are living in real time and need vantage points from which to make meaning, as subjective experience of time is collapsing. For many analysands, the past is being relived in the present, with no imaginable future. During the time of COVID-19, dreams are providing a valuable mechanism in working with atemporal emotional trauma, previously uncontextualized. Dream metaphor can provide a transitional space to move around in within the analytic framework. This paper explores a variety of dreams from individual analysands demonstrating different ways of conceptualizing personal and collective experience, bridging between the past, present, and future. Parallels between feeling states related to the current condition and unprocessed implicit memories from the past will be examined, as a vehicle for processing past trauma. Dreams expressing current states of dread for an unimaginable future, as well compensatory dreams showing a hopeful vision of the future will be considered.

Dans l'agitation collective actuelle nous-même et nos analysants vivons en temps réel et avons besoin de postes d'observation à partir desquels nous pouvons trouver du sens, alors que notre expérience subjective du temps s'effondre. Pour beaucoup d'analysants le passé est revécu dans le présent et il n'est pas possible d'imaginer l'avenir. Durant cette période de COVID, les rêves fournissent un mécanisme précieux pour travailler sur le traumatisme émotionnel atemporel, jusqu'ici non-contextualisé. Les métaphores du rêve peuvent fournir un espace transitionnel pour évoluer dans l'espace analytique. Cet article explore plusieurs rêves d'analysants montrant différentes façons de conceptualiser l'expérience personnelle et collective, de faire des passerelles entre le passé, le présent et l'avenir. Nous étudierons les parallèles entre les états émotionnels en lien avec la situation actuelle et les souvenirs implicites et non-transformés, envisageant ceci comme un moyen de transformer les traumatismes passés. Nous examinerons des rêves qui expriment des états actuels d'effroi concernant un avenir impossible à imaginer, ainsi que des rêves compensatoires montrant une vision optimiste de l'avenir.

En el malestar colectivo actual nosotros y nuestros analizandos estamos viviendo en tiempo real y necesitamos puntos de vista desde los cuales crear sentido, a medida que la experiencia subjetiva del tiempo está colapsando. Para muchos analizandos, el pasado está siendo revivido en el presente, con un futuro inimaginable. Durante el tiempo del COVID, los sueños están ofreciendo un valioso mecanismo para trabajar con trauma emocional atemporal, previamente no contextualizado. La metáfora del sueño puede ofrecer un espacio transicional para moverse alrededor y dentro del encuadre analítico. El presente trabajo explora una variedad de sueños de analizandos individuales demostrando diversos modos de conceptualizar la experiencia personal y colectiva, creando un puente entre el pasado, el presente y el futuro. Se examinan los paralelismos entre estados emocionales relativos a la condición actual y las memorias implícitas del pasado no procesadas, como vía para procesar el trauma del pasado. Serán considerados, los sueños que expresan estados actuales de miedo por un futuro inimaginable, así como los sueños compensatorios que muestran una visión esperanzadora acerca del futuro.

COVID-19 , Dreams , Psychoanalytic Interpretation , Psychoanalytic Therapy , Psychological Trauma/therapy , Adult , Humans
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 517-533, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299058


In this paper I discuss Jungian psychological work of the trauma and loss experienced in reaction to COVID-19 with a man who represents a clinical composite. The issues of precarity, a concept used by the philosopher Judith Butler, are combined with the notions of lack and absence of French psychoanalyst André Green. The psychological and societal situation of precarity aroused the man's childhood issues that were long repressed. The loneliness, isolation and death from COVID-19 mirrored his personal and the collective responses to the disaster from this global pandemic. He felt on the edge of collapse as what he knew of his world crashed and he found himself unable to cope. The subsequent Jungian work taking place through the virtual computer screen was taxing and restorative simultaneously for both analyst and analysand.

Dans cet article je discute le travail psychologique Jungien sur le traumatisme et la perte dont fait l'expérience un patient en réaction au COVID-19, patient qui représente un composite clinique. Les questions en lien avec la précarité, un concept utilisé par la philosophe Judith Butler, sont combinées avec les notions de manque et d'absence chez le psychanalyste français André Green. La situation psychologique et sociale de précarité a activé les problèmes de l'enfance de cet homme, réprimés depuis longtemps. La solitude, l'isolement et la mort liés au COVID-19 ont fait miroir avec ses réponses personnelles et les réponses collectives au désastre de cette pandémie globale. Il se sentit à la limite de l'effondrement alors que ce qu'il connaissait de son monde s'écroulait et il se trouva dans l'incapacité de faire face. Le travail Jungien qui s'ensuivit, au moyen de l'écran virtuel de l'ordinateur fut éprouvant et réparateur pour l'analysant et l'analyste simultanément.

En el presente trabajo, describo el trabajo psicológico Junguiano, con un hombre que representa un compuesto clínico, acerca del trauma y la pérdida experimentada en reacción al COVID-19. Cuestiones de precariedad, un concepto utilizado por la filósofa Judith Butler, son combinadas con las nociones de falta y ausencia del psicoanalista francés André Green. La situación psicológica y social de precariedad activa temas infantiles del individuo, hasta entonces reprimidos. La soledad, aislamiento y muerte del COVID-19 espejó la suya personal y las respuestas colectivas al desastre de esta pandemia global. Él se encontró en el borde del colapso debido a que lo que él conocía del mundo se quebró, y se encontró imposibilitado de hacer algo con esto. El trabajo Junguiano subsiguiente que tuvo lugar a través de la pantalla virtual de la computadora fue arduo y restaurador simultáneamente para ambos, analista y analizando.

Adverse Childhood Experiences , COVID-19 , Jungian Theory , Loneliness , Psychoanalytic Therapy , Psychological Trauma/therapy , Adult , Ego , Humans , Male , Telecommunications , Telemedicine
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 561-582, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298409


Fear and grief caused by the pandemic have produced a powerful unconscious narrative in the collective psyche that the coronavirus is driven by an innately evil, and possibly divine, force. The resulting archetypal dimension of fear causes an extra layer of psychological suffering in individuals. This paper discusses how and why this narrative was created and why it is so compelling by looking at 1) the myth-making nature of the human psyche, 2) the psychodynamics of fear that drive the narrative, 3) the properties of the coronavirus and the pandemic that activate negative poles of some archetypes, in particular, archetypes of evil, and 4) asking how analytical psychology can help ease psychological suffering caused by these negative narratives, where one possibility is to invoke the transcendent function. The author's personal experiences as both biochemist and analytical psychologist elucidate how the transcendent function can promote healing.

La peur et la douleur causées par la pandémie ont produit un puissant récit inconscient dans la psyché collective, à savoir que le coronavirus est dirigé par une force intrinsèquement maléfique ou éventuellement divine. La dimension archétypale de peur qui en résulte produit une couche supplémentaire de douleur psychologique chez les individus. Cet article étudie comment et pourquoi ce récit est créé et pourquoi il est si convaincant. L'article procède en examinant 1) la nature de la psyché humaine qui tend à fabriquer des mythes, 2) les dynamiques psychanalytiques de la peur qui motivent le récit, 3) les propriétés du coronavirus et de la pandémie qui activent les pôles négatifs de certains archétypes, et en particulier l'archétype du mal, et 4) comment la psychologie analytique peut aider à soulager la douleur psychologique produite par ces récits négatifs. Une possibilité est d'invoquer la fonction transcendante. Les expériences personnelles de l'auteur à la fois en tant que biochimiste et en tant que psychologue analytique éclairent comment la fonction transcendante peut promouvoir la guérison.

El miedo y el dolor causado por la pandemia han producido una poderosa narrativa inconsciente en la psique colectiva, significando que el coronavirus es producido por una fuerza divina, innata del mal. La resultante dimensión arquetípica del miedo causa un estrato extra de sufrimiento psicológico en los individuos. El presente trabajo examina cómo y porqué ha sido creada esta narrativa y porqué resulta tan atractiva, prestando atención a: 1) la naturaleza creadora de mitos de la psique humana, 2) los psico-dinamismos del miedo que impulsan dicha narrativa, 3) las propiedades del coronavirus y de la pandemia que activan los polos negativos de ciertos arquetipos, en particular arquetipos del mal, y 4) pregunta cómo la psicología analítica puede ayudar a aliviar el sufrimiento psicológico causado por estas narrativas negativas, donde una posibilidad es invocar la función trascendente. Las experiencias personales de la autora como bioquímica y psicóloga analítica elucidan como la función trascendente puede promover la curación.

COVID-19 , Fear/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Imagination , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Adult , Humans
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252603, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259244


BACKGROUND: In the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, frontline healthcare providers who are engaged in the direct diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients face a high risk of infection yet receive inadequate protection from contamination and minimal support to cope with overwork, frustration, and exhaustion. These problems have created significant psychological and mental health concerns for frontline healthcare providers. This study aimed to compare the levels of vicarious traumatization between frontline and non-frontline healthcare providers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: All the subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this comparative cross-sectional study, which was conducted from May to July 2020 in two hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire, namely, the Malay-version Vicarious Traumatization Questionnaire and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey were utilized. A descriptive analysis, independent t-test, and analysis of covariance were performed using SPSS Statistics version 26. RESULTS: A total of 160 frontline and 146 non-frontline healthcare providers were recruited. Vicarious traumatization was significantly higher among the non-frontline healthcare providers (estimated marginal mean [95% CI]: 79.7 [75.12, 84.30]) compared to the frontline healthcare providers (estimated marginal mean [95% CI]: 74.3 [68.26, 80.37]) after adjusting for sex, duration of employment, and social support. CONCLUSION: The level of vicarious traumatization was higher among non-frontline compared to frontline healthcare providers. However, the level of severity may differ from person to person, depending on how they handle their physical, psychological, and mental health. Hence, support from various resources, such as colleagues, family, the general public, and the government, may play an essential role in the mental health of healthcare providers.

COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Health Personnel , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychological Trauma , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Compassion Fatigue/epidemiology , Compassion Fatigue/psychology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Trauma/epidemiology , Psychological Trauma/psychology