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1.
Acta Paediatr ; 109(11): 2181-2183, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501371
2.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 30(4): 809-826, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415269

ABSTRACT

Psychiatry and psychology have a long history of competition that too often interferes with the collaboration that can characterize complementary contributions to our common missions. We hope this article will inspire our disciplines to expand on this collaboration, for the sake of our children and families, our communities, our colleagues, and honestly, ourselves. We are better together than apart. This text is a blueprint for the assumptions, attitudes, skills, and advocacy that can make this partnership healthy and successful.


Subject(s)
Child Psychiatry/methods , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Primary Health Care , Psychology, Child/methods , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Intersectoral Collaboration , Mental Health , Models, Organizational , Primary Health Care/ethics , Primary Health Care/organization & administration
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Australia has maintained low rates of SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, due to geographic location and strict public health restrictions. However, the financial and social impacts of these restrictions can negatively affect parents' and children's mental health. In an existing cohort of mothers recruited for their experience of adversity, this study examined: 1) families' experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic and public health restrictions in terms of clinical exposure, financial hardship family stress, and family resilience (termed 'COVID-19 impacts'); and 2) associations between COVID-19 impacts and maternal and child mental health. METHODS: Participants were mothers recruited during pregnancy (2013-14) across two Australian states (Victoria and Tasmania) for the 'right@home' trial. A COVID-19 survey was conducted from May-December 2020, when children were 5.9-7.2 years old. Mothers reported COVID-19 impacts, their own mental health (Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales short-form) and their child's mental health (CoRonavIruS Health and Impact Survey subscale). Associations between COVID-19 impacts and mental health were examined using regression models controlling for pre-COVID-19 characteristics. RESULTS: 319/406 (79%) mothers completed the COVID-19 survey. Only one reported having had COVID-19. Rates of self-quarantine (20%), job or income loss (27%) and family stress (e.g., difficulty managing children's at-home learning (40%)) were high. Many mothers also reported family resilience (e.g., family found good ways of coping (49%)). COVID-19 impacts associated with poorer mental health (standardised coefficients) included self-quarantine (mother: ß = 0.46, child: ß = 0.46), financial hardship (mother: ß = 0.27, child: ß = 0.37) and family stress (mother: ß = 0.49, child: ß = 0.74). Family resilience was associated with better mental health (mother: ß = -0.40, child: ß = -0.46). CONCLUSIONS: The financial and social impacts of Australia's public health restrictions have substantially affected families experiencing adversity, and their mental health. These impacts are likely to exacerbate inequities arising from adversity. To recover from COVID-19, policy investment should include income support and universal access to family health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Mothers/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Psychology, Child , Quarantine/economics , Resilience, Psychological
4.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(8): 919-921, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360502

ABSTRACT

This editorial discusses lessons learned from the COVID-19 public health emergency as they relate to the prevention of suicide, the second leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults globally. Recognizing that COVID-19 impact and response varied across nations, we offer a US perspective, addressing two questions: (a) what have we learned from this pandemic and mitigation strategies used to reduce cases of COVID-19 illness and deaths; and (b) how can our research advance knowledge and be advanced by work aimed at understanding the impact of this 'unusual' period? Provisional data indicate that during the pandemic and lockdown period, there were some declines in suicide rates for the total US population and no change in youth. However, data also indicate increases in reported suicidal ideation and behavior, mental health-related ED visits, and ED visits for suicidal ideation and behavior in youth. Heterogeneity of pandemic effects is noteworthy, with ethnic and racial minority populations suffering the most from COVID-19, COVID-19-related risk factors, and possibly suicide deaths. As vaccinations can prevent severe COVID-19 cases and deaths, we also have demonstrations of effective 'psychological inoculations' such as community-based interventions for reducing suicide attempts and deaths. During COVID-19, we mobilized to provide clinical care through telehealth and digital interventions. The challenge now is to continue to put our science to work to mitigate the adverse impacts of the pandemic on suicide and suicide risk factors, our children's mental health, and enhance mental health and well-being in our communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychology, Child , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/prevention & control , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in quarantine/lockdown measures in most countries. Quarantine may create intense psychological problems including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) especially for the vulnerable critically developing children/adolescents. Few studies evaluated PTSD associated with infectious disasters but no Saudi study investigated PTSD associated with COVID-19 in children/adolescents. This study was undertaken to screen for PTSD in children/adolescent in Saudi Arabia to identify its prevalence/risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic and its quarantine. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted after 2 months form start of quarantine for COVID-19 pandemic utilizing the original English version and an Arabic translated version for the University of California at Los Angeles Brief COVID-19 Screen for Child/Adolescent PTSD that can be parent-reported or self-completed by older children/adolescents. Participants (Saudi citizens/non-Saudi residents) were approached online via social media. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty seven participants were enrolled. The participants were 262 boys and 275 girls with a mean age of 12.25±3.77 years. Symptoms of no, minimal, mild and potential PTSD were identified in 15.5%, 44.1%, 27.4% and 13.0% of children/adolescents, respectively. The age, gender, school grade, and residence were not predictive of PTSD symptoms. Univariate analysis of risk factors for PTSD revealed that work of a close relative around people who might be infected was significantly different between groups of PTSD symptoms, but this difference disappeared during multivariate analysis. Children/adolescents of Saudi citizens had significantly lower median total PTSD score than children/adolescents of expatriate families (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: PTSD associated with the COVID-19 and its resultant quarantine shouldn't be overlooked in different populations as it is expected in a considerable proportion of children/adolescents with variable prevalence, risk factors and severity. Parents/healthcare providers must be aware of PTSD associated with COVID-19 or similar disasters, so, they can provide children/adolescent with effective coping mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychology, Child , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
7.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(3): 274-275, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288268

ABSTRACT

The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) in children are still not fully known. However, COVID-19 and the mitigation strategies to limit its transmission have affected children and adolescents through increased parental morbidity and mortality, increased poverty and financial strain, social isolation, and lost connectedness to school, peers, and afterschool activities. These are all associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders and STBs in children. Mental health professionals and pediatric primary care settings need to monitor psychiatric symptoms and risk for STBs in children and especially among those who were directly affected during the pandemic in order to reduce the burden of the pandemic on children and families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Psychology, Child , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e184, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is different from previous disasters in that it continues to the present and has affected all aspects of family life. During epidemics, psychosocial support is not less important than infection control. During COVID-19-related school closures, prolonged partial closures of schools could have detrimental social and health consequences for children and may increase the burden on the family. Based on a community sample in Korea, this study identified parental concerns, children's media usage, other various factors and examined whether parental stress level or depression were positively associated with problem behaviors, media exposure, and sleep problems of the primary school children during school closure under COVID-19. METHODS: Participants were 217 parents residing in Suwon, South Korea, who had primary school children and responded to a web-based questionnaire on parental concerns from school closure under COVID-19, subjective stress, depression, whether having received mental health services, and family characteristics; children's sleep patterns, problem behaviors, media usage during the online-only class period, and changes in activity level following the pandemic. RESULTS: During school closure, children gained body weight, spent less time in physical activities and more in media usage. Besides online learning content (97.2%), YouTube was highly used content (87.6%), and games followed (78.3%). Parental subjective stress index was highly associated with parental depression (Pearson correlation 0.439, P < 0.001), children's sleep problems (0.283, P < 0.001), tablet time (0.171, P = 0.012) and behavior problems (0.413, P < 0.001). Parental depression was associated with children's sleep problems (0.355, P < 0.001), TV time (0.153, P = 0.024), tablet time (0.159, P = 0.019), and behavior problems (0.524, P < 0.001). Parents who previously received mental services seemed to be more concerned about the problems their children already have getting worse because of COVID-19 than the disease itself. Children's sleep problem was associated with tablet (0.172, P = 0.011) and smartphone time (0.298, P < 0.001), but not its frequency. CONCLUSION: During COVID-19-related school closures, many parents and children had various difficulties relating to mental health. Ongoing monitoring of mental health of high-risk groups and multiple support systems may need to be expanded to cover those parents having difficulty in caring for their children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Media , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Psychology, Child , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Social Isolation , Adult , Body Mass Index , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child Behavior Disorders/etiology , Child Care , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Education, Distance , Exercise , Female , Humans , Income , Leisure Activities , Male , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Parent-Child Relations , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(3): 170-176, 2021 06.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242312

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: From an infectious perspective, children and adolescents were not highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social isolation measures have deeply changed their lifestyle, which is believed to have a psychological impact on them. The objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the emotional health of children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school. POPULATION AND METHODS: Parents of children and adolescents from San Carlos de Bariloche participated in the study. Adults' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of lockdown on children and adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, screen use, sports-related activities, eating, and medical consultations, was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 267 parents were included. Of them, 96.3 % noticed emotional and behavioral changes. The most common ones were that their children were more bored (76.8 %), more irritable (59.2 %), more reluctant (56.9 %), and angrier (54.7 %). It was observed that they woke up and went to bed later, and slept 30 minutes more. Moreover, leisure screen use increased by 3 hours on weekdays. Time dedicated to physical activities did not change, but the type of activities did: swimming and team sports were replaced by biking, walking, and skiing. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown affected the emotional health and habits of children and adolescents. Boredom, irritability, and reluctance were more present during lockdown. The possibility of doing outdoor physical activities allowed them to keep practicing sports.


Introducción. Los jóvenes no fueron muy afectados desde el punto de vista infeccioso por la pandemia de COVID-19. Sin embargo, las medidas de aislamiento social modificaron de manera profunda su estilo de vida, y se cree que esto los afecta psicológicamente. El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto del aislamiento por COVID-19 en la salud emocional de jóvenes en escolaridad primaria o secundaria. Población y métodos. Participaron del estudio padres de jóvenes de San Carlos de Bariloche. Se evaluó la percepción del adulto sobre el impacto emocional y de comportamiento del aislamiento sobre el joven, cambio de hábitos de sueño, uso de pantallas, actividades deportivas y alimentación y de asistencia a consulta médica. Resultados. Se incluyeron 267 padres. El 96,3 % observó cambios emocionales y de comportamiento. Los más frecuentes fueron que estaban más aburridos (el 76,8 %), irritables (el 59,2 %), desganados (el 56,9 %) y enojados (el 54,7 %). Se observó que se levantaban y acostaban más tarde y dormían 30 minutos más. Además, el uso de pantallas por esparcimiento aumentó 3 horas durante los días hábiles. El tiempo dedicado a la actividad física no varió, pero sí cambió el tipo de actividades: la natación y los deportes de equipo fueron reemplazados por ciclismo, caminatas y esquí. Conclusiones. El aislamiento por COVID-19 impactó sobre la salud emocional y los hábitos de los jóvenes. El aburrimiento, la irritabilidad y el desgano estuvieron más presentes durante el aislamiento. La posibilidad de realizar actividades al aire libre permitió que continuaran practicando deportes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Health/trends , Education, Distance , Mental Health/trends , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parents , Prospective Studies , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Schools , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251081, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238762

ABSTRACT

From infancy, humans have the ability to distinguish animate agents from inert objects, and preschoolers map biological and mechanical insides to their appropriate kinds. However, less is known about how identifying something as an animate agent shapes specific inferences about its internal properties. Here, we test whether preschool children (N = 92; North American population) have specifically biological expectations about animate agents, or if they have more general expectations that animate agents should have an internal source of motion. We presented preschoolers with videos of two puppets: a "self-propelled" fur-covered puppet, and a fur-covered puppet that is seen to be moved by a human actor. In addition, we presented preschoolers with images of a familiar artifact (motorcycle) and familiar animal (sheep). For each item, we asked them to choose what they thought was inside each of these entities: nothing, biological insides, or mechanical insides. Preschoolers were less likely to say that a self-propelled fur-covered object was empty, compared to a fur-covered object that was moved by a human actor, which converges with past work with infants. However, preschoolers showed no specifically biological expectations about these objects, despite being able to accurately match biological insides to familiar animals and mechanical insides to familiar artifacts on the follow-up measure. These results suggest that preschoolers do not have specifically biological expectations about animate agents as a category, but rather general expectations that such agents should not be empty inside.


Subject(s)
Intuition/physiology , Child Development/physiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Psychological , Photic Stimulation , Play and Playthings , Psychology, Child
11.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 360-370, 2021 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first semester 2020 almost all country implemented rigid measures of social distances, including schools closure, to limit the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Up to now, however, the efficacy of school closure to reduce the spread of the disease in the community still remains unclear and no much is known about the potential negative effects of such measures on physical health and psychological wellbeing of youths, mainly if protracted for long periods. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the data of a systematic review on the impact of the 2020 school closure and social distances measures implemented in response to covid-19 pandemic on youths' physical health and psychological wellbeing. In the present paper we describe the impact on psychological wellbeing. METHODS: We searched 11 international databases up to 1st September 2020 to retrieve cohort studies, cross sectional surveys, uncontrolled pre-post studies and modelling studies. Methodological quality of included studies has been assessed with validated checklists. RESULTS: Sixty-four studies have been included; 27 assessed the impact on psychological wellbeing. All the studies have been conducted during the first wave of pandemic and assessed the short-term effect of social distances measures implemented for relatively short periods. The majority of the studies were conducted in the UK (37,6%) and China (27%). The 42.3% has been judged of high methodological quality. Two studies reported an increase of suicides, while two studies reported a reduction of the access to Psychiatric Emergency Department, Maltreatment allegations decreased substantially, likely due to a reduction in reports rather than actual incidence. Prevalence of anxiety among adolescents ranged between 19% and 64%, depression between 22.3% and 43.7%. Among children 5-12 years old, prevalence of anxiety varied between 19% and 78%, while depression between 6.3% and 22.6%. Among pre-school children, some studies found worsening of behavioural and emotional problems while others did not. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the studies reported relevant worsening of the psychological wellbeing, mainly among adolescents. If school closure and rigid social distances measures will extend for a long time, an even more pronounced negative effect can be expected. Further studies are needed on the long-term effect of prolonged social distances measures, as well as a careful harm-benefit analysis of the impact of such measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Depression/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Quarantine , Schools , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Young Adult
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9152, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207151

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first European country to fight the Covid-19 outbreak. To limit the transmission of the virus, the Italian Government imposed strict domestic quarantine policies and temporary closure of non-essential businesses and schools from March 10th,2020. Although more and more literature is exploring the impact of the pandemic on non-referred children and families, only a few studies are focused on the psychosocial impact of Covid-19 in chronically ill children and their caregivers. The present study investigates asthma control and children and mothers' psychological functioning (i.e.: psychological well-being, fear of contagion, and mothers' Covid-19 related fears) in 45 asthmatic children aged 7-to-14, compared to a control sample. The subjects were administered an online survey after the lockdown (from 28th May to 23rd August 2020). The analysis shows that asthmatic children presented higher concern in relation to contagion, however, no difference in psychological functioning was displayed between the two cohorts. Mothers reported more Covid-19 related fears, and greater worries according to the resumption of their children's activities. Moreover, they indicated a global worsening of their psychological well-being during the lockdown. Furthermore, regarding the clinical sample, the multivariate regression model showed that a worsening of mothers' psychological and children's physical well-being was associated with a worsening of children's psychological well-being during the lockdown. The results of this study indicate that mothers of asthmatic children can be more prone to experience psychological fatigue in a pandemic scenario. Special programs should be developed to support caregivers of chronically ill children.


Subject(s)
Asthma/psychology , COVID-19 , Mothers/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Asthma/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Psychology, Child , Quarantine/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 128(7): 1033-1043, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196582

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown have been associated with multiple consequences for mental health, including an excessive and potentially harmful increase in screen media use. The specific consequences for children, adolescents and young adults with ADHD are still unknown. In the first part of this study, a short review of problematic use of the internet (PUI) in ADHD is presented, showing that patients with ADHD are at risk for different aspects of PUI, such as excessive gaming or problematic social media use. In the second part, we report original data of an online survey on screen media use before, during and after the lockdown completed by parents of children and adolescents clinically referred for ADHD. Parents rated children's/adolescents' media-related behavior and media time on a new screening questionnaire for PUI. Each item was rated three times, referring to the observed behavior before, during and 1-2 months after the lockdown. N = 126 parents of patients referred for ADHD aged 10-18 years participated in the study. Total media time increased by 46% during the lockdown and did not completely return to pre-Corona levels afterwards. Patients with difficulties concentrating, high irritability or deterioration of ADHD problems under lockdown spent more time with screen media than those with milder or no such problems. While the effects of the lockdown on screen media use and its negative impact on everyday life appear to be largely reversible, a small proportion of patients with ADHD apparently continue to show increased media use.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , COVID-19 , Internet , Pandemics , Quarantine , Adolescent , Attention , Bullying , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Video Games , Young Adult
14.
J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(3): 236-242, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166049

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on children's lifestyles and anxiety levels. METHODS: This study was designed as a descriptive, cross-sectional online questionnaire survey. RESULTS: Of the children, 91.9% reported that the pandemic had an important effect on their lifestyle. Children stated that they experienced changes in terms of nutrition, sleep, television-internet use, social activity, coursework time, and school success due to the pandemic. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: It was determined that the COVID-19 pandemic caused changes in children's routines, and the children experienced moderate or high levels of anxiety. Primary healthcare providers should increase their attention to these issues to protect and improve children's mental health during the pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Life Style , Academic Success , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paternal Age , Psychology, Child , Screen Time , Sleep , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 253(3): 203-215, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154134

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is causing disruptions in the global social system. Japanese children and adolescents have had their schools closed, government-mandated activity restrictions imposed, and interactions outside the home reduced. These restrictions can have a considerable psychological impact on children and adolescents. This review aims to describe the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and psychological status of this population. The review was conducted by searching PubMed for information on the impact of COVID-19-related activity restrictions on children and adolescents. The search identified 11 articles, three of which contained data on anxiety and psychological problems due to physical inactivity. Next, a PubMed search was conducted about physical activity and psychological status in children and adolescents under psychological stress. The search identified 368 articles, 28 of which were included in the review. For children, data that revealed a correlation between physical activity and psychological health and sedentary time leading to mood disorders were included. For adolescents, there were nine studies that reported a correlation between physical activity and psychological health and four studies that reported no correlation between physical activity and psychological health. Of the studies that reported a correlation, seven reported that physical activity improves psychological health. The impact of psychologically stressful situations such as COVID-19 on children and adolescents has been experienced worldwide. Physical activity has been correlated with psychological health, and it may improve psychological status; physical activity should be recommended to better support the psychological health of children and adolescents under the influence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Behavior , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Exercise , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology , Quarantine/psychology , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Sedentary Behavior , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Workforce
16.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(2): 157-166, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This systematic review synthesized available research on the psychological implications for children and adolescents who either were directly or indirectly exposed to an infectious outbreak. On this basis, the current paper aims to provide recommendations for future research, practice and policy regarding children during pandemics. METHOD: A total of 2195 records were retrieved from the PsycINFO, SCOPUS and MEDLINE databases, and three from Google Scholar. RESULTS: Including only those papers that focused on children or adolescent's mental health in association with respiratory infectious outbreaks, 11 articles were identified. The majority of research utilized qualitative or retrospective hospital record data. Children and adolescents reported fear and anxiety, as well as disruptions to their day to day routines as a result of outbreaks. However, children were also able to demonstrate resilience during outbreaks with the right support. CONCLUSIONS: Children's psychological response to the outbreak appeared to be largely attributed to how their parents, healthcare providers and the media communicated the event. Recommendations for policy, practitioners and researchers concerning the current COVID-19 outbreak concludes the paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Mental Health , Adolescent , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/psychology , Depression , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child
17.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 207-215, 2021 03.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The recent lockdown, resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, has had a strong social and psychological impact on the most fragile individuals and family structures. In the present work we investigated the experience of families without specific elements of social or health vulnerability during the quarantine period that occurred in the spring of 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May and July 2020, 22 primary care pediatricians belonging to AUSL Romagna administered to a number of families a questionnaire to detect changes that occurred, during the lockdown, in family environment, school attendance and personal attitudes. RESULTS: A total of 721 questionnaires were collected, analyzing the associations between variables relating to home environment, daily rhythms, school and warning signs in relation to the age of children. As a result of the lockdown, family habits changed in 31% of cases, with a greater presence of the reference figure in 68% of these. Three out of four families reported they had sufficient domestic spaces, and nine out of ten had access to an outdoor, private or condominium space. Daily rhythms were preserved in 56.7% of cases; mood disorders appeared in 30% of adolescent children, followed by sleep, appetite and psychosomatic disorders. One in three children has made progress in terms of evolution and behavior, and one in 5 children has seen their relationships improve. The overall resilience of families during the lockdown period was considered good in 66.3%, sufficient in 31.3% and not satisfactory in only 2.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that, in the interviewed families, the simultaneous presence of adults and children at home has generally intensified. Families refer, on the whole, a positive and resilient behavior in the lockdown period, even if initial emotional problems are reported in one out of three children-adolescents. The ability to maintain a family organized structure seems to be partially compromised. Forced cohabitation leads to competition for the same resources of time and space and affects the entire family unit. The school institution emerges as a protective factor for children, young people and also for the well-being of families themselves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Medicine , Family Relations/psychology , Pandemics , Pediatricians , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Crowding/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/etiology , Female , Health Care Surveys , Housing , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology , Parents/psychology , Psychophysiologic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychophysiologic Disorders/etiology , Schools , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology
19.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S85-S92, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the French government has decided a general lockdown. This unprecedented situation has raised concerns about children's and adolescent's mental health. Children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may find this context of restrained activity particularly tricky. The objectives of our study are to gather information about the well-being and global life conditions of children and adolescents with ADHD during the COVID-19 outbreak in France. METHODS: We designed a survey including both open-ended questions and questionnaire items for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD. Parents responded to the following open-ended questions: 1) "How is your child doing since the lockdown?" 2) "How is life at home since the lockdown?" 3) "If you had a remote service provision with a mental health professional (e.g. by telephone or video technology), please share your thoughts and any suggestions with us" 4) "Please share any other items that you think are important about ADHD symptoms of your child and the lockdown situation". This survey was posted on social media on the 6th of April and disseminated by French ADHD-parent and patient organizations. The present article reports the descriptive, qualitative and textometrical analyses of the survey. RESULTS: Between day 20 and 30 of lockdown, 538 parents responded to the survey, and we included 533 responses in the final analysis. The vast majority of responders were women 95 % (95 % CI 93,50; 97,18) with children whose mean age was 10,5 (95 % CI 7.58; 13.44). Since the lockdown, 34.71 % (95 % CI 30.70; 38.94) of children experienced a worsening in well-being, 34.33 % (95 % CI 30.34; 38.56) showed no significant changes and 30.96 % (95 % CI 27.09; 35.10) were doing better according to their parents. The thematic analysis showed that an improvement of their children's anxiety was one of the main topics addressed by parents. This improvement related to less school-related strain and flexible schedules that respected their children's rhythm. Improved self-esteem was another topic that parents linked with a lesser exposure of their children to negative feed-back. Parents repeatedly reported both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, optimal lockdown life conditions seemed to compensate for the impact of ADHD symptoms (e.g. sufficient space at home, presence of a garden). Some parents reported worsening of general well-being in their children, and this manifested as oppositional/defiant attitudes and emotional outbursts. Parents also cited sleep problems and anxiety in this context. As regards everyday life during lock-down, at-home schooling was another major topic-parents described that their children struggled to complete school-related tasks and that teachers seemed to have forgotten about academic accommodations. The lockdown situation seems to have raised parents' awareness of the role of inattention and ADHD symptoms in their children's learning difficulties. Due to potential selection biases, the results of our survey may not be generalizable to all children and adolescents with ADHD. The main strengths of this rapid survey-based study lies in the reactivity of the participants and the quality and diversity of their responses to the open-ended questions. CONCLUSIONS: According to their parents, most children and adolescents with ADHD experience stability or improvement of their well-being. An improvement in school-related anxiety and the flexible adjustment to the children's' rhythms as well as parents' increased awareness of the difficulties their children experience are among the key topics in parents' descriptions.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Attitude , Boredom , COVID-19 , Child , Education , Family Relations , Female , France , Housing , Humans , Leisure Activities , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Concept , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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