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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 156-164, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201766

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: COVID-19 pandemic has triggered social stigma towards individuals affected and their families. This study describes the process undertaken for the development and validation of scales to assess stigmatizing attitudes and experiences among COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 participants from the community. Methods: COVID-19 Stigma Scale and Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale constituting 13 and six items, respectively, were developed based on review of literature and news reports, expert committee evaluation and participants' interviews through telephone for a multicentric study in India. For content validity, 61 (30 COVID-19-recovered and 31 non-COVID-19 participants from the community) were recruited. Test-retest reliability of the scales was assessed among 99 participants (41 COVID-19 recovered and 58 non-COVID-19). Participants were administered the scale at two-time points after a gap of 7-12 days. Cronbach's alpha, overall percentage agreement and kappa statistics were used to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: Items in the scales were relevant and comprehensible. Both the scales had Cronbach's α above 0.6 indicating moderate-to-good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability assessed using kappa statistics indicated that for the COVID-19 Stigma Scale, seven items had a moderate agreement (0.4-0.6). For the Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale, four items had a moderate agreement. Interpretation & conclusions: Validity and reliability of the two stigma scales indicated that the scales were comprehensible and had moderate internal consistency. These scales could be used to assess COVID-19 stigma and help in the development of appropriate stigma reduction interventions for COVID-19 infected, and mitigation of stigmatizing attitudes in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 70(4): 177-182, 2022 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2182743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stigma underlies the violation of certain social, economic, and cultural rights of patients with schizophrenia, including their access to treatment and care. Measurement of stigma remains as complex and multifaceted as the phenomenon itself. Several measurement tools are available to assess the prevalence, intensity and qualities of stigma. The aim of the study was to carry out a cross-cultural adaptation of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC), in the Moroccan Arabic dialect commonly known as "Darija". PATIENTS AND METHOD: The study was conducted in three psychiatric departments of public hospitals in the Souss-Massa region, located in southern Morocco. For the diagnosis of schizophrenia, the study was based on the decisions of the psychiatrists practicing at the study sites. The cross-cultural adaptation in Moroccan Darija of the stigma scale developed by Michel Weiss in the EMIC was carried out according to the six-step scientific method developed by Dorcas et al. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency) was 0.845. Convergent validity determined by Pearson's coefficient showed a significant inter-item correlation and the intra-class correlation coefficient (test-retest) was 0.975 (0.993; 0.991). The item added in relation to the COVID-19 situation presented psychometric values similar to the others. CONCLUSION: The Darija version is culturally acceptable and can be used to approach the phenomenon of stigmatization in Morocco.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Language , Morocco/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Schizophrenia/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Psico USF ; 26(spe): 33-44, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2197459

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate validity evidence based on the internal structure and accuracy of the adapted version of the Learning Strategies Assessment Scale for High School (EAVAP-EM), using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Participants were 701 first- to third-year high school students (M = 16.1; SD = 1.0), from public and private institutions in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. The CFA indicated the presence of the three factors of the EAVAP-EM, with adequate internal consistency. The instrument also showed good fit indices. There were positive and significant correlations between the factors, with magnitude ranging from medium to large. Moreover, students reported making more use of metacognitive strategies. The results evinced significant advances regarding measures with good psychometric parameters to assess learning strategies, considering their relevance to the psychoeducational context (AU).


Objetivou-se no presente estudo estimar indicadores de validade com base na estrutura interna e precisão da versão adaptada da Escala de Avaliação das Estratégias de Aprendizagem para o Ensino Médio (EAVAP-EM), por meio de uma análise fatorial confirmatória (AFC). Participaram 701 alunos do primeiro ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio (M = 16,1; DP = 1,0), provenientes de instituições públicas e particulares dos estados do Paraná e de São Paulo. A AFC indicou a presença dos três fatores da EAVAP-EM, com consistência interna considerada adequada, sendo que o instrumento apresentou bons índices de ajuste. Houve correlações positivas e significativas entre os fatores, com magnitude variando de média a grande. Ainda, os estudantes reportaram fazer mais uso de estratégias metacognitivas. Os resultados evidenciam importantes avanços no que concerne a medidas com bons indicadores psicométricos para avaliação das estratégias de aprendizagem, considerando sua relevância ao contexto psicoeducacional (AU).


El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar evidencias de validez a partir de la estructura interna y la precisión de la versión adaptada de la Escala de Evaluación de Estrategias de Aprendizaje para la Escuela Preparatoria (EAVAP-EM), mediante un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC). Participaron 701 estudiantes de primero a tercer año de secundaria (M = 16.1; DS = 1.0), de instituciones públicas y privadas de las provincias de Paraná y São Paulo. El AFC indicó la presencia de los tres factores del EAVAP-EM, con consistencia interna considerada adecuada. El instrumento mostró índices de ajuste adecuados. Hubo correlaciones positivas y significativas entre los factores, cuya magnitud varió de moderada a alta. Además, los estudiantes informaron que hacen un mayor uso de las estrategias metacognitivas. Los resultados evidencian avances importantes en cuanto a medidas con buenos indicadores psicométricos para evaluar estrategias de aprendizaje, considerando su relevancia para el contexto psicoeducativo (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Psychometrics , Metacognition , Learning , Students/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Education, Primary and Secondary
4.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 130, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individual differences in one's perceived vulnerability to infectious diseases are implicated in psychological distress, social and behavioral disease avoidance phenomena. The Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Questionnaire (PVD) is the most extensively used measure when it comes to assessing subjective vulnerability to infectious diseases. However, this measure is not yet accessible to the Portuguese population. The present study aimed to adapt and validate the PVD with 136 Portuguese participants. METHODS: Factorial, convergent and discriminant validity (of both the scale and between each factor), and reliability analysis were assessed. RESULTS: A modified bifactorial model, comprised of Perceived Infectability and Germ Aversion factors, was obtained, with acceptable goodness-of-fit indices, adequate convergent and discriminant validity, and good internal consistencies. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the 10-items European-Portuguese PVD appears to be a reliable and valid measure of one's perceived vulnerability to disease, with potential relevance for application in both research and clinical practice pertaining to disease-avoidance processes.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Humans , Portugal , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(Supplement): S27-S30, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144162

ABSTRACT

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally life threatening or horrifying events. People suffering from PTSD are vulnerable for both physical and mental health. Objectives: To find out sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and to plot receiver operating characteristic curve taking Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview-Kid (MINIKID) as the gold standard and Child PTSD Symptom Scale 5I (CPSS-5I) as the newer diagnostic tool for diagnosing PTSD. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 6 months from January 2021 to June 2021 at R. L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Kolar, Karnataka through telephonic interviews. All the data entered in Microsoft office Excel sheet, analyzed using the SPSSv22 (IBM Corp). Results: Sensitivity of the CPSS-5I was 56% and specificity was 96% compared with MINIKID. 83% and 85%, respectively, was PPV and NPV of the CPSS-5I compared with MINIKID. Area under the curve is 83.9% with P < 0.001 (72.5-95.2) indicating CPSS-5I is 84% sensitive proving to be a very good diagnostic tool for diagnosing PTSD. Furthermore, scores of 9.5 or 10.5 from CPSS-5I can be used as cutoff in diagnosing PTSD using CPSS 51. Conclusion: CPSS-5I is extremely well designed, helpful and functional tool used in diagnosing PTSD. With the current study showing CPSS-5I can be used in post-COVID PTSD diagnosis, it also provides cutoff which can be helpful in mass screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuropsychiatry , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Child , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Cross-Sectional Studies , India
6.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 250, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of research suggesting that psychological flexibility (PF) is an important psychological construct related to psychological health and human performance. The Psychological Flexibility in Sport Scale (PFSS) is the first general scale to assess sport-related PF. So far, the PFSS has not yet been validated in other contexts than Sweden. Therefore, the current study sought to investigate a Persian version of the PFSS (P-PFSS) and extend the investigation of the psychometric properties of the PFSS in Iranian athletes. METHODS: A total of 302 athletes from both team and individual sports (average age of 20.7 years, SD ± 7.5, 62.3% were female) were involved in the current study. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to test validity and reliability. The validity of the P-PFSS was tested through face and content validity, construct validity, criterion validity, and known-groups validity. The reliability of P-PFSS was verified through internal consistency and temporal stability of the scale. RESULTS: Results revealed that validity of the P-PFSS was satisfactory. The instrument was determined to have strong face and content validity. With modifications, the confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the scale's unidimensionality. The convergent validity of the P-PFSS was found to be acceptable (average variance extracted = 0.66) and satisfactory results were also found in the correlation matrix for the assessment of construct validity. The P-PFSS showed good criterion validity related to generic psychological flexibility and athletic-related variables. Also, the P-PFSS was able to differentiate PF between known groups. The P-PFSS was found to be reliable, with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92; composite reliability = 0.92) and temporal stability on retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the Persian version of the PFSS showed good psychometric qualities in Iranian athletes. The current study provides additional support for the PFSS and extends the context-specific utility for practitioners and researchers in assessing sport-related PF.


Subject(s)
Sports , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Iran
7.
Work ; 73(3): 1075-1083, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the years, persons with disabilities have suffered unjustifiably due to a low employment rate, largely the result of unsupportive and negative attitude from employers. Such attitudes are exacerbated during periods of economic stress, with a case par excellence being the current COVID-19 pandemic. Prior studies have addressed common concerns of employers within the workplace. However, the dimensions of these concerns extend beyond the internal working environment, to the outward-facing work environment, involving interactions with customers and suppliers. These concerns have not, thus far, been properly addressed. OBJECTIVE: To develop the Service from People With Visual Impairment (SPVI) psychometric measure, a 6-item employers' attitude assessment tool. METHODS: This study is based on 1,036 questionnaires collected using Online Panel Data (OPD), from managers who have hiring authority. We performed Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) for discriminant and convergent validity. Finally, we present an empirical model comprising a stable single factor and establish predictive validity using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). RESULTS: CFA showed good fit to the observed data; CMIN/DF = 1.94, p > 0.05, CFI = 1, TLI = 0.99, NFI = 1, RMSEA = 0.03. SEM showed good fit; CMIN/DF = 1.91, CFI = 1, TLI = 0.99, NFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.03. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the instrument could become a pragmatic tool to assess employer attitudes to employ people with visual impairment or blindness due to external work environment concerns. The tool is relevant to a wide range of circumstances, including economic downturns. Practical considerations are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Attitude , Psychometrics , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Blindness , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116159

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Due to the restrictions imposed to control the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an increase in studies based on online surveys. However, there are important concerns about the validity and generalizability of results from online surveys. Thus, we aimed to test the reliability and validity of the online version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF) among college students from low-income regions. METHODS: This was a methodological feasibility study with a random stratified sample from a college located in the state of Maranhão in the city of Imperatriz (Brazil). The sample consisted of 195 college students (at least 17 years of age) to evaluate the validity and 117 students to evaluate the reliability. All data were collected in a self-reported online format (via Google Forms) twice, with an interval of 2 weeks. We used Spearman's correlation analysis for the reliability study. Additionally, we applied exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the structural validity. RESULTS: The questionnaire showed acceptable (rho > 0.30) and significant (p < 0.05) reliability, except for the question about the duration of sitting time on a weekend day. When assessing the construct validity (exploratory analysis), we identified a single factor that explained 88.8% of the variance. The 1-factor model showed acceptable model fit (SRMR = 0.039; CFI = 0.96; TLI = 0.90) in confirmatory analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The online version of the IPAQ-SF has acceptable reliability among college students from low-income regions and maintains the structure of the construct regarding to physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Exercise
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276918, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction is one of the main factors creating and bringing about work motivation, productivity, and efficiency as well as decreasing job-hopping and job turnover. No previous studies have been conducted to assess job satisfaction for community pharmacists in Vietnam. OBJECTIVE: This research was conducted to develop and validate an instrument used to measure community pharmacists' job satisfaction in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 351 pharmacists participated in this survey. Data were analyzed using R software version 4.2.0. The final instrument (VIJS) has 34 items divided into six factors which were determined via a parallel analysis (including physical working conditions, work nature, income and other benefits, management policies and managers, relationships with coworkers and customers, and learning and advancement opportunities). VIJS's internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97, Omega total = 0.98, split-half reliability = 0.985, and composite reliability>0.8). Two-week test-retest reliability results (intraclass correlation coefficient for the overall instrument: 0.97, for six factors: 0.865-0.938) demonstrated the consistency of the VIJS when the same test was repeated on the same sample (62 pharmacists) at different points in time. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis was employed to assess the construct validity. The VIJS was a good fit to a six-factor model (Chisq/df = 2.352, Comparative Fit Index = 0.937, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.929, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual = 0.042, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.062). VIJS's good convergent and discriminant validity was demonstrated via Average Variance Extrated>0.5 and the Heterotrait-Monotrait ratio of correlations<0.85. CONCLUSIONS: The VIJS possesses good reliability and validity and can be used to measure community pharmacists' job satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Job Satisfaction , Humans , Pharmacists , Reproducibility of Results , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Psychometrics
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1296, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the current pandemic context, dental professionals have greater occupational risks due to their healthcare activity, placing their expectations on the vaccine as a means of protection and at the same time hoping that the immunization process will be safe, reliable and comfortable, giving them greater peace of mind when they return to work. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and provide a preliminary validation of a scale to measure perception of the COVID-19 vaccination process in Peruvian dental professionals. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with instrumental design. The scale was self-administered virtually. It was distributed through social networks to 220 dental professionals from two universities in the Peruvian capital between June and August 2021. The Aiken V was used for content analysis, while descriptive statistics such as mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness were used for construct validation, in addition to Pearson's correlation matrix for analysis of the 18 items. Subsequently, a Parallel Analysis based on minimum rank factor analysis was performed. Finally, the reliability of the total scale and its dimensions was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The Aiken V coefficient values were favorable for all items. Parallel analysis indicated the existence of three dimensions. Principal component analysis with rotation suggested grouping eight items for the first dimension, six items for the second dimension and four items for the third dimension. These dimensions showed good reliability, as Cronbach's alpha was 0.87, (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-0.90), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.84) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78-0.86), respectively. In addition, the overall reliability of the scale was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.86-0.91), being acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The perception scale of the COVID-19 vaccination process in dental professionals proved preliminarily to be a valid and reliable scale that can be used for research purposes. However, it is recommended to extend its application and evaluate its metric properties in other health professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Peru/epidemiology , Perception , Dentists , Vaccination
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1959, 2022 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public trust is a crucial concept in the COVID-19 pandemic, which determines public adherence with preventive rules as a success factor for disease management. This study aimed to develop and validate a tool to measure public trust in COVID-19 control and prevention policies (COV-Trust tool). METHODS: This is a psychometric study that was conducted in 2020 (March-August). A primary tool was developed through literature review, in-depth interviews with experts and expert panel meetings. Content and construct validity was evaluated using content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) indexes and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. Cronbach α coefficient was calculated to determine the internal consistency. RESULTS: A 28-item questionnaire with seven factors was developed. Factors included macro policy-making and management of pandemic, pandemic control policies implementing at all levels and their effectiveness, providing protective equipment and medicine for hospitals and public, prevention of negative socio-economic consequences of the pandemic, public participation, informing and public education and public behavior. The questionnaire reliability was calculated to be α = 0.959. Based on the experts' opinion, tool content validity was estimated to be CVR = 0.73, CVI = 0.89. RMSEA = 0.07 revealed a good model fit as the confirmatory factor analysis results for the tool. CONCLUSION: COV-Trust tool is a well-fit tool to be used during this pandemic for improving policies effectiveness and could be used in similar situations as it determines the success of public health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Psychometrics/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , Trust , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Policy
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082083

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Vaccine literacy (VL) of the public is crucial to deal with anti-vaccination rhetoric. This study aims to (1) develop a Chinese COVID-19 Vaccine Literacy Scale and examine the factor structure and psychometric characteristics, and (2) explore the association between COVID-19 VL and sociodemographic characteristics and other variables; (2) Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 362 Chinese residents from 23 May 2022 to 31 May 2022 using snowball sampling; (3) Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the scale of 15 items, consisting of three factors, functional, interactive and critical vaccine literacy, explained 63.3% of the total variance. Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.885 for the overall scale: 0.838, 0.891, and 0.857 for three subscales, respectively. The results showed a medium level of vaccine literacy (M = 3.71, SD = 0.72) and significant differences among functional, interactive, and critical vaccine literacy (p < 0.001). The level of vaccine literacy grew with the level of education (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.049). Men, participants who were single, or those living in rural areas had a lower level of vaccine literacy; (4) Conclusions: The Chinese COVID-19 VL Scale has adequate validity and reliability for assessing vaccine literacy among Chinese residents. A deep understanding of the factors that affect vaccine literacy is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Male , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Reproducibility of Results , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Psychometrics/methods , China , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic hit the world with severe health consequences, affecting some populations more than others. One understudied population is the academic community. This study, part of a larger project looking at COVID-19 in Sweden and internationally, aims to understand the individual and collective dimensions of resilience among academics in Sweden during the early wave of the pandemic. METHOD: A quantitative research design was applied for this cross-sectional study. We used simple random sampling, administered through an online survey, on academics at Swedish universities (n = 278, 64% women). We employed the CD-RISC 2 (the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale) to measure personal/individual resilience, additional items for social/collective resilience, and a meaning-making coping instrument (meaning, control, comfort/spirituality, intimacy/spirituality, life transformation). RESULTS: The results revealed a strong level of personal/individual resilience among men (M = 6.05) and a level just below strong among women (M = 5.90). By age group, those 35-49-year-olds showed strong resilience (M = 6.31). Family was the dominant social/collective resilience factor, followed by friends, nature, work/school, and, lastly, religion/spirituality. There was a positive and significant correlation between self-rated health and personal/individual resilience (r = 0.252, p = 0.001) and positive but weak correlations and negative significant correlations between personal/individual resilience and religious coping methods. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, the family took priority in meaning-making, which is an interesting change in a strong individual-oriented society such as Sweden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Male , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Sweden/epidemiology , Psychometrics/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071438

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, social media became one of the most utilized sources of information relating to the disease. With the increased reliance on social media, the risk of excessive use and the development of social media addiction emerges. The aim of the present study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Slovenian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, and to explore how psychological resilience affects social media addiction symptoms directly and indirectly through symptoms of depression, anxiety and mental distress. A large online cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2021 among Slovenian tertiary students (N = 4868). The results showed the high reliability, unidimensionality and criterion validity of the Slovenian Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. The proposed structural model fit the data well and showed a significant direct positive effect of depression and stress on social media addiction. Moreover, the majority of the negative effects of psychological resilience on social media addiction (87.2%) were indirect, through depression and stress symptoms, whereas resilience had a significantly smaller impact on social media addiction by reducing anxiety symptoms. The overall prevalence of social media addiction symptoms was 4.6%, with females exhibiting higher proportions than men. Additionally, female social media users reported a complete absence of social media addiction symptoms less often compared to males. Future research should further explore the mechanisms behind social media addiction, in order to gain a better understanding of the apparently different risk levels for both genders.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Female , Male , Psychometrics , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Students
15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e167, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069842

ABSTRACT

In this study, we tested the validity across two scales addressing conspiratorial thinking that may influence behaviours related to public health and the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the COVIDiSTRESSII Global Survey data from 12 261 participants, we validated the 4-item Conspiratorial Thinking Scale and 3-item Anti-Expert Sentiment Scale across 24 languages and dialects that were used by at least 100 participants per language. We employed confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance test and measurement alignment for internal consistency testing. To test convergent validity of the two scales, we assessed correlations with trust in seven agents related to government, science and public health. Although scalar invariance was not achieved when measurement invariance test was conducted initially, we found that both scales can be employed in further international studies with measurement alignment. Moreover, both conspiratorial thinking and anti-expert sentiments were significantly and negatively correlated with trust in all agents. Findings from this study provide supporting evidence for the validity of both scales across 24 languages for future large-scale international research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Language , Attitude , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Perceived Telemedicine Importance, Disadvantages, and Barriers (PTIDB) questionnaire for healthcare professionals (HCPs) in Egypt. This study was conducted in three phases: (1) development of the questionnaire, (2) preliminary testing of the questionnaire, and (3) investigation of its validity and reliability using a large survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted over two months. A convenience sample of 691 HCPs and clerks from 22 governorates accessed the online survey. The construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal reliability. RESULTS: The initial Eigenvalues showed that all 19 items of the questionnaire explained 56.0% of the variance in three factors. For Factor 1 (importance), eight items were loaded on one factor, with factor loading ranging from 0.61 to 0.78. For Factor 2 (disadvantages), seven items were loaded on one factor with factor loading ranging from 0.60 to 0.79. For Factor 3 (barriers), four items were loaded on one factor, with factor loading ranging from 0.60 to 0.86. The CFA showed that All loadings ranged from 0.4 to 1.0, with CFI = 0.93 and RMSEA = 0.061. All the factors had satisfactory reliability; 0.87 for ''Importance'', 0.82 for ''Disadvantages'', and 0.79 for ''Barriers''. CONCLUSION: The PTIDB questionnaire has an acceptable level of validity and internal consistency, at a readability level of 12th grade. The retest reliability, however, still needs to be tested.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066021

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented and has affected every social class. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe stress and anxiety levels in the general population was reported to be 25%. This study aimed to describe the validation of the Hungarian version of the COVID Stress Scale. (2) Methods: The research study was a cross-section validation study with a representative sample (N = 1200) and a non-representative student sample (N = 350). The translation procedure was a four-step procedure. The interviewers conducted the data collection. (3) Results: The reliability of the Hungarian CSS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was evaluated by correlating the CSS with the PSS and WHO-WBI5. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CSS-H factors was between 0.844 and 0.907 (representative sample) and between 0.878 and 0.936 (student sample), which qualified as very good. The reliability of the internal consistency was good for all six factors in both samples. The CSS-H total and all-domain scores significantly and positively correlated with the PSS total score and negatively correlated with well-being. (4) Conclusions: The Hungarian COVID Stress Scale is a valid, reliable instrument to measure COVID-19-related distress in the Hungarian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(4): 512-531, 2022 Apr.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055649

ABSTRACT

The current health situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a reconfiguration of the doctor-patient relationship. We performed a systematic review to comparatively evaluate the instruments most used to study communication in the doctor-patient relationship. We identified 43 instruments assessing different aspects of the doctor-patient relationship, of which 34 correspond to Anglo-Saxon literature and nine to Latin American texts. The psychometric evidence for many of these instruments is incipient. Most of these instruments contemplate a unidirectional design and address similar dimensions of the doctor-patient relationship, particularly in the Latin American context where the relationship is mostly studied in a unidimensional way. We propose recommendations for the development, revision, or refinement of instruments that measure communication in the doctor-patient relationship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physician-Patient Relations , Communication , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics
19.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 226, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the numerous tools built ad hoc to investigate the effects of the CoViD-19 pandemic on people, to date there are no known questionnaires that investigate the emotional experiences of cancer patients. This work aims to start a process of construction and validation of a tool that captures these aspects (Pandemic Emotions Questionnaire in Cancer Patients-PEQ-CP). METHOD: A mixed method approach was used through three phases, each on a different sample: Phase 1: creation of items and checking of internal validity, through unstructured interviews and verification of the validity of content by "peers" and "experts"; Phase 2: exploration of the factorial structure of the scale through an exploratory factor analysis (EFA); Phase 3: confirmation of the factorial structure of the scale through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). RESULTS: Phase 1 revealed 26 items that can be grouped into 4 theoretical dimensions. "Peers" and "experts" rated all items as understandable and relevant except one, which was reformulated. The EFA in the Phase 2 revealed a factorial structure with 14 items and three dimensions (Emotional Understanding, Communication of Emotions, Feelings the same as others), confirmed by the CFA in Phase 3. CONCLUSION: Although further validation steps are required, the PEQ-CP showed good psychometric properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Emotions , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 138, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of health literacy to make informed preventive decisions. A specific COVID-19 health literacy questionnaire (CHL-Q) is included in the COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring WHO initiative to conduct behavioral insights studies related to COVID-19. The objective was to assess the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the COVID-19 Health Literacy Questionnaire (CHL-Q). METHODS: Data quality, acceptability, internal consistency, and construct and structural validity were analyzed. A Rasch analysis was also performed. This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on the Spanish general population after the first wave of the pandemic and after the end of the general lockdown by an online survey agency. 1033 participants (inclusion criteria were being 18 years or older and living in Spain), was extracted from a panel of approximately 982,000 participants. The sampling was stratified matching the Spanish general population in terms of age, gender, and area of residence. The CHL-Q includes 9 items and assesses people's knowledge, motivation and competencies to access, understand, evaluate, and apply information about COVID-19 in order to make informed decisions. RESULTS: CHL-Q index presented a mean of 33.89 (SD = 9.4), and good fit to the Rasch model (χ2(32) = 34.672, p = 0.342, person separation index = 0.77), with ordered thresholds, unidimensionality, item local independence, and no item bias by sex, age or education level. The CHL-Q showed significant different scores by level of education, experience of infection, confusion related to COVID-19 information and adherence to preventive measures. We found a statistically significant correlation between the CHL-Q index and the total number of preventive measures adopted, COVID-19 knowledge, and information seeking behaviour. The Cronbach´s alpha was 0.87 and the item total corrected correlation, 0.49-0.68. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of CHL-Q is a short, adequate, and reliable instrument to measure COVID-19 related health literacy in the Spanish general population. Measuring the CHL in the population can be useful to evaluate whether public authorities, media and the medical and scientific community have been able to reach the population to offer the information in the terms they need it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Quality of Life , Reproducibility of Results , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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