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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 74, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite widespread COVID-19 vaccination programs, there is an ongoing need for targeted disease prevention and control efforts in high-risk occupational settings. This study aimed to develop, pilot, and validate an instrument for surveying occupational COVID-19 infection prevention and control (IPC) measures available to workers in diverse geographic and occupational settings. METHODS: A 44-item online survey was developed in English and validated for face and content validity according to literature review, expert consultation, and pre-testing. The survey was translated and piloted with 890 workers from diverse industries in Canada, Ireland, Argentina, Poland, Nigeria, China, the US, and the UK. Odds ratios generated from univariable, and multivariable logistic regression assessed differences in 'feeling protected at work' according to gender, age, occupation, country of residence, professional role, and vaccination status. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted, and internal consistency reliability verified with Cronbach's alpha. Hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests verified construct validity (i.e., discriminant validity, known-groups technique), and criterion validity. RESULTS: After adjustment for occupational sector, characteristics associated with feeling protected at work included being male (AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.18,2.99), being over 55 (AOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.25,3.77) and working in a managerial position (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.99,4.83). EFA revealed nine key IPC domains relating to: environmental adjustments, testing and surveillance, education, costs incurred, restricted movements, physical distancing, masking, isolation strategies, and areas for improvement. Each domain showed sufficient internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.60). Hypothesis testing revealed differences in survey responses by country and occupational sector, confirming construct validity (p < 0.001), criterion validity (p = 0.04), and discriminant validity (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The online survey, developed in English to identify the COVID-19 protective measures used in diverse workplace settings, showed strong face validity, content validity, internal consistency, criterion validity, and construct validity. Translations in Chinese, Spanish, French, Polish, and Hindi demonstrated adaptability of the survey for use in international working environments. The multi-lingual tool can be used by decision makers in the distribution of IPC resources, and to guide occupational safety and health (OSH) recommendations for preventing COVID-19 and future infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Workplace , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has had a global major healthcare, social and economic impact. In present study we aim to adapt the Fear of COVID-19 Scale to Hungarian. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forward-backward translation method was used to translate the English version of the scale to Hungarian. Participants were a convenience sample of 2175 university students and employees. The study was conducted between January 18th and February 12th 2021. The test battery included Hungarian versions of Fear of COVID-19 scale, short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-H) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: The scale showed one-factor structure, the loadings on the factor were significant and strong (from .47 to .84). Internal consistency was very good (α = .84). Construct validity for the Fear of COVID-19 Scale was supported by significant and positive correlations with STAI (r = 0.402; p < 0.001) and BDI-H (r = 0.270; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Hungarian version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale is a reliable and valid tool in assessing fear of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Psychometrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Faculty/psychology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 728904, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597989

ABSTRACT

Background: Several studies indicate a high prevalence of depression around the world during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a valid instrument to capture the depression of an individual in this situation is both important and timely. The present study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) among the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. Method: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in the Iranian population (n = 600) from April to July 2020. A two-part online form was used: sociodemographic characteristics and depression items (CES-D). The construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the scale were evaluated. Result: The results of the exploratory factor analysis illustrated two factors with 43.35% of the total variance of the depression were explained. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that this model fits well. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated, and it was acceptable. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that, in the Iranian sample, this depression scale yielded two factors (somatic and positive affects) solutions with suitable psychometric properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260586, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597862

ABSTRACT

Knowledge about how science works, trust in scientists, and the perceived utility of science currently appear to be eroding in these times in which "alternative facts" or personal experiences and opinions are used as arguments. Yet, in many situations, it would be beneficial for the individual and all of society if scientific findings were considered in decision-making. For this to happen, people have to trust in scientists and perceive science as useful. Still, in university contexts, it might not be desirable to report negative beliefs about science. In addition, science-utility and science-trust associations may differ from explicit beliefs because associations were learned through the co-occurrence of stimuli rather than being based on propositional reasoning. We developed two IATs to measure science-utility and science-trust associations in university students and tested the psychometric properties and predictive potential of these measures. In a study of 261 university students, the IATs were found to have good psychometric properties and small correlations with their corresponding self-report scales. Science-utility and science-trust associations predicted knowledge about how science works over and above self-reported beliefs. The results suggest that indirect measures are useful for assessing beliefs about science and can be used to predict outcome measures.


Subject(s)
Knowledge , Trust , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Attitude , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychometrics , Self Report , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595516

ABSTRACT

The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) has been used to assess the impact that oral health problems can have on an individual's life. Different theoretical models were proposed to evaluate the results. The aims of this study were to evaluate the fit of different factorial models of the OHIP-14 to non-dental patients (NDP) and dental patients (DP) samples from Brazil and Finland and to estimate the differential functioning of the items in the OHIP-14 between the samples. Two studies were conducted, one in Brazil and the other in Finland, composed of five samples (Brazil-Sample 1 (S1): DP, n = 434, age: 25.3 [SD = 6.3] years; S2: NDP, n = 1486, age: 24.7 [SD = 5.6] years; S3: DP, n = 439, age: 29.0 [SD = 6.7] years; Finland-S4: DP, n = 482, age: 26.3 [SD = 5.4] years; S5: NDP, n = 2425, age: 26.7 [DP = 5.5] years). The fit of the OHIP-14 models to the data was estimated using a confirmatory strategy (validity based on the internal structure). Differential item functioning (DIF) between samples was estimated. For NDP from both countries, the response pattern severely violated the normality assumption in six items of the OHIP-14, indicating that the instrument does not fit for these samples. For DP, the model with the best fit was unifactorial, which deals with the estimation of the general impact of oral health on an individual's life, without addressing specific dimensions. Configural invariance was refuted between samples. DIF indicated that the characteristic of the sample (NDP and DP) in both countries interfered in the response given to the items, with the response level being more adequate for the latent PD trait. The validity of data related to the impact of oral health problems on an individual's life was confirmed through a unifactorial model. OHIP-14 works properly in DP samples and was limited in NDP samples, being also influenced by cultural context and age.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , Quality of Life , Adult , Brazil , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580815

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is associated with sleep problems and mental health issues among individuals. Therefore, there is a need to assess sleep efficiency during this tough period. Unfortunately, the commonly used instrument on insomnia severity-the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)-has never been translated and validated among Bangladeshis. Additionally, the ISI has never been validated during a major protracted disaster (such as the COVID-19 outbreak) when individuals encounter mental health problems. The present study aimed to translate the ISI into Bangla language (ISI-Bangla) and validate its psychometric properties. First, the linguistic validity of the ISI-Bangla was established. Then, 9790 Bangladeshis (mean age = 26.7 years; SD = 8.5; 5489 [56.1%] males) completed the Bangla versions of the following questionnaires: ISI, Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). All the participants also answered an item on suicidal ideation. Classical test theory and Rasch analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ISI-Bangla. Both classical test theory and Rasch analyses support a one-factor structure for the ISI-Bangla. Moreover, no substantial differential item functioning was observed across different subgroups (gender, depression status (determined using PHQ-9), and suicidal ideation). Additionally, concurrent validity of the ISI-Bangla was supported by significant and moderate correlations with FCV-19S and PHQ-9; known-group validity was established by the significant difference of the ISI-Bangla scores between participants who experienced suicidal ideation and those without. The present psychometric validation conducted during the COVID-19 outbreak suggests that the ISI-Bangla is a promising and operationally adequate instrument to assess insomnia in Bangladeshis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2056, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults duo to circumstances of aging such as relationship losses, medical morbidities, and functional declines, are prone to social isolation and loneliness more than any other age group. Furthermore, with The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to quarantine, the possibility of feelings of loneliness, especially in older adults, became an important nursing priority. Therefore, it is important to quickly identify loneliness and respond appropriately to prevent, reduce, or treat it. The aim of this study was to translate the De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale into Persian for older adults. METHODS: The sample was 400 adults aged 65 and older with a mean age of 71.32 (SD= ± 6.09) years. Recruitment and data collection was done via online methods. The original scale was translated into Persian using the World Health Organization (WHO) protocol of forward-backward translation technique. Face validity and content validity; was followed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Lastly, reliability was assessed using the Average Inter-Item Correlation, Cronbach's alpha, and McDonald's Omega. RESULTS: The results showed that the Persian version of the loneliness scale had two factors namely social loneliness (5 items) and emotional loneliness (3 items) and the combined score explained 45.66% of the total variance of this scale. In addition, all goodness of fit indices confirmed a two factors model fit and all of the reliability indices were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The Persian version of the loneliness scale is useful and suitable for detecting social loneliness and emotional loneliness in older Iranian adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Aged , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572468

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) is an effective secondary preventive model of care. However, the use of CR is insufficient, and the reasons for this are not well-characterized in East-Central Europe. This prospective observational study psychometrically validated the recently translated Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale for the Czech language (CRBS-CZE) and identified the main CR barriers. Consecutive cardiac in/out-patients were approached from January 2020 for 18 months, of whom 186 (89.9%) consented. In addition to sociodemographic characteristics, participants completed the 21-item CRBS-CZE (response options 1-5, with higher scores representing greater barriers), and their CR utilization was tracked. Forty-five (24.2%) participants enrolled in CR, of whom 42 completed the CRBS a second time thereafter. Factor analysis revealed four factors, consistent with other CRBS translations. Internal reliability was acceptable for all but one factor (Cronbach's alpha range = 0.44-0.77). Mean total barrier scores were significantly higher in non-enrollers (p < 0.001), decreased from first and second administration in these enrollers (p < 0.001), and were lower in CR completers (p < 0.001), supporting criterion validity. There were also significant differences in barrier scores by education, geography, tobacco use, among other variables, further supporting validity. The biggest barriers to enrolment were distance, work responsibilities, lack of time, transportation problems, and comorbidities; and the greatest barriers to adherence were distance and travel. Several items were considered irrelevant at first and second administration. Other barriers included wearing a mask during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study demonstrated sufficient validity and reliability of CRBS-CZE, which supports its use in future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Czech Republic , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554908

ABSTRACT

Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is a common human neurobiological trait that is related to many areas of human life. This trait has recently received increased public interest. However, solid scientific research on SPS is lagging behind. Progress in this area is also hindered by a lack of comprehensive research tools suitable for a rapid assessment of SPS. Thus, the aim of this study was to offer a newly developed tool, the Sensory Processing Sensitivity Questionnaire (SPSQ), and to assess its psychometric properties and associations with emotional and relational variables measured during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found the tool to have good psychometric characteristics: high temporal stability (r = 0.95) and excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92; McDonald's ω = 0.92). The fit of the SPSQ bi-factor model was satisfactory: χ2 (88.0) = 506.141; p < 0.001; CFI = 0.993; TLI = 0.990; RMSEA = 0.070; SRMR = 0.039. Testing of configural, metric, scalar and strict invariance suggested that the SPSQ assesses SPS equivalently between males and females. The scale's validity was supported via a strong association with an existing SPS measure. Further, we observed higher total SPSQ scores among women, students and religious respondents, and we found that more sensitive respondents reported higher feelings of anxiety and more deterioration in relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this study also identifies people with this trait as being potentially more vulnerable during periods of an increased presence of global stressors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Perception , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e30644, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The internet is now a major source of health information. With the growth of internet users, eHealth literacy has emerged as a new concept for digital health care. Therefore, health professionals need to consider the eHealth literacy of consumers when providing care utilizing digital health technologies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify currently available eHealth literacy instruments and evaluate their measurement properties to provide robust evidence to researchers and clinicians who are selecting an eHealth literacy instrument. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of self-reported eHealth literacy instruments by applying the updated COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) methodology. RESULTS: This study included 7 instruments from 41 articles describing 57 psychometric studies, as identified in 4 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycInfo). No eHealth literacy instrument provided evidence for all measurement properties. The eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) was originally developed with a single-factor structure under the definition of eHealth literacy before the rise of social media and the mobile web. That instrument was evaluated in 18 different languages and 26 countries, involving diverse populations. However, various other factor structures were exhibited: 7 types of two-factor structures, 3 types of three-factor structures, and 1 bifactor structure. The transactional eHealth literacy instrument (TeHLI) was developed to reflect the broader concept of eHealth literacy and was demonstrated to have a sufficient low-quality and very low-quality evidence for content validity (relevance, comprehensiveness, and comprehensibility) and sufficient high-quality evidence for structural validity and internal consistency; however, that instrument has rarely been evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The eHealth literacy scale was the most frequently investigated instrument. However, it is strongly recommended that the instrument's content be updated to reflect recent advancements in digital health technologies. In addition, the transactional eHealth literacy instrument needs improvements in content validity and further psychometric studies to increase the credibility of its synthesized evidence.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 180, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple psychological consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak and quarantine have been described. However, there is a lack of global conceptualization. We argue that the stressful aspects of the situation, the multiple environmental consequences of the outbreak, and the diversity of symptoms observed in such a situation, suggest that Adjustment disorder (AD) is a promising way to conceptualize the psychological consequences of the outbreak and quarantine. The first aim of the study was to validate the French version of the ADNM. The second aim was to set out adjustment difficulties resulting from COVID-19 outbreak and quarantine. METHOD: We recruited 1010 (840 women, 170 men) who consented online to participate. They filled out the French ADNM, visual analogic scales, HADS, IES, and the COPE, to evaluate coping strategies. RESULTS: We confirmed the factor structure of the ADNM and we found good psychometric properties. We found that 61.3% of participants presented an adjustment disorder related to COVID-19 outbreak. We found multiple risk factors and protective factors to AD due to quarantine and outbreak. We also identified the coping strategies negatively and positively associated with AD. CONCLUSION: Adjustment disorder is a relevant concept to understand psychological manifestations caused by quarantine and outbreak. The French ANDM has good psychometric properties to evaluate such manifestations. The association between coping strategies and AD symptoms suggest that CBT may be the best intervention to help people suffering from AD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134315, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513768

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased strain on health care workers and disrupted childcare and schooling arrangements in unprecedented ways. As substantial gender inequalities existed in medicine before the pandemic, physician mothers may be at particular risk for adverse professional and psychological consequences. Objective: To assess gender differences in work-family factors and mental health among physician parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 276 US physicians enrolled in the Intern Health Study since their first year of residency training. Physicians who had participated in the primary study as interns during the 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009 academic years and opted into a secondary longitudinal follow-up study were invited to complete an online survey in August 2018 and August 2020. Exposures: Work-family experience included 3 single-item questions and the Work and Family Conflict Scale, and mental health symptoms included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were work-to-family and family-to-work conflict and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms during August 2020. Depressive symptoms between 2018 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) were compared by gender. Results: Among 215 physician parents who completed the August 2020 survey, 114 (53.0%) were female and the weighted mean (SD) age was 40.1 (3.57) years. Among physician parents, women were more likely to be responsible for childcare or schooling (24.6% [95% CI, 19.0%-30.2%] vs 0.8% [95% CI, 0.01%-2.1%]; P < .001) and household tasks (31.4% [95% CI, 25.4%-37.4%] vs 7.2% [95% CI, 3.5%-10.9%]; P < .001) during the pandemic compared with men. Women were also more likely than men to work primarily from home (40.9% [95% CI, 35.1%-46.8%] vs 22.0% [95% CI, 17.2%-26.8%]; P < .001) and reduce their work hours (19.4% [95% CI, 14.7%-24.1%] vs 9.4% [95% CI, 6.0%-12.8%]; P = .007). Women experienced greater work-to-family conflict (ß = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.00 to 4.59; P = .03), family-to-work conflict (ß = 3.09; 95% CI, 1.18-4.99; P = .02), and depressive (ß = 1.76; 95% CI, 0.56-2.95; P = .046) and anxiety (ß = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.49-4.26; P < .001) symptoms compared with men. We observed a difference between women and men in depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic (mean [SD] PHQ-9 score: 5.05 [6.64] vs 3.52 [5.75]; P = .009) that was not present before the pandemic (mean [SD] PHQ-9 score: 3.69 [5.26] vs 3.60 [6.30]; P = .86). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found significant gender disparities in work and family experiences and mental health symptoms among physician parents during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may translate to increased risk for suicide, medical errors, and lower quality of patient care for physician mothers. Institutional and public policy solutions are needed to mitigate the potential adverse consequences for women's careers and well-being.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Parents , Sex Factors , Work-Life Balance/standards , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Psychometrics/instrumentation , Psychometrics/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Work-Life Balance/statistics & numerical data
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e048241, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501712

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, social stigma towards COVID-19 infection has become a major component of public discourse and social phenomena. As such, we aimed to develop and validate the COVID-19 Public Stigma Scale (COVID-PSS). DESIGN AND SETTING: National-based survey cross-sectional study during the lockdown in Thailand. PARTICIPANTS: We invited the 4004 adult public to complete a set of measurement tools, including the COVID-PSS, global fear of COVID-19, perceived risk of COVID-19 infection, Bogardus Social Distance Scale, Pain Intensity Scale and Insomnia Severity Index. METHODS: Factor structure dimensionality was constructed and reaffirmed with model fit by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and non-parametric item response theory (IRT) analysis. Psychometric properties for validity and reliability were tested. An anchor-based approach was performed for classifying the proper cut-off scores. RESULTS: After factor analysis, IRT analysis and test for model fit, we created the final 10-item COVID-PSS with a three-factor structure: stereotype, prejudice and fear. Face and content validity were established through the public and experts' perspectives. The COVID-PSS was significantly correlated (Spearman rank, 95% CI) with the global fear of COVID-19 (0.68, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.70), perceived risk of COVID-19 infection (0.79, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.80) and the Bogardus Social Distance Scale (0.50, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.53), indicating good convergent validity. The correlation statistics between the COVID-PSS and the Pain Intensity Scale and Insomnia Severity Index were <0.2, supporting the discriminant validity. The reliability of the COVID-PSS was satisfactory, with good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.86) and test-retest reproducibility (intraclass correlation of 0.94, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.96). The proposed cut-off scores were as follows: no/minimal (≤18), moderate (19-25) and high (≥26) public stigma towards COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-PSS is practical and suitable for measuring stigma towards COVID-19 in a public health survey. However, cross-cultural adaptation may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259062, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496527

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to generate a linguistic equivalent of the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) in the Serbian language and examine its psychometric characteristics. Data were collected from September to December 2020 among the general population of three cities in Republic of Serbia and Republic of Srpska, countries where the Serbian language is spoken. Participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, followed by the CSS and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The CSS was validated using the standard methodology (i.e., forward and backward translations, pilot testing). The reliability of the Serbian CSS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega coefficients and convergent validity was evaluated by correlating the CSS with PSS. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the construct validity of the Serbian CSS. This study included 961 persons (52.8% males and 47.2% females). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Serbian CSS was 0.964 and McDonald's omega was 0.964. The Serbian CSS with 36 items and a six-factorial structure showed a measurement model with a satisfactory fit for our population (CMIN/DF = 4.391; GFI = 0.991; RMSEA = 0.025). The CSS total and all domain scores significantly positively correlated with PSS total score. The Serbian version of the CSS is a valid and reliable questionnaire that can be used in assessing COVID-19-related distress experienced by Serbian speaking people during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future epidemics and pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Language , Pandemics , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Serbia
18.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211051935, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 protective motivation scale (EMP-COVID-19) has been developed for the assessment of protective motivation. This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the EMP-COVID-19 for its application in the Peruvian community. METHODS: This is an observational, cross-sectional, instrumental design study, 483 adults (≥18 years) participated in the study, in 2 samples of 81 and 402 participants from the different macro-regions of Peru through an online survey using non-probabilistic sampling. Content validation was performed through expert judgment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to evaluate the factor model of the EMP-COVID-19 was performed with the first sample. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify the goodness of fit of the analysis found in the EFA was performed with the second sample. The examination of convergent and discriminant validity included peer evaluations of each EMP-COVID-19 dimension. Finally, the reliability of the instrument was evaluated using Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. RESULTS: The 3-factor related model presents better fit indices (CFI = 0.99; TLI = 0.99; RMSEA = 0.077 [90% CI 0.069-0.085]) versus a unidimensional model (CFI = 0.91; TLI = 0.90; RMSEA = 0.206 [90% CI 0.199-0.213]). The scale present convergent and discriminant validity in all the dimensions Threat Appraisal (AVE = .57), Coping Appraisal (AVE = .81), and Response Costs (AVE = .67). The Coping Appraisal (α = .97; ω = .97), Threat Appraisal (α = .88; ω = .74), and Response Costs (α = .80; ω = .76) dimensions were also found to have adequate reliability indices. CONCLUSIONS: The EMP-COVID-19 scale demonstrated adequate reliability and validity based on internal structure in the study sample.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Peru , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458302

ABSTRACT

Short and effective tools for measuring depression, anxiety and their resulting impairments are lacking in the Czech language. The abbreviated versions of the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) and the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) show very good psychometric properties in English and other languages, and can be used in different settings for research or clinical purposes. The aim of this study was the psychometric evaluation and validation of the Czech versions of the abbreviated forms of both tools in the general population. A nationally representative sample of 2912 participants (age = 48.88, SD = 15.56; 55% female) was used. The non-parametric testing of the differences between sociodemographic groups revealed a higher level of anxiety and depression in students, females and religious respondents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested a good fit for the unidimensional model of the OASIS: x2(4) = 38.28; p < 0.001; TLI = 0.999; CFI = 0.997; RMSEA = 0.078; SRMR = 0.027 and the ODSIS: x2(4) = 36.54; p < 0.001; TLI = 0.999; CFI = 0.999; RMSEA = 0.076; SRMR = 0.021 with the data. Both scales had an excellent internal consistency (OASIS: Cronbach's alpha = 0.95, McDonald's omega = 0.95 and ODSIS: Cronbach's alpha = 0.95, McDonald's omega = 0.95). A clinical cut-off of 15 was identified for the OASIS and a cut-off of 12 for the ODSIS. The study showed good validity for both scales. The Czech versions of the abbreviated OASIS and ODSIS were short and valid instruments for measuring anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Depression , Language , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Psychol Assess ; 33(10): 998-1012, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454728

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2) diagnostic scales, 837 Italian community-dwelling adults and 429 consecutively admitted Italian psychiatric adults were administered the SNAP-2. The 12 SNAP-2 diagnostic scales yielded reliable scores in both community (median ω value = .90) and psychiatric (median ω value = .92) samples. The 6-month temporal stability was adequate for all SNAP-2 diagnostic scales (median test-retest r-value = .84) in a subsample of the community-dwelling adults (n = 97). When we examined the correlations between the SNAP-2 diagnostic scales and the Five-Factor Model Rating Form trait scales among the community-dwelling adults, the double-entry intraclass correlation values (median ICCDE = .94) indicated a marked similarity between our correlation profiles and the correlation profiles that were reported in Samuel and Widiger (2008) meta-analysis. In our psychiatric-adult sample, the SNAP-2 diagnostic scales showed adequate convergent-validity coefficients (median r-value = .61) with criterion measures of DSM-IV axis II/DSM-5 Section II personality disorders (PDs). Finally, relative-weight analysis results showed that selected Personality Inventory for DSM-5 trait-scale scores explained a substantial amount of variance in SNAP-2 antisocial, avoidant, borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal PD scale scores (median R 2 value = .55). As a whole, our data suggest that the Italian SNAP-2 diagnostic scales have adequate reliability and construct validity in the Italian culture. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Personality Disorders , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Adult , Humans , Independent Living , Italy , Personality Disorders/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Translations
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