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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 436-441, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term recovery rate for coronavirus disease 2019 related chemosensory disturbances has not yet been clarified. METHODS: Olfactory and gustatory functions were assessed with psychophysical tests in patients in the first seven days from coronavirus disease 2019 onset and one, two, three and six months after the first evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 300 patients completed the study. The improvement in olfactory function was significant at the two-month follow up. At the end of the observation period, 27 per cent of the patients still experienced a persistent olfactory disturbance, including anosmia in 5 per cent of cases. As for taste, the improvement in the psychophysical scores was significant only between the baseline and the 30-day control. At the 6-month evaluation, 10 per cent of the patients presented with a persistent gustatory disturbance with an incidence of complete ageusia of 1 per cent. CONCLUSION: Six months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019, about 6 per cent of patients still had a severe persistent olfactory or gustatory disturbance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Psychophysics/methods , Recovery of Function/physiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adult , Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
2.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080838

ABSTRACT

This study prospectively assessed the 6-month prevalence of self-reported and psychophysically measured olfactory dysfunction in subjects with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Self-reported smell or taste impairment was prospectively evaluated by SNOT-22 at diagnosis, 4-week, 8-week, and 6-month. At 6 months from the diagnosis, psychophysical evaluation of olfactory function was also performed using the 34-item culturally adapted University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (CA-UPSIT). 145 completed both the 6-month subjective and psychophysical olfactory evaluation. According to CA-UPSIT, 87 subjects (60.0%) exhibited some smell dysfunction, with 10 patients being anosmic (6.9%) and seven being severely microsmic (4.8%). At the time CA-UPSIT was administered, a weak correlation was observed between the self-reported alteration of the sense of smell or taste and olfactory test scores (Spearman's r = -0.26). Among 112 patients who self-reported normal sense of smell at last follow-up, CA-UPSIT revealed normal smell in 46 (41.1%), mild microsmia in 46 (41.1%), moderate microsmia in 11 (9.8%), severe microsmia in 3 (2.3%), and anosmia in 6 (5.4%) patients; however, of those patients self-reporting normal smell but who were found to have hypofunction on testing, 62 out of 66 had a self-reported reduction in sense of smell or taste at an earlier time point. Despite most patients report a subjectively normal sense of smell, we observed a high percentage of persistent smell dysfunction at 6 months from the diagnosis of syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, with 11.7% of patients being anosmic or severely microsmic. These data highlight a significant long-term rate of smell alteration in patients with previous SARS-COV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Psychophysics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Smell , Taste
3.
Laryngoscope ; 131(8): E2475-E2480, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to evaluate the olfactory status in children with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 using subjective and psychophysical methods. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical cross-sectional study. METHODS: This is a prospective clinical cross-sectional study of 79 children with COVID-19. The 21st item of SNOT-22 questionnaire and odor identification test were used for smell assessment. Children were examined twice during the hospitalization, and a telephone survey was conducted 60 days after hospital discharge. RESULTS: Immediately after confirmation of COVID-19, smell impairment was detected in 86.1% of children by means of the Identification test and in 68.4% of children by means of the survey (P = .010). After 5 days survey revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of patients with hyposmia (41 out of 79, 51.9%). On the first visit, the mean Identification test score corresponded to "hyposmia" (9.5 ± 2.7), while on the second visit, the average value was 13.1 ± 1.9, which corresponded to "normosmia." According to the telephone survey, recovery of the olfactory function occurred within 10 days in 37 of 52 patients (71.2%), 11 to 29 days - in 12 children (23.1%), and later than 30 days - in three cases (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: In the pediatric population, olfactory dysfunction is an early and common symptom of COVID-19. There is a trend to quick recovery of olfactory function in children with COVID-19. The overwhelming majority of patients (94.3%) had no subjective olfactory complaints by the end of the first month. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E2475-E2480, 2021.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Odorants/analysis , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Psychophysics , Smell/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/methods
4.
Laryngoscope ; 131(5): 1095-1100, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: With the COVID-19 pandemic, chemosensory dysfunction are among the most prevalent symptoms. Most reports are subjective evaluations, which have been suggested to be unreliable. The objective is to test chemosensory dysfunction and recovery based on extensive psychophysical tests in COVID-19 during the course of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 111 patients from four centers participated in the study. All tested positive for SARS-COV-2 with RT-PCR. They were tested within 3 days of diagnosis and 28 to 169 days after infection. Testing included extensive olfactory testing with the Sniffin' Sticks test for threshold, discrimination and identification abilities, and with the Taste Sprays and Taste Strips for gustatory function for quasi-threshold and taste identification abilities. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in olfactory function during and after infection. During infection 21% were anosmic, 49% hyposmic, and 30% normosmic. After infection only 1% were anosmic, 26% hyposmic, and 73% normosmic. For gustatory function, there was a difference for all taste qualities, but significantly in sour, bitter, and total score. Twenty-six percent had gustatory dysfunction during infection and 6.5% had gustatory dysfunction after infection. Combining all tests 22% had combined olfactory and gustatory dysfunction during infection. After infection no patients had combined dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Chemosensory dysfunction is very common in COVID-19, either as isolated smell or taste dysfunction or a combined dysfunction. Most people regain their chemosensory function within the first 28 days, but a quarter of the patients show persisting dysfunction, which should be referred to specialist smell and taste clinics for rehabilitation of chemosensory function. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:1095-1100, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Psychophysics/methods , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/rehabilitation , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Perception/physiology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Taste Disorders/rehabilitation , Taste Disorders/virology , Taste Perception/physiology
5.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(10): 1127-1135, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that smell dysfunction is common in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Unfortunately, extant data on prevalence and reversibility over time are highly variable, coming mainly from self-report surveys prone to multiple biases. Thus, validated psychophysical olfactory testing is sorely needed to establish such parameters. METHODS: One hundred severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients were administered the 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in the hospital near the end of the acute phase of the disease. Eighty-two were retested 1 or 4 weeks later at home. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and mixed-effect regression models. RESULTS: Initial UPSIT scores were indicative of severe microsmia, with 96% exhibiting measurable dysfunction; 18% were anosmic. The scores improved upon retest (initial test: mean, 21.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.84-23.09; retest: mean, 31.13; 95% CI, 30.16-32.10; p < 0.0001); no patient remained anosmic. After 5 weeks from COVID-19 symptom onset, the test scores of 63% of the retested patients were normal. However, the mean UPSIT score at that time continued to remain below that of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (p < 0.001). Such scores were related to time since symptom onset, sex, and age. CONCLUSION: Smell loss was extremely common in the acute phase of a cohort of 100 COVID-19 patients when objectively measured. About one third of cases continued to exhibit dysfunction 6 to 8 weeks after symptom onset. These findings have direct implications for the use of olfactory testing in identifying SARS-CoV-2 carriers and for counseling such individuals with regard to their smell dysfunction and its reversibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Psychophysics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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