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1.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 67: 86-94, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310514

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to identify pathways between psychiatric network symptoms and psychosocial functioning and their associated variables among functioning clusters in the general population. A cross-sectional web-based survey was administered in a total of 3,023 individuals in Brazil. The functioning clusters were derived by a previous study identifying three different groups based on the online Functioning Assessment Short Test. Networking analysis was fitted with all items of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System for depression and for anxiety (PROMIS) using the mixed graphical model. A decision tree model was used to identify the demographic and clinical characteristics of good and low functioning. A total of 926 (30.63%) subjects showed good functioning, 1,436 (47.50%) participants intermediate functioning, and 661 (21.86%) individuals low functioning. Anxiety and uneasy symptoms were the most important nodes for good and intermediate clusters but anxiety, feeling of failure, and depression were the most relevant symptoms for low functioning. The decision tree model was applied to identify variables capable to discriminate individuals with good and low functioning. The algorithm achieved balanced accuracy 0.75, sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.63, positive predictive value 0.63 negative predictive value 0.87 (p<0.001), and an area under the curve of 0.83 (95%CI:0.79-0.86, p<0.01). Our results show that individuals who present psychological distress are more likely to experience poor functional status, suggesting that this subgroup should receive a more comprehensive psychiatric assessment and mental health care.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Psychosocial Functioning , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Seizures , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e43689, 2023 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global health crisis. The Shanghai municipal government in China implemented strict and comprehensive pandemic control strategies in the first half of 2022 to eliminate a wave of COVID-19 infection. The pandemic and the resulting government responses have led to abrupt changes to families' daily lives, including the mental health of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of COVID-19 exposure and the stringent lockdown measures on the daily life and mental health of children and adolescents and to provide suggestions on maintaining their mental health when similar public health emergencies occur in the future. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, an anonymous survey was distributed online in May 1-15, 2022, in Shanghai. Individuals were eligible to participate if they were currently the caregiver of a child or adolescent (aged 4-17 years). Outcomes were psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents, as reported by parents, using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. COVID-19 exposure and life changes were also reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors for poor psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: In total, 2493 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The rate of positive scores on the global Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 scale was 16.5% (n=411). Internalizing, attention, and externalizing problem subscale positivity rates were 17.3% (n=431), 10.9% (n=272), and 8.9% (n=221), respectively. Caregivers reported that 64.2% (n=1601) and 20.7% (n=516) of the children's interactions with friends or peers and parents deteriorated, respectively. Compared with male caregivers, female caregivers were less likely to report psychosocial problems in children and adolescents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.68; 95% CI 0.53-0.88). Older children and those with lower COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Scales scores were less likely to have psychological problems (aOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.10-1.21). Compared with children with screen times <1 hour per day for recreation, those using screens for >3 hours had higher odds of psychological distress (aOR 2.09; 95% CI 1.47-1.97). Children who spent 1-2 hours exercising and had better interactions with friends or peers and parents showed a trend toward lower odds of psychological problems. Children and adolescents with worse sleep compared with preclosure were more likely to have psychological problems. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of psychosocial problems among children and adolescents is relatively high. Being young, having more COVID-19 exposure, and having more screen times (>3 h/day), less exercise time (<30 min), worse sleep, and deteriorated interactions with friends or peers and parents were risk factors for poor psychosocial functioning. It is necessary for governments, communities, schools, and families to take appropriate countermeasures to reduce the negative impact of the stringent control measures on caregivers' parenting and psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Humans , Child , Male , Adolescent , Female , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Psychosocial Functioning , Pandemics , China , Communicable Disease Control
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 320: 115012, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165771

ABSTRACT

Little is known about how Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection is associated with stressful events (SEs) and stress-related psychological symptoms. This study examined the prevalence of SEs and incidence of stress-related symptoms accompanying COVID-19 infection. The association between these stress-related symptoms and psychosocial functioning were also examined. A city-wide sample of 3,595 adults with lab-informed cases of COVID-19 infection in San Antonio, Texas completed an online assessment of their psychological health and well-being after completing contact tracing activities in 2021-2022. A total 88.3% of participants reported exposure to SEs related to COVID-19 infection and their "worst" SEs were related to physical symptoms, fear of infecting others, financial problems, being isolated/quarantined, and loss of a loved one. Based on these SEs, 14.8% of the sample screened positive for substantial stress-related psychological problems related to COVID-19 infection. These psychological symptoms were strongly associated with worse psychosocial functioning. Together, these findings suggest SEs were commonly experienced by adults infected with COVID-19. Only a relatively small proportion reported substantial psychological symptoms related to their infection, but those who did had a high likelihood of impaired psychosocial functioning. Targeted support for individuals at high-risk of psychological symptoms following COVID-19 infection may help mitigate long-term psychological effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Psychosocial Functioning , Mental Health , Fear
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043704

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a serious crisis in many countries around the world, it is important to conduct empirical research aimed at identifying risks and factors protecting the functioning of people affected by it. For this reason, the goals of the present research were to determine the level of physical activity and the severity of symptoms characteristic of mental disorders, cognitive disorders and the quality of social functioning, as well as the structure of the relationship between physical activity and psychosocial functioning of 226 women and 226 men during the COVID-19 epidemic in Eastern Poland. The research was conducted using the IPAQ-SF Questionnaire, GHQ-28 Questionnaires, TUS Test-6/9 version, the original SFS Scale and a self-developed sociodemographic survey. The collected data indicate that women as compared to men show lower levels of weekly physical activity, walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity and quality of functioning in family relationships, but higher severity of mental health disorders, somatic symptoms, functional disorders, depressive symptoms, cognitive disorders, perceptual work disorders, attention deficits and higher quality of functioning in work relationships. On the other hand, the structural model indicates that physical activity, interacting with mental health disorders and cognitive disorders, is positively associated with the social functioning of the respondents, and gender is the moderator of the occurring dependencies. This suggests that physical activity adapted to the condition of health may be an important component of gender-individualized psychopreventive interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Psychosocial Functioning
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969264

ABSTRACT

Due to their individual developmental and learning needs, adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) benefit from a variety of educational, medical, and therapeutic services. During the COVID-19 pandemic, these services were discontinued or significantly reduced, which may have resulted in increased difficulties in coping with various areas of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how the pandemic affected the psychosocial and educational functioning of students with ASD. A qualitative, problem-focused interview method was used. The obtained material was subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The study involved 10 secondary school students diagnosed with ASD. The assessment of the effects of the pandemic on the functioning of people with ASD is inconclusive. The respondents noted both negative and positive effects of lockdown. On the positive side, they were able to spend time with their family, isolate themselves from difficult social relationships and feel better. Among the negative effects, adolescents point to difficulties in emotional functioning-increased levels of stress and anxiety, as well as increased feelings of loneliness and difficulties with online education. The study showed the varied experiences of young people with autism during the pandemic, highlighting the significant need to support some of them in terms of their emotional, social and educational functioning.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Psychosocial Functioning , Students/psychology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708486

ABSTRACT

Medical leaders have warned of the potential public health burden of a "parallel pandemic" faced by healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. These individuals may have experienced scenarios in which their moral code was violated resulting in potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs). In the present study, hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to examine the role of PMIEs on COVID-19 pandemic-related difficulties in psychosocial functioning among 211 healthcare providers (83% female, 89% White, and an average of 11.30 years in their healthcare profession [9.31]) over a 10-month span (May 2020 -March 2021). Reported exposure to PMIEs was associated with statistically significant poorer self-reported psychosocial functioning at baseline and over the course of 10-months of data collection. Within exploratory examinations of PMIE type, perceptions of transgressions by self or others (e.g., "I acted in ways that violated my own moral code or values"), but not perceived betrayal (e.g., "I feel betrayed by leaders who I once trusted"), was associated with poorer COVID-19 related psychosocial functioning (e.g., feeling connected to others, relationship with spouse or partner). Findings from this study speak to the importance of investing in intervention and prevention efforts to mitigate the consequences of exposure to PMIEs among healthcare providers. Interventions for healthcare providers targeting psychosocial functioning in the context of moral injury is an important area for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Military Personnel/psychology , Psychosocial Functioning , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Veterans/psychology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667135

ABSTRACT

(1) The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the psychological well-being of people around the world. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of psychological distress of nurses (anxiety, depression, stress, insomnia) in relation to sociodemographic variables and psychosocial variables: self-assessment of health, quarantine, psychological support, presence of chronic diseases and the Impact of Events Scale (IES-R). (2) A total of 207 nurses working with COVID-19 patients at the Independent Public Clinical Hospital No. 1 of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin participated in the study. The study was conducted with the diagnostic survey method, using the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, The Perceived Stress Scale and a questionnaire of our authorship. (3) Among the respondents, 40.58% suffered sleep disturbance, 36.71% had mild anxiety, 71.95% had high stress according to the PSS-10 and 31.88% had depression according to the PHQ-9. The study observed that the chances of insomnia decreased with the age of the respondents. Moreover, the form of employment of nurses significantly affected the levels of depression, anxiety and stress. (4) Education, gender and age were variables that significantly affected the severity of anxiety, depression and insomnia in the surveyed nurses working with patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136150, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530066

ABSTRACT

Importance: Moral injury in health care professionals (HPs) has worsened over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. The trauma and burnout associated with moral injury has profound implications for the mental health of HPs. Objective: To explore the potential factors associated with moral injury for HPs who were involved in patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, prior to the availability of vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this qualitative study, HPs were actively recruited to participate in a survey via snowball sampling via email and social media in 2 phases of 5 weeks each: April 24 to May 30, 2020 (phase 1), and October 24 to November 30, 2020 (phase 2). Overall, 1831 respondents answered demographic questions and assessments for moral injury, intrinsic religiosity, and burnout. Of those, 1344 responded to the open-ended questions. Responses to open-ended questions were coded iteratively and thematically analyzed within the framework of moral injury. Exposures: Working in a patient care setting during the COVID-19 pandemic prior to the availability of vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Inductive thematic analysis of open-response survey answers identified dominant emotions and common stressors associated with moral injury. Results: There were 335 individuals (109 [32.6%] aged 35-44 years; 288 [86.0%] women; 294 [87.8%] White) in phase 1 and 1009 individuals (384 [38.1%] aged 35-44 years; 913 [90.5%] women; 945 [93.7%] White) in phase 2. In phase 1, the respondents were predominantly nurses (100 [29.9%]), physicians (78 [23.3%]), advanced practice practitioners (APPs) (70 [20.9%]), and chaplains (55 [16.4%]). In phase 2, the respondents were predominantly nurses (589 [58.4%]), physicians (114 [11.3%]), and APPs (104 [10.3%]). HPs faced numerous stressors, such as fear of contagion, stigmatization, short-staffing, and inadequate personal protective equipment. The emotions experienced were (1) fear in phase 1, then fatigue in phase 2; (2) isolation and alienation; and (3) betrayal. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that HPs experienced moral injury during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moral injury was not only experienced after a single moral dilemma but also from working in morally injurious environments. These experiences can serve as potential starting points for organizations to engender and enhance organizational and individual recovery, team building, and trust. System-level solutions that address shortages in staffing and personal protective equipment are needed to promote HP well-being.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Workplace/psychology , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Organizational Culture , Psychosocial Functioning , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
9.
Eur J Intern Med ; 95: 50-60, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For a better understanding of the factors underlying the Post-Acute COVID Syndrome, we studied the relationship between symptoms and functional alterations in COVID-19 patients 10 months after hospitalization. METHODS: One-hundred-one patients hospitalized between March 1st and June 30th 2020 participated in a follow-up visit for an assessment of clinical history, comorbidities, lung function, physical capacity and symptoms, including the SGRQ for health-related quality of life, PHQ-9-D for depression, and SOMS-2 J for somatoform disorders. Data were analyzed by univariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Median age was 60 years, 42% were female, 76% had at least one comorbidity, the median length of the hospital stay was 8 days, 19% had been on the ICU. The most prevalent symptoms included shortness of breath (49%), fatigue (49%) and cognitive impairment (39%). Signs of major depression (PHQ-9-D ≥ 10) occurred in 28%/2% (p < 0.05) of patients with/without self-reported cognitive impairment, with median total SGRQ score being 25.4/5.3 (p < 0.05). There were associations between shortness of breath and BMI, SGRQ and hemoglobin levels; between fatigue, SGRQ and PHQ-9-D; and between cognitive impairment and PHQ-9-D (p < 0.05 each) but not with lung function or physical capacity. Characteristics of the acute disease were not related to symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that 10 months after discharge from a hospital stay due to COVID-19, the percentages of patients with symptoms were high. Symptoms showed a consistent pattern but could not be attributed to altered lung function or physical capacity. Our results suggest a role for alternative etiologies including psychosocial factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Functional Performance , Psychosocial Functioning , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
10.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(10): 1007-1017, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the relationship between moral distress and mental health problems. We examined moral distress in 2579 frontline healthcare workers (FHCWs) caring for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the height of the spring 2020 pandemic surge in New York City. The goals of the study were to identify common dimensions of COVID-19 moral distress; and to examine the relationship between moral distress, and positive screen for COVID-19-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, burnout, and work and interpersonal functional difficulties. METHOD: Data were collected in spring 2020, through an anonymous survey delivered to a purposively-selected sample of 6026 FHCWs at Mount Sinai Hospital; 2579 endorsed treating COVID-19 patients and provided complete survey responses. Physicians, house staff, nurses, physician assistants, social workers, chaplains, and clinical dietitians comprised the sample. RESULTS: The majority of the sample (52.7%-87.8%) endorsed moral distress. Factor analyses revealed three dimensions of COVID-19 moral distress: negative impact on family, fear of infecting others, and work-related concerns. All three factors were significantly associated with severity and positive screen for COVID-19-related PTSD symptoms, burnout, and work and interpersonal difficulties. Relative importance analyses revealed that concerns about work competencies and personal relationships were most strongly related to all outcomes. CONCLUSION: Moral distress is prevalent in FHCWs and includes family-, infection-, and work-related concerns. Prevention and treatment efforts to address moral distress during the acute phase of potentially morally injurious events may help mitigate risk for PTSD, burnout, and functional difficulties.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Morals , Pandemics , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(7): 532-539, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406509

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how sociodemographic characteristics and various aspects of parent well-being, family functioning, parent-child relationship, and child characteristics are related to psychological functioning in children aged 9 to 12 years during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHOD: Participants included 144 children aged 9 to 12 years and their parents who lived in the province of Quebec, Canada, during the COVID-19 mandatory lockdown. Parents and children were administered a phone-based survey in which various child, parent, parent-child, and family characteristics were assessed. RESULTS: Results showed that higher internalizing problems in children were related to greater depressive symptoms in parents, lower attachment security to parents, and greater aversion to aloneness in children. Results on externalizing behavior problems showed that more problems were associated with more family dysfunction and chaos and lower attachment security to parents. Finally, results on children's anxiety toward COVID-19 showed that more anxiety was associated with greater parental anxiety toward COVID-19 and more child aversion to aloneness. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that even during an unusual and stressful context such as a pandemic, proximal variables such as the attachment relationship that have been known to be closely associated with adaptation are significantly related to child psychological functioning. Such observations are important because they highlight factors that may accentuate child vulnerability in times of a pandemic and shed light on potential intervention targets.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Symptoms/psychology , COVID-19 , Child Behavior/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Psychosocial Functioning , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Object Attachment , Quebec
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367824

ABSTRACT

This work studied self-reports from adolescents on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed their behaviors, relationships, mood, and victimization. Data collection was conducted between September 2020 and February 2021 in five countries (Sweden, the USA, Serbia, Morocco, and Vietnam). In total, 5114 high school students (aged 15 to 19 years, 61.8% females) responded to our electronic survey. A substantial proportion of students reported decreased time being outside (41.7%), meeting friends in real life (59.4%), and school performance (30.7%), while reporting increased time to do things they did not have time for before (49.3%) and using social media to stay connected (44.9%). One third of the adolescents increased exercise and felt that they have more control over their life. Only a small proportion of adolescents reported substance use, norm-breaking behaviors, or victimization. The overall COVID-19 impact on adolescent life was gender-specific: we found a stronger negative impact on female students. The results indicated that the majority of adolescents could adapt to the dramatic changes in their environment. However, healthcare institutions, municipalities, schools, and social services could benefit from the findings of this study in their work to meet the needs of those young people who signaled worsened psychosocial functioning, increased stress, and victimization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crime Victims , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(3): 1067-1077, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, beneficial physical intervention classes for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) were cancelled. OBJECTIVE: To understand effects of the COVID-19 stay-at-home mandate and the inability to participate in recommended and structured physical interventions as a consequence of these mandates, specifically designed mobile assessments were used that collected both self-reporting information and objective task-based metrics of neurocognitive functions to assess symptom changes for individuals with PD. METHODS: Self-reporting questionnaires focusing on overall quality of life (e.g., when individuals typically feel at their best, changes in activity levels, and symptom progression) were given to all individuals (n = 28). In addition, mobile-based neurocognitive assessments were administered to a subset of the population (n = 8) to quantitatively assess changes due to COVID-19 restrictions. RESULTS: The highest self-reported factors in which individuals denoted feeling their best were after exercise (67.86%) and being in a comfortable and supportive environment (60.71%). Objective measures found overall duration of physical activity during the stay-at-home mandate decreased significantly (p = 0.022). With the lack of overall activity, 82.14%of individuals self-reported having at least one symptom that worsened moderately or higher. Further testing, using mobile-based assessments, showed average completion times of functional tasks increased, taking about 2.1 times longer, while accuracy metrics showed overall degradation. CONCLUSION: Although the COVID-19 stay-at-home mandate was intended to help protect individuals at high risk from coming into contact with the virus, it also prevented individuals from receiving recommended supervised exercise interventions resulting in significant negative effects in social well-being and across motor and speech neurocognitive tasks for individuals with PD.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Exercise Therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/rehabilitation , Psychosocial Functioning , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Quality of Life , Self Report
14.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 285-292, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320221

ABSTRACT

Despite recognition of the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on secondary schooling experiences, little empirical evidence has captured adolescents' perspectives on the extent of academic and social disruption resulting from the pandemic. The present study examined adolescents' academic worries amid the COVID-19 pandemic and their perspectives on pandemic-related changes in teacher and peer relations. Participants were 452 adolescents (55% female) between the ages of 11 and 17, who completed online surveys asking them about their worries about their schoolwork and educational futures, perceived support from teachers, and perceptions of electronic (cyber) bullying during the pandemic. Results indicated that COVID-related academic worries pertaining to motivation to focus on and complete schoolwork were most frequent. High school students and female students reported heightened academic worries compared to middle school students and male students. In addition, the majority of adolescents indicated decreased support from teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic, including more than two-thirds (69%) who reported reduced communication with teachers. Adolescents perceived relative consistency in electronic (cyber) bullying throughout the pandemic, and a third of students indicated that cyberbullying has become more of a problem and increased in frequency during this time period. Perceived changes in cyberbullying were consistent across grade level and gender. Findings emphasize the psychosocial implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' secondary schooling experiences and underscore the importance of bolstering social resources to minimize the short- and long-term impact of the pandemic on students' academic functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Cyberbullying/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Peer Group , Psychosocial Functioning , School Teachers , Social Support , Students/psychology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Schools
15.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e02197, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293146

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the lives of individuals, families, and communities around the world with constraints on multiple aspects of daily life. The purpose of the present study was to identify specific profiles of pandemic-related experiences and their relation to psychosocial functioning using the 92-item Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII). Data were collected as part of a cross-sectional, online survey of adults (18+) residing in the Northeast region of the United States (N = 652) and recruited via online advertisements. Person-centered latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 38 pandemic-related experiences that showed a significant bivariate correlation with perceived stress. Measures of psychosocial risk were also obtained. Results revealed five unique profiles of respondents based on patterns of pandemic-related experiences. Three profiles representing about 64% of the sample were characterized by moderate to high exposure to adverse experiences during the pandemic and were more likely to screen positive for depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. These profiles were differentiated by sociodemographic differences, including age, caregiving, and employment status. Two profiles differentiated by age and caregiver status represented about 36% of the sample and were characterized by relatively low exposure to adverse experiences and lower risk for psychosocial impairment. Findings support the EPII as an instrument for measuring tangible and meaningful experiences in the context of an unprecedented pandemic disaster. This research may serve to identify high-risk subpopulations toward developing public health strategies for supporting families and communities in the context of public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
AIDS Behav ; 26(1): 69-75, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265521

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on sexual behavior, mental health, and substance use among men who have sex with men (MSM) engaged in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care. Generalized linear mixed models and logistic mixed-effect models examined change over time for number of sexual partners, mood, and alcohol consumption. From February 29, 2020 to July 31, 2020, 177 MSM actively engaged in PrEP care were evaluated. The median age was 37 [interquartile range (IQR 30, 51]. Patients in the sample were largely representative of the clinic population and identified as White (73.0%), Black/African American (9.2%), and other race (17.2%), and 11.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Men reported an average of 2.60 fewer sexual partners (95% CI -4.04, -1.40) during the pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19. Rates of depressive symptoms and alcohol use remained stable and few patients reported substance use. The reduced number of sexual partners may be explained by patients' efforts to reduce risk of exposure to COVID-19 and low rates of psychosocial symptoms may be indicative of only the highest functioning patients continuing to engage in care. Reductions in sexual partners may offset reduced engagement in care and help mitigate risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).


RESUMEN: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto que tuvo la pandemia causada por la enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) en el comportamiento sexual, la salud mental y el uso de sustancias en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) que reciben profilaxis previa a la exposición (PrEP). Los modelos lineales mixtos generalizados y los modelos logísticos de efectos mixtos examinaron el cambio a través del tiempo en el número de parejas sexuales, el estado de ánimo y el consumo de alcohol. Desde el 29 de febrero de 2020 hasta el 31 de julio de 2020, se evaluaron 177 HSH que recibían los servicios de la PrEP. La mediana de edad fue de 37 (rango intercuartílico (IQR: 30, 51). Los pacientes de la muestra eran en gran parte representativos de la población de la clínica y se identificaban como Blancos (73.0%), Negros/Afroamericanos (9.2%) y de Otra raza (17.2%) y el 11.8% se identificó de origen Hispano/Latino. Los hombres reportaron un promedio de 2.60 parejas sexuales menos (IC del 95%: -4.04, -1.40) durante la pandemia en comparación con antes de COVID-19. Las tasas de síntomas depresivos y el uso de alcohol se mantuvieron estables y pocos pacientes reportaron uso de sustancias. El número reducido de parejas sexuales puede explicarse por los esfuerzos de los pacientes para reducir su riesgo de exposición al COVID-19 y las bajas tasas de síntomas psicosociales pueden ser indicativos de que solo los pacientes con mayor funcionamiento continúan participando. La reducción en el número de parejas sexuales puede contrarrestar la baja participación en la atención medica de la PrEP y ayudar a mitigar el riesgo de contraer el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
18.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(9): 923-933, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192095

ABSTRACT

Involuntary job loss during the COVID-19 pandemic adds challenges, especially for custodial grandparents that are taking care of grandchildren. Grandparents are relatively vulnerable, and they need more attention and support when facing the negative impacts of COVID-19. This study analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from 234 custodial grandparents via Qualtrics Panels in June 2020 in the United States. After using the propensity score weighting adjustment, results from logistic and ordinary least squares regression showed that compared with grandparents that did not lose their job during the pandemic, grandparents that did had more parenting stress and worse mental health. Moderation analysis also showed that social support was a significant moderator of the relationship between job loss and mental health, but not the relationship between job loss and parenting stress. The findings and implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Custody , Grandparents/psychology , Mental Health , Parenting/psychology , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Custody/economics , Child Custody/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Psychosocial Functioning , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Unemployment , United States/epidemiology
19.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 41(2): 223-229, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171113

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of corona-associated anxiety and mental health disorder among Iranian dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A study was conducted using online survey from May 2nd to 14th, 2020. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographic information, anxiety (18 questions), and general health (GH) (GHQ-28). Scoring system was based on Likert scale. The questionnaire was registered at Porsline website. Data were analyzed using t test and Pearson's correlation coefficient statistical tests. RESULTS: A total of 320 dentists from all over the country fully completed questionnaires. 42.5% of dentist had corona-associated anxiety and 32.5% out of them had mild severity and no severe anxiety was observed. 62.5% of dentists were nonpsychiatric according to GHQ-28, 35% had mild disorders in GH, and no one had severe GH disorders. There were significant relationships between gender, marital status, and family history of psychiatric disorders with GH status. There was a significant relationship between history of physical illness with corona-associated anxiety. There was a significant relationship between history of psychiatric disorders with corona-associated anxiety and GH status. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of corona-associated anxiety and mental disorders in dentists was moderate; by holding psychological workshops to maintain and strengthen the morale of dentists during the corona pandemic, along with teaching them the correct way to use personal protective equipment, while maintaining the mental health of dentists, we will help them return to work and provide dental services.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Dentists/statistics & numerical data , Depression/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Dentists/psychology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(7): 581-587, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153283

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to understand and characterize the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on mental health and psychosocial risks at work in professionally active adults. METHODS: This specific work includes 4708 professionally active participants from all over the country, of which 3354 are women (71.2%), aged between 19 and 86 years, with an average age of 45.8 years (SD = 12.56). RESULTS: The global impact of Covid-19 is explained by socio-demographic factors (sex, age, and education), by work-related and volume of work and health that is reflected in most symptoms. We found sex, age, education level, and professional area differences related to global impact of Covid-19. CONCLUSION: The Covid-19 pandemic accounts for the challenge to identify the important factors to promote resilience of citizens, professionals, and organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Psychosocial Functioning , Workplace , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace/psychology , Young Adult
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