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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rates of perinatal depression in China are high. The Thinking Healthy Programme is a WHO-endorsed, evidence-based psychosocial intervention for perinatal depression, requiring five days of face-to-face training by a specialist trainer. Given the paucity of specialist trainers and logistical challenges, standardized training of large numbers of nurses is a major challenge for scaling up. We developed an electronic training programme (e-training) which eliminates the need for specialist-led, face-to-face training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the e-training compared to conventional face-to-face training in nursing students. METHODS: A single blind, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred nursing students from two nursing schools were randomly assigned to either e-training or conventional face-to-face training. RESULTS: E-training was not inferior to specialist-led face-to-face training immediately post-training [mean ENhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors (ENACT) score (M) 45.73, standard deviation (SD) 4.03 vs. M 47.08, SD 4.53; mean difference (MD) -1.35, 95% CI; (-3.17, 0.46), p = 0.14]. There was no difference in ENACT scores at three months [M = 42.16, SD 4.85 vs. M = 42.65, SD 4.65; MD = -0.481, 95% CI; (-2.35, 1.39), p = 0.61]. CONCLUSIONS: E-training is a promising tool with comparative effectiveness to specialist-led face-to-face training. E-training can be used for training of non-specialists for evidence-based psychosocial interventions at scale and utilized where there is a shortage of specialist trainers, but practice under supervision is necessary to maintain competence. However, continued practice under supervision may be necessary to maintain competence.


Subject(s)
Depression, Postpartum , Psychosocial Intervention , Depression/therapy , Depression, Postpartum/therapy , Electronics , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Single-Blind Method
2.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 145, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773990

ABSTRACT

During the second half of 2020, many European governments responded to the resurging transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with wide-ranging non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). These efforts were often highly targeted at the regional level and included fine-grained NPIs. This paper describes a new dataset designed for the accurate recording of NPIs in Europe's second wave to allow precise modelling of NPI effectiveness. The dataset includes interventions from 114 regions in 7 European countries during the period from the 1st August 2020 to the 9th January 2021. The paper includes NPI definitions tailored to the second wave following an exploratory data collection. Each entry has been extensively validated by semi-independent double entry, comparison with existing datasets, and, when necessary, discussion with local epidemiologists. The dataset has considerable potential for use in disentangling the effectiveness of NPIs and comparing the impact of interventions across different phases of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Europe , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int Urogynecol J ; 33(3): 723-729, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718658

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The negative psychological impact on women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is long-lasting, resulting from not only the disease itself, but also the cumbersome and painful treatment process. However, little is known about the postoperative psychological status of these patients and related interventions to improve mental health. Here, in our study, we postulated that mental disorders exist in MRKH patients with a surgical neovagina and that psychological intervention will be helpful. METHODS: Thirty MRKH women who had undergone vaginoplasty were enrolled. All patients had received psychological interventions since February 2020. Depression and anxiety questionnaires prior to and 2 weeks after the final intervention were recorded. RESULTS: Before intervention, among 30 MRKH patients after artificial vaginoplasty, the median depression score was 6.00 (25th/75th percentile, 0.00/7.00), and the median anxiety score was 4.00 (25th/75th percentile, 1.00/7.00). After intervention, women's depression (p < 0.001) and anxiety (p < 0.001) scores significantly decreased. The median depression score was 0.00 (25th/75th percentile, 0.00/3.00), and the median anxiety score was 1.00 (25th/75th percentile, 0.00/3.25). Furthermore, stratified analysis found that the depression (p = 0.029) and anxiety (p = 0.019) scores both improved when intervention was performed within 12 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: MRKH patients are at a great risk of depression and anxiety problems after artificial vaginoplasty. Early psychological intervention can alleviate these symptoms. Ongoing psychological support was needed to eliminate emotional burden during MRKH treatment, and further study is sorely needed to identify its appropriate timing and method.


Subject(s)
46, XX Disorders of Sex Development , Congenital Abnormalities , 46, XX Disorders of Sex Development/surgery , Congenital Abnormalities/surgery , Female , Humans , Mullerian Ducts/abnormalities , Mullerian Ducts/surgery , Prospective Studies , Psychosocial Intervention , Vagina/surgery
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715308

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. However, primary care providers (PCPs) may prefer treating patients with medication. A secondary exploratory analysis of a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate psychological vs. pharmacological treatment preferences among PCPs. Thirty-four health facilities, including 205 PCPs, participated in the study, with PCPs in 17 facilities assigned to a standard version of the mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) training delivered by mental health specialists. PCPs in the other 17 facilities received mhGAP instruction delivered by specialists and people with lived experience of mental illness (PWLE), using a training strategy entitled Reducing Stigma among HealthcAre ProvidErs (RESHAPE). Pre- and post- intervention attitudes were measured through quantitative and qualitative tools. Qualitative interviews with 49 participants revealed that PCPs in both arms endorsed counseling's benefits and collaboration within the health system to provide counseling. In the RESHAPE arm, PCPs were more likely to increase endorsement of statements such as "depression improves without medication" (F = 9.83, p < 0.001), "not all people with depression must be treated with antidepressants" (χ2 = 17.62, p < 0.001), and "providing counseling to people who have alcohol abuse problems is effective" (χ2 = 26.20, p < 0.001). These mixed-method secondary findings from a pilot trial suggest that in-person participation of PWLE in training PCPs may not only reduce stigma but also increase PCPs' support of psychological interventions. This requires further investigation in a full-scale trial.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Psychosocial Intervention , Humans , Nepal , Primary Health Care/methods , Social Stigma
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705869

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic spread throughout the world and created many problems. The COVID-19 pandemic caused an increase in mortality and morbidity, including mental health problems. Around the world, the movement control order (MCO) was strictly enforced, but the spread of the infection epidemic was still rampant. The magnitude of the increase in mental health illnesses has caused many individuals to suffer. Given that face-to-face interventions are challenging to carry out during an outbreak, we need to address this critical problem through an online approach, such as virtual reality (VR). This approach is vital to helping patients deal with their existing problems in more pragmatic, practical, and customer-friendly ways. Thus, in the present review, we proposed the development of a virtual digital device for this noble purpose. Various challenges, improvements, and expectations for VR applications were outlined and discussed in this narrative review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virtual Reality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 31-38, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are two to four times more prevalent in people with CF (pwCF) than the general population. COVID-19 may exacerbate mental health challenges, increasing demand for psychological services, while decreasing their availability. We assessed the impact of the pandemic on depression and anxiety in pwCF, including how COVID-19 affected the frequency of mental health screening and the types of services provided. METHODS: A 38-item internet survey, completed in June 2020, assessed how COVID-19 affected: 1) the mental health clinician's role and screening processes; 2) barriers to screening and resource needs; 3) impact of COVID-19 on depression and anxiety, and 4) positive outcomes and confidence in sustaining mental health screening and treatment, including telehealth services, after the pandemic. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 131 of the 289 US CF programs. Overall, 60% of programs (n=79) continued mental health screening and treatment, although less frequently; 50% provided individual tele-mental health interventions, and 9% provided telehealth group therapy. Clinically elevated depression symptoms (PHQ-9≥10; moderate to severe), were found in 12% of 785 pwCF, with 3.1% endorsing suicidal ideation. Similarly, elevated anxiety (moderate to severe; GAD-7≥10) was found in 13% of pwCF (n=779). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic created an opportunity to implement innovative solutions to disruptions in mental health screening and treatment in CF programs. We found that pwCF had increased access to psychological interventions during the pandemic via telehealth, supporting the continued integration of tele-mental health screening and treatment into CF care.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Depression , Mental Health , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/physiopathology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Needs Assessment , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
8.
Psychother Psychosom ; 91(1): 63-72, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556865

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and depression have increased markedly during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a lack of evidence-based strategies to address these mental health needs during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We aim to conduct a proof-of-concept trial of the efficacy of a brief group-based psychological intervention delivered via videoconferencing for adults in Australia distressed by the pandemic. METHODS: In this single-blind, parallel, randomised controlled trial, adults who screened positive for COVID-related psychological distress across Australia were randomly allocated to either a 6-session group-based program based on behavioural principles (n = 120) or enhanced usual care (EUC, n = 120). Primary outcome was total score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS) anxiety and depression subscales assessed at baseline, 1 week posttreatment, 2 months (primary outcome time point), and 6 months after treatment, as well as secondary outcome measures of worry, sleep impairment, anhedonia, mood, and COVID-19-related stress. RESULTS: Between May 20, 2020, and October 20, 2020, 240 patients were enrolled into the trial. Relative to EUC, at 2 months participants receiving intervention showed greater reduction on anxiety (mean difference, 1.4 [95% CI, 0.3 to 2.6], p = 0.01; effect size, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7]) and depression (mean difference, 1.6 [95% CI, 0.4 to 2.8], p = 0.009; effect size, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.2 to 0.7]) scales. These effects were maintained at 6 months. There were also greater reductions of worry, anhedonia, COVID-19-related fears, and contamination fears. CONCLUSIONS: This trial provides initial evidence that brief group-based behavioural intervention delivered via videoconferencing results in moderate reductions in common psychological problems arising during the COVID-19 pandemic. This program may offer a viable and scalable means to mitigate the rising mental health problems during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Depression/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Videoconferencing
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 865, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most people living with dementia want to remain living in their own homes and are supported to do so by family carers. No interventions have consistently demonstrated improvements to people with dementia's life quality, functioning, or other indices of living as well as possible with dementia. We have co-produced, with health and social care professionals and family carers of people with dementia, a new intervention (NIDUS-family). To our knowledge, NIDUS-family is the first manualised intervention that can be tailored to personal goals of people living with dementia and their families and is delivered by facilitators without clinical training. The intervention utilizes components of behavioural management, carer support, psychoeducation, communication and coping skills training, enablement, and environmental adaptations, with modules selected to address dyads' selected goals. We will evaluate the effect of NIDUS-family and usual care on goal attainment, as measured by Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) rated by family carers, compared to usual care alone at 12-month follow-up. We will also determine whether NIDUS-family and usual care is more cost-effective than usual care alone over 12 months. METHODS: A randomised, two-arm, single-masked, multi-site clinical trial involving 297 people living with dementia-family carer dyads. Dyads will be randomised 2:1 to receive the NIDUS-family intervention with usual care (n = 199) or usual care alone (n = 98). The intervention group will be offered, over 1 year, via 6-8 video call or telephone sessions (or face to face if COVID-19 restrictions allow in the recruitment period) in the initial 6 months, followed by telephone follow-ups every 1-2 months to support implementation, with a trained facilitator. DISCUSSION: Increasing the time lived at home by people living with dementia is likely to benefit lives now and in the future. Our intervention, which we adapted to include remote delivery prior to trial commencement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, aims to address barriers to living as well and as independently as possible that distress people living with dementia, exacerbate family carer(s) stress, negatively affect relationships, lead to safety risks, and frequently precipitate avoidable moves to a care home. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number ISRCTN11425138 . Registered on 7 October 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Soc Work Public Health ; 37(3): 224-232, 2022 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541458

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to plan the protocol for providing psychosocial support by social workers in Iranian healthcare centers and reaching consensus in terms of implementing and offering comprehensive service to individuals dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative study consists of four phases. The first phase, the literature review involved studying valid databases, while the second and third phases consisted of collecting data through the Focus Group Discussions with 23 specialists and experts in the field of social work and mental health. Having been designed, the protocol was then applied and assessed for two months in all the state health centers around Iran (633 hospitals). In the present study, Interventions used by the social workers were divided into 9 types: psychosocial assessment, counseling, training, working with the family, intervention in the crisis, intra- and extra-organizational support-seeking, referral and safe discharge. Interventions used by social workers were also divided based on the health center (psychosocial support for the target groups and bereavement intervention for the survivors) and the services offered in convalescent care facilities. This protocol leading social workers into the fields of bereavement interventions, inter-organizational interventions, working with families and working with the medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Workers/psychology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526814

ABSTRACT

Major public health emergencies would have a negative influence on the psychology of the public, and an effective psychological intervention can help them to relieve some emotions, such as tension and panic. However, differences in individual environments affect people's psychological intervention demands and intervention mode choices. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical value to analyze and identify the key factors affecting these demands and choices. Based on a nationwide sample of 24,188 respondents from the "Internet Survey of Residents' Behavioral Changes and Psychological Conditions during the Epidemic," the different characteristics of public psychological intervention demands and choices under different factors are explored in this paper. The results demonstrate that: (1) the psychological status of Chinese people was relatively stable during the epidemic period, and there were 1016 respondents who had subjective demands for a psychological intervention, (2) age, gender, occupation type, residence, family size, risk perception, psychological status, education level, and fixed expenditure all significantly affect public psychological intervention demands, and (3) risk perception, psychological status, age, gender, and family size will impact the choice of psychological intervention methods. The above results can provide a decision-making basis for the construction of a psychological intervention system in psychological crisis management during the post-epidemic prevention and control period, as well as reference and suggestions for handling psychological stress of similar sudden crisis events in the future.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Psychosocial Intervention , Humans , Public Health , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480777

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Physician's burnout has been recognized as an increasing and significant work-related syndrome, described by the combination of emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (D), together with low personal accomplishment (PA). It has many negative consequences on personal, organizational, and patient care levels. This systematic review aimed to analyze research articles where psychological interventions with elements of mindfulness (PIMs) were used to support physicians in order to reduce burnout and foster empathy and well-being. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in May 2019, within six electronic databases PubMed, EBSCOhost MEDLINE, PsycArticles, Cochrane Library, JSTOR, and Slovenian national library information system. Different combinations of boolean operators were used-mindfulness, empathy, medicine/family medicine/general practice/primary care, burnout, doctors/physicians, intervention, and support group. Additional articles were manually searched from the reference list of the included articles. Studies with other healthcare professionals (not physicians and residents) and/or medical students, and those where PIMs were applied for educational or patient's treatment purposes were excluded. Results: Of 1194 studies identified, 786 screened and 139 assessed for eligibility, there were 18 studies included in this review. Regardless of a specific type of PIMs applied, results, in general, demonstrate a positive impact on empathy, well-being, and reduction in burnout in participating physicians. Compared with other recent systematic reviews, this is unique due to a broader selection of psychological interventions and emphasis on a sustained effect measurement. Conclusions: Given the pandemic of COVID-19, it is of utmost importance that this review includes also interventions based on modern information technologies (mobile apps) and can be used as an awareness-raising material for physicians providing information about feasible and easily accessible interventions for effective burnout prevention and/or reduction. Future research should upgrade self-reported data with objective psychological measures and address the question of which intervention offers more benefits to physicians.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Physicians , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Burnout, Psychological/prevention & control , Empathy , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Semin Perinatol ; 45(5): 151431, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454526

ABSTRACT

We discuss the use of tele-mental health in settings serving expectant parents in fetal care centers and parents with children receiving treatment in neonatal intensive care units within a pediatric institution. Our emphasis is on the dramatic rise of tele-mental health service delivery for this population in the wake of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., including relevant practice regulations, challenges and advantages associated with the transition to tele-mental health in these perinatal settings.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/trends , Mental Health/trends , Perinatal Care , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Parents/education , Parents/psychology , Perinatal Care/methods , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Pregnancy , Prenatal Education/trends , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
14.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 259: 125-132, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Does psychosocial intervention affect pregnancy outcomes in women and couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment?. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of psychosocial intervention on pregnancy outcomes in women and couples undergoing ART treatment. The primary outcome was Pregnancy Rates. Secondary outcomes were Live Birth Rate (LBR) and Abortion Rate (AR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Databases searched were Pubmed, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library. 1439 records were screened, 15 were eligible and included in the meta-analyses (N = 2434). Data was extracted using the Covidence software. Effect sizes were reported as relative risks with 95% confidence-intervals and p-values. RESULTS: A positive association was found between psychosocial intervention and pregnancy rates (RR = 1.12 CI=(1.01;1.24), p = 0.033). Long-duration interventions and mind-body intervention types were found to be associated with increased pregnancy rates (RR 1.21, CI= (1.04;1.43), p = 0.017) and (RR = 1.25, CI= (1.00;1.55), p = 0.046) respectively. Q and I2tests suggested no to low heterogeneity. Funnel plots, Trim and Fill analyses and Fail-safe numbers were applied to adjust for possible publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a positive association between psychosocial interventions, particularly long-duration interventions, and pregnancy rate in infertile women and couples in ART treatment. The findings are in line with findings from other reviews and meta-analyses exploring the same topic. More good quality RCTs need to be performed to increase the quality of guidance for infertile women and couples. The effect of psychosocial interventions on LBR and AR remain to be examined.


Subject(s)
Infertility, Female , Psychosocial Intervention , Female , Humans , Live Birth , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Rate , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted
15.
Psychooncology ; 30(2): 147-158, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453645

ABSTRACT

Objective: Spiritual well-being (SpWb) is an important dimension of health-related quality of life for many cancer patients. Accordingly, an increasing number of psychosocial intervention studies have included SpWb as a study endpoint, and may improve SpWb even if not designed explicitly to do so. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated effects of psychosocial interventions on SpWb in adults with cancer and tested potential moderators of intervention effects. Methods: Six literature databases were systematically searched to identify RCTs of psychosocial interventions in which SpWb was an outcome. Doctoral-level rater pairs extracted data using Covidence following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Standard meta-analytic techniques were applied, including meta-regression with robust variance estimation and risk-of-bias sensitivity analysis. Results: Forty-one RCTs were identified, encompassing 88 treatment effects among 3883 survivors. Interventions were associated with significant improvements in SpWb (g = 0.22, 95% CI [0.14, 0.29], p < 0.0001). Studies assessing the FACIT-Sp demonstrated larger effect sizes than did those using other measures of SpWb (g = 0.25, 95% CI [0.17, 0.34], vs. g = 0.10, 95% CI [-0.02, 0.23], p = 0.03]. No other intervention, clinical, or demographic characteristics significantly moderated effect size. Conclusions: Psychosocial interventions are associated with small-to-medium-sized effects on SpWb among cancer survivors. Future research should focus on conceptually coherent interventions explicitly targeting SpWb and evaluate interventions in samples that are diverse with respect to race and ethnicity, sex and cancer type.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Psychosocial Intervention , Quality of Life , Survivors
16.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604164, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394849

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States, we investigated the impact of digital interventions to reduce COVID-19 related fear, loneliness, and public stigma. Methods: We recruited and randomly assigned 988 United States residents to: 1) no intervention 2) informational sheet to learn about COVID-19, 3) (2) AND video encouraging digital social activity, 4) (2) AND video sensitizing to COVID-19 related stigma (registered in Clinicaltrials.gov). Surveys were conducted between April 2-16, 2020. We employed generalized linear mixed models to investigate intervention effects. Results: 10% of the participants reported not being afraid of people COVID-19+ and 32% reported not feeling lonely. Stigma and fear items reflected acute worries about the outbreak. Relative to the informational sheet only group, video groups led to greater reduction in perceptions of fear towards COVID-19+ (ORvideo.solo = 0.78, p-val<0.001; ORvideo.friend = 0.79, p-val<0.001) and of stigma (BETAvideo.solo = -0.50, p-val<0.001; BETAvideo.friend = -0.69, p-val<0.001). Conclusion: Video-based interventions lead to reductions in COVID-19-related fear and stigma. No difference in social activity among groups was found, potentially explaining lack of efficacy on loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychosocial Intervention , Video Recording , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Social Stigma , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(6): 2424-2429, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359787

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease pandemic is an unprecedented challenge globally. Medical personnel have been playing a leading role by fighting at the forefront against the pandemic and are the backbone of the fight against the epidemic. These frontline medical workers are under enormous psychological pressure and are prone to overwork and stress, as well as depression depletion, anxiety, insomnia, frustration, or self-blame in the face of patient deaths. Active psychological crisis interventions for medical staff fighting the pandemic are important protect and promote to maintain their occupational health. Based on China's experience, this paper describes the importance of organizational leadership, emergency psychological crisis interventions in pandemics, and psychological intervention measures for medical staff. It cites useful explorations from different regions and makes suggestions for establishing a sound psychological intervention mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Depression , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Psychosocial Intervention , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 649157, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359253

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the novel coronavirus epidemic, medical workers are under immense psychological pressure. As such, the East Campus of Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital actively adopted the Symptoms Checklist 90 (SCL-90) to evaluate the mental health of hospital staff before and after the psychological intervention from the Employee Assistance Program (EAP). Methods: Medical workers from the East Campus of Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital were recruited for this study. Psychological evaluations were conducted using the SCL-90, with a score of >160 regarded as a positive result, or in other words, an indication of abnormal psychological symptoms. The EAP adopted different forms of psychological interventions for healthcare professionals, and participation in these measures was entirely voluntary. Medical workers completed the SCL-90 again after participating in the psychological intervention, and we analyzed the changes between their two assessments. Results: Of the 1,198 total medical staff present at the hospital, 844 participated in the initial survey, while only 652 completed the survey a second time (i.e., post-psychological intervention). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that the psychological status of hospital staff was correlated with gender, education background, and fertility status (P < 0.05). The results showed that, compared with women, men's mental health status was better, with an OR value of 0.598 (0.372-0.962). Groups with high school, junior high school, and below education levels were at higher risk of psychological problems, with OR values of 23.655 (2.815-198.784) and 9.09 (2.601-31.801), respectively. Administrative occupations and having two or more children were protective factors for mental health, and the OR values were 0.400 (0.175-0.912) and 0.327 (0.152-0.703), respectively. Following the psychological intervention, we found that the mental health of hospital workers improved, as indicated by their second SCL-90 evaluations, although the proportion of medical staff willing to participate in the second evaluation was lower than the initial assessment. There were differences in the SCL-90 scores among different occupations, and there were also differences in the scores of employees of different occupations who had participated in the two evaluations. The employees of different positions who participated in the two evaluations were matched and analyzed and found that the depression and anxiety of the doctor group were significantly reduced. In the nursing group, the total score, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and anxiety were significantly reduced. In the medical technician group, depression, anxiety, and paranoia were reduced considerably. Among office staff, no significant differences were found. Among workers, the total score, depression, and anxiety were significantly reduced. Conclusion: Hospitals have the potential to alleviate and reduce the psychological pressure placed on medical staff members through the EAP, which can actively adopt intervention and guidance measures. The findings of this study have important implications, as reducing abnormal psychological symptoms of healthcare professionals can be helpful in the fight against the coronavirus epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Psychiatriki ; 32(3): 183-186, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in Greek, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357714

ABSTRACT

Social stigma has long been defined by Ervin Goffman as an attribute that it is deeply discrediting and reduces the individual who bears it from a whole and usual person to a tarnished one, unfit to be included into the mainstream society.1 As stigma spans time and space and has been documented in other social species such as ants and chimpanzees, one might argue for its adaptive potential. Neuberg and colleagues2 have suggested that humans generate stigmas against threats to effective group functioning, with a notable case being infectious diseases. A similar explanation has been put forward by other researchers who consider stigma to have evolved from disease-avoidance mechanisms.3 Hence, it is not surprising that tuberculosis, HIV and leprosy have been surrounded by stigma and discrimination.4,5 More recently, people who had survived the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak tackled social exclusion and unemployment after returning to their neighborhoods.6 Nowadays, the global community faces an unprecedented challenge of grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic. From the very outset, social distance measures were introduced in order to contain the spread of the virus, ranging from maintaining 1.5 meters physical distance to strict lockdowns. However, this may easily escalate into stigmatizing and discriminatory behaviours (desired social distance is a proxy of discrimination) against people who have suffered from COVID-19, their relatives and their caregivers, with the United Nations stating that "fear, rumours and stigma" are the key challenges surrounding COVID-19.7 Apart from the psychological distress experienced by the stigmatized individuals, due to anticipated stigma people might start concealing their illness, avoid or delay seeking medical advice or testing until they are seriously ill and be reluctant to collaborate with authorities on tracing contacts. Therefore, timely identifying stigma and addressing it is an integral part of an effective health response to the ongoing pandemic. In spite of its importance, research on COVID-19 related stigma is scarce. From the perspective of the stigmatized individuals, a study in China8 demonstrated that COVID-19 survivors faced heightened levels of overall stigma, social rejection, financial insecurity, internalized shame and social isolation, compared to healthy controls. From the perspective of the general population, a study in US9 substantiated low levels of anticipated stigma and stereotype endorsement; however, respondents who anticipated greater stigma were less likely to seek a COVID-19 test. It is therefore clear that the international literature is still on its infancy with respect to COVID-19 related stigma. In this context, in the First Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, we conducted a survey on public attitudes to COVID-19 and to mental disorders. The study would inform the design and implementation of anti-stigma initiatives, funded by the Regional Governor of Attica. As physical distancing and social distancing are interwoven, with some researchers and practitioners using the terms interchangeably, and social distancing is also a protective public health measure against COVID-19, we enquired about attitudes and desired social distance from people who had recovered from COVID-19. Nonetheless, it merits noting that evidence from other diseases indicates that stigma may persist even after recovery.10 Moreover, rather than describing public attitudes overall, we were more interested in investigating where COVID-19 related stigma stands as compared to the most stigmatizing health condition to date, i.e., severe mental illness.11 Interestingly enough, which elements of severe mental illness render it the most stigmatized as compared to other conditions is still speculative: is it the fear of madness? the severity and the type of symptoms? the purported incurability or its chronicity? In our study, evidence from a convenience sample of 370 residents of Attica indicates that the general population holds more negative attitudes towards people who have recovered from COVID-19 than towards people with mental disorders. Nonetheless, respondents reported lower levels of desired social distance from recovered COVID-19 cases as compared to mental illness cases in social interactions of graded intimacy; however, the difference between the two groups was found to decrease as the level of intimacy decreased as well. In other words, desired social distance from COVID-19 cases is more easily discernible in transient social encounters, like talking to a stranger. It is therefore clear that social distance is still a public health protective measure rather than a stigma manifestation. For social encounters of greater intimacy, usually a sign of discriminatory behaviours, having recovered from COVID-19 is not a deterrent to interaction. Findings can be explained by the acute (non-chronic) nature of the disease, both in terms of symptoms as well as the 10-day period since symptom onset for being contagious. Nonetheless, with emerging evidence substantiating the notion of long COVID-19, defined as the persistence of symptoms for 3 weeks after infection,12 this might quickly change. Moreover, with many public health protective measures available, such as the use of mask, diagnostic testing and vaccination, people who become infected are more likely to be blamed for contracting the disease and thus deemed responsible for this, in line with the Attribution Theory.13 Specifically, overarching evidence from stigma research in many diseases/conditions indicates that when an illness or a social condition, such as economic disadvantage, is attributed to internal causes, as compared to external, lay people are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes.14-16 Therefore, as attitudes towards COVID-19 are worse compared to those towards people with mental illness, if tailored anti-stigma action is not undertaken, it is only a matter of time for prejudices to evolve into discriminatory behaviours, with devastating consequences on both the individuals and the course of the pandemic. Concomitantly, as severe mental illness is neither life threatening nor contagious, but COVID-19 is, it is interesting to explore how stigma is related to evolutionary mechanisms favouring adaptability and survival as well as which elements are the drivers of stigma development and establishment. Therefore, comparing and contrasting the stigma surrounding these conditions may shed light on the underpinnings of social stigma and facilitate effective interventions to reduce it and eventually eliminate it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Physical Distancing , Psychological Distance , Psychological Distress , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Social Stigma , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Discrimination/prevention & control , Social Discrimination/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Time-to-Treatment
20.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61 Suppl 2: S10-S17, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355876

ABSTRACT

Many Americans use alcohol and recreational drugs. Some will develop substance use disorders that affect a person's brain and behavior, leading to continued use despite problems caused. We review the epidemiology of addiction in the United States, including changes in use patterns over time, highlighting rates in adolescents and young adults, as well as adults. An overview of the health and societal impacts of substance use is provided alongside the importance of multimodal, evidence-based treatment comprising psychosocial interventions and medication management. The article concludes by exploring the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on people who use drugs and their access to treatment.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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