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1.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 31-38, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are two to four times more prevalent in people with CF (pwCF) than the general population. COVID-19 may exacerbate mental health challenges, increasing demand for psychological services, while decreasing their availability. We assessed the impact of the pandemic on depression and anxiety in pwCF, including how COVID-19 affected the frequency of mental health screening and the types of services provided. METHODS: A 38-item internet survey, completed in June 2020, assessed how COVID-19 affected: 1) the mental health clinician's role and screening processes; 2) barriers to screening and resource needs; 3) impact of COVID-19 on depression and anxiety, and 4) positive outcomes and confidence in sustaining mental health screening and treatment, including telehealth services, after the pandemic. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 131 of the 289 US CF programs. Overall, 60% of programs (n=79) continued mental health screening and treatment, although less frequently; 50% provided individual tele-mental health interventions, and 9% provided telehealth group therapy. Clinically elevated depression symptoms (PHQ-9≥10; moderate to severe), were found in 12% of 785 pwCF, with 3.1% endorsing suicidal ideation. Similarly, elevated anxiety (moderate to severe; GAD-7≥10) was found in 13% of pwCF (n=779). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic created an opportunity to implement innovative solutions to disruptions in mental health screening and treatment in CF programs. We found that pwCF had increased access to psychological interventions during the pandemic via telehealth, supporting the continued integration of tele-mental health screening and treatment into CF care.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Depression , Mental Health , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/physiopathology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Needs Assessment , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
2.
Semin Perinatol ; 45(5): 151431, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454526

ABSTRACT

We discuss the use of tele-mental health in settings serving expectant parents in fetal care centers and parents with children receiving treatment in neonatal intensive care units within a pediatric institution. Our emphasis is on the dramatic rise of tele-mental health service delivery for this population in the wake of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., including relevant practice regulations, challenges and advantages associated with the transition to tele-mental health in these perinatal settings.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/trends , Mental Health/trends , Perinatal Care , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Parents/education , Parents/psychology , Perinatal Care/methods , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Pregnancy , Prenatal Education/trends , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
3.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604164, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394849

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States, we investigated the impact of digital interventions to reduce COVID-19 related fear, loneliness, and public stigma. Methods: We recruited and randomly assigned 988 United States residents to: 1) no intervention 2) informational sheet to learn about COVID-19, 3) (2) AND video encouraging digital social activity, 4) (2) AND video sensitizing to COVID-19 related stigma (registered in Clinicaltrials.gov). Surveys were conducted between April 2-16, 2020. We employed generalized linear mixed models to investigate intervention effects. Results: 10% of the participants reported not being afraid of people COVID-19+ and 32% reported not feeling lonely. Stigma and fear items reflected acute worries about the outbreak. Relative to the informational sheet only group, video groups led to greater reduction in perceptions of fear towards COVID-19+ (ORvideo.solo = 0.78, p-val<0.001; ORvideo.friend = 0.79, p-val<0.001) and of stigma (BETAvideo.solo = -0.50, p-val<0.001; BETAvideo.friend = -0.69, p-val<0.001). Conclusion: Video-based interventions lead to reductions in COVID-19-related fear and stigma. No difference in social activity among groups was found, potentially explaining lack of efficacy on loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychosocial Intervention , Video Recording , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Social Stigma , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Psychiatriki ; 32(3): 183-186, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in Greek, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357714

ABSTRACT

Social stigma has long been defined by Ervin Goffman as an attribute that it is deeply discrediting and reduces the individual who bears it from a whole and usual person to a tarnished one, unfit to be included into the mainstream society.1 As stigma spans time and space and has been documented in other social species such as ants and chimpanzees, one might argue for its adaptive potential. Neuberg and colleagues2 have suggested that humans generate stigmas against threats to effective group functioning, with a notable case being infectious diseases. A similar explanation has been put forward by other researchers who consider stigma to have evolved from disease-avoidance mechanisms.3 Hence, it is not surprising that tuberculosis, HIV and leprosy have been surrounded by stigma and discrimination.4,5 More recently, people who had survived the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak tackled social exclusion and unemployment after returning to their neighborhoods.6 Nowadays, the global community faces an unprecedented challenge of grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic. From the very outset, social distance measures were introduced in order to contain the spread of the virus, ranging from maintaining 1.5 meters physical distance to strict lockdowns. However, this may easily escalate into stigmatizing and discriminatory behaviours (desired social distance is a proxy of discrimination) against people who have suffered from COVID-19, their relatives and their caregivers, with the United Nations stating that "fear, rumours and stigma" are the key challenges surrounding COVID-19.7 Apart from the psychological distress experienced by the stigmatized individuals, due to anticipated stigma people might start concealing their illness, avoid or delay seeking medical advice or testing until they are seriously ill and be reluctant to collaborate with authorities on tracing contacts. Therefore, timely identifying stigma and addressing it is an integral part of an effective health response to the ongoing pandemic. In spite of its importance, research on COVID-19 related stigma is scarce. From the perspective of the stigmatized individuals, a study in China8 demonstrated that COVID-19 survivors faced heightened levels of overall stigma, social rejection, financial insecurity, internalized shame and social isolation, compared to healthy controls. From the perspective of the general population, a study in US9 substantiated low levels of anticipated stigma and stereotype endorsement; however, respondents who anticipated greater stigma were less likely to seek a COVID-19 test. It is therefore clear that the international literature is still on its infancy with respect to COVID-19 related stigma. In this context, in the First Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, we conducted a survey on public attitudes to COVID-19 and to mental disorders. The study would inform the design and implementation of anti-stigma initiatives, funded by the Regional Governor of Attica. As physical distancing and social distancing are interwoven, with some researchers and practitioners using the terms interchangeably, and social distancing is also a protective public health measure against COVID-19, we enquired about attitudes and desired social distance from people who had recovered from COVID-19. Nonetheless, it merits noting that evidence from other diseases indicates that stigma may persist even after recovery.10 Moreover, rather than describing public attitudes overall, we were more interested in investigating where COVID-19 related stigma stands as compared to the most stigmatizing health condition to date, i.e., severe mental illness.11 Interestingly enough, which elements of severe mental illness render it the most stigmatized as compared to other conditions is still speculative: is it the fear of madness? the severity and the type of symptoms? the purported incurability or its chronicity? In our study, evidence from a convenience sample of 370 residents of Attica indicates that the general population holds more negative attitudes towards people who have recovered from COVID-19 than towards people with mental disorders. Nonetheless, respondents reported lower levels of desired social distance from recovered COVID-19 cases as compared to mental illness cases in social interactions of graded intimacy; however, the difference between the two groups was found to decrease as the level of intimacy decreased as well. In other words, desired social distance from COVID-19 cases is more easily discernible in transient social encounters, like talking to a stranger. It is therefore clear that social distance is still a public health protective measure rather than a stigma manifestation. For social encounters of greater intimacy, usually a sign of discriminatory behaviours, having recovered from COVID-19 is not a deterrent to interaction. Findings can be explained by the acute (non-chronic) nature of the disease, both in terms of symptoms as well as the 10-day period since symptom onset for being contagious. Nonetheless, with emerging evidence substantiating the notion of long COVID-19, defined as the persistence of symptoms for 3 weeks after infection,12 this might quickly change. Moreover, with many public health protective measures available, such as the use of mask, diagnostic testing and vaccination, people who become infected are more likely to be blamed for contracting the disease and thus deemed responsible for this, in line with the Attribution Theory.13 Specifically, overarching evidence from stigma research in many diseases/conditions indicates that when an illness or a social condition, such as economic disadvantage, is attributed to internal causes, as compared to external, lay people are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes.14-16 Therefore, as attitudes towards COVID-19 are worse compared to those towards people with mental illness, if tailored anti-stigma action is not undertaken, it is only a matter of time for prejudices to evolve into discriminatory behaviours, with devastating consequences on both the individuals and the course of the pandemic. Concomitantly, as severe mental illness is neither life threatening nor contagious, but COVID-19 is, it is interesting to explore how stigma is related to evolutionary mechanisms favouring adaptability and survival as well as which elements are the drivers of stigma development and establishment. Therefore, comparing and contrasting the stigma surrounding these conditions may shed light on the underpinnings of social stigma and facilitate effective interventions to reduce it and eventually eliminate it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Physical Distancing , Psychological Distance , Psychological Distress , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Social Stigma , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Discrimination/prevention & control , Social Discrimination/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Time-to-Treatment
5.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61 Suppl 2: S10-S17, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355876

ABSTRACT

Many Americans use alcohol and recreational drugs. Some will develop substance use disorders that affect a person's brain and behavior, leading to continued use despite problems caused. We review the epidemiology of addiction in the United States, including changes in use patterns over time, highlighting rates in adolescents and young adults, as well as adults. An overview of the health and societal impacts of substance use is provided alongside the importance of multimodal, evidence-based treatment comprising psychosocial interventions and medication management. The article concludes by exploring the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on people who use drugs and their access to treatment.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 88: 102066, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313025

ABSTRACT

Chronic loneliness is associated with a range of mental health difficulties. Previous theory and research indicate that psychological interventions show promise for reducing loneliness, however, there have been no systematic reviews or meta-analyses to ascertain the efficacy of these interventions across the lifespan. The aim of this study was to synthesise, meta-analyse and explore the heterogeneity in RCTs of psychological interventions for loneliness in order to establish their efficacy. Five databases (Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL) were systematically searched in order to identify relevant studies. Included studies were required to be peer-reviewed RCTs examining psychological interventions for loneliness. Two independent coders examined the abstracts of the 3973 studies and 103 full texts, finding 31 studies that met inclusion criteria, 28 of which contained sufficient statistical information to be included in the meta-analysis. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The 31 studies (N = 3959) that were included in the systematic review were conducted with participants from a diverse range of cultures, age groups and populations. The interventions were of mixed quality and were mostly face to face, group-based and delivered weekly. The most common type of intervention was Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). 28 studies (N = 3039) were included in a meta-analysis which found that psychological interventions significantly reduced loneliness compared to control groups, yielding a small to medium effect size (g = 0.43). Subgroup analysis and meta-regressions were conducted in order to explore heterogeneity and found that type of psychological intervention was approaching significance as a moderator of the effectiveness of psychological interventions for loneliness. In conclusion, psychological interventions for loneliness across the lifespan are effective. This finding should inform policy makers, researchers and clinicians going forward, especially in the context of increased loneliness due to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was considerable heterogeneity in the effectiveness of the interventions, suggesting that future research should also explore what works for whom and consider personalising psychological treatment.


Subject(s)
Loneliness/psychology , Psychosocial Intervention , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Treatment Outcome
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 625691, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090390

ABSTRACT

The exceptional circumstances of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic are making the grief processes challenging for families who are losing a relative for COVID-19. This community case study aimed to describe a phone-based primary preventive psychological intervention that has been delivered to these families by the Clinical Psychology unit of an Italian hospital. In particular, the article reports how the intervention has been organized within the overall hospital care pathway for families, the specific contents and components of the intervention, and the seven-phase structure of the intervention. The unique features and related challenges of the intervention, along with the implications for clinical practice, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19/psychology , Family/psychology , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Telephone , Home Care Services, Hospital-Based , Humans , Italy , Psychiatric Department, Hospital
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 498-502, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the effects of psychological intervention on alleviating anxiety in patients in novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) isolation wards. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 24th, 2020 and March 5th, 2020, 103 patients were studied. Among these, 32 were patients in the isolation ward of the Infectious Disease Department in Baoding Second Hospital with suspected 2019-nCoV, and 71 patients diagnosed with 2019-nCoV were in the Tangshan Infectious Disease Hospital. Of the 103 patients included, 97 cases were observed in isolation. Using a self-control study design, each patient's anxiety was scored on a self-rating anxiety scale before receiving the psychological intervention (on the 7th day of isolation) and after receiving the intervention (on the 14th day of isolation). The severity of anxiety was evaluated based on the anxiety score before receiving the intervention. The anxiety scores before and after receiving the intervention were then compared using the paired t-test, and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: After receiving the psychological intervention once or twice a week, the anxiety of the patients improved significantly after one week. CONCLUSIONS: The anxiety of patients with 2019-nCoV in isolation wards can be alleviated through psychological intervention. By alleviating patient anxiety, this intervention also helps patients maintain their psychological wellbeing, which promotes rehabilitation and helps with the control of 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Hospitals, Isolation , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Quality of Life/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , China , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013056

ABSTRACT

Patients admitted to the isolation ward during the COVID-19 outbreak face multiple psychosocial stressors including the disruptive experience of being in quarantine, anxiety over contracting a newly emerging infectious disease and limited access to their healthcare team. This quality improvement project aims to leverage on technology to improve patients' access to, and experience of, care while in isolation.Patients admitted to two isolation wards in Singapore General Hospital (SGH) between 28 February and 19 March 2020 were each provided an iPad loaded with the MyCare application (app), curated materials and mobile games. During this period, 83 of them accessed the device and the app. MyCare app is an app developed by the nursing team in SGH as part of an existing interprofessional collaboration to help patients navigate their care during their inpatient stay. In response to COVID-19, MyCare app was supplemented with materials to address affected patients' informational and psychosocial needs. These materials included an information sheet on COVID-19, interviews with previous severe acute respiratory syndrome survivors, psychosocial support materials, and uplifting literature, illustrated storybooks and artwork.This paper describes the process of planning for, and executing, the intervention and reports the initial results of its effect. Initial feedback indicated a positive response to the intervention. 9 out of 10 respondents (90%) rated their hospital experience with a maximum of five stars and all 10 respondents (100%) rated the psychosocial support materials with five stars. Doctors managing the patients also observed a reduction in the number of commonly asked questions following the deployment of the iPad.This quality improvement project is ongoing with plans for further research to determine how to better support the psychosocial needs of patients in isolation during a novel disease outbreak. This report is written based on the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence guidelines.


Subject(s)
Access to Information , COVID-19/psychology , Consumer Behavior , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitalization , Mobile Applications , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Empowerment , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Young Adult
13.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 53: 102351, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714106

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID 19) pandemic has affected more than 2 million individuals and causing over 0.1 million deaths worldwide. In India, the pandemic has gained momentum in the last few weeks with over 10,000 cases and 400 deaths. In the absence of any pharmacological cure on the horizon, countries have resorted to the use of strict public health measures to curtail spread of further infection to fight the coronavirus. The pandemic and its social implications have triggered mental health concerns among the masses. Providing psychological first aid and psychosocial support is vital in mitigating the distress and enhance the coping strategies of people to deal with this biological disaster. Tele-mental health services play an important role in this regard. In this article we describe our preliminary experience in understanding the psychological concerns of general public and addressing them by providing psychological support through a national telephonic helpline.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Mental Health/trends , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communication Barriers , Humans , India/epidemiology , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , Psychosocial Support Systems , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration
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