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2.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(11): 1200-1207, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396818

ABSTRACT

Importance: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects as many as 20% of mothers, yet just 1 in 10 of these women receives evidence-based treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased PPD risk, reduced treatment access, and shifted preferences toward virtual care. Objective: To determine whether an online 1-day cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based workshop added to treatment as usual improves PPD, anxiety, social support, mother-infant relationship quality, and infant temperament more than treatment as usual alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included 403 women with PPD who were recruited across Ontario, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 20 to October 4, 2020). Women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores of at least 10 who were 18 years or older and had an infant younger than 12 months were eligible. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive a live, interactive online 1-day CBT-based workshop delivered by a registered psychotherapist, psychiatrist, or clinical psychology graduate student in addition to treatment as usual (n = 202) or to receive treatment as usual and wait-listed to receive the workshop 12 weeks later (n = 201). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in PPD (EPDS scores) in experimental and wait list control groups 12 weeks after baseline. Secondary outcomes included maternal anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire [GAD-7]), social support (Social Provisions Scale), quality of the mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire), and infant temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form). Results: Participants all identified as women with a mean (SD) age of 31.8 (4.4) years. The workshop led to significant mean (SD) reductions in EPDS scores (from 16.47 [4.41] to 11.65 [4.83]; B = -4.82; P < .001) and was associated with a higher odds of exhibiting a clinically significant decrease in EPDS scores (odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.66-6.46). The mean (SD) GAD-7 scores decreased from 12.41 (5.12) to 7.97 (5.54) after the workshop (B = -4.44; 95% CI, -5.47 to -3.38; P < .001) and participants were more likely to experience a clinically significant change (odds ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.99-4.81). Mothers also reported improvements in bonding (B = -3.22; 95% CI, -4.72 to -1.71; P < .001), infant-focused anxiety (B = -1.64; 95% CI, -2.25 to 1.00; P < .001), social support (B = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.57; P < .001), and positive affectivity/surgency in infants (B = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.56; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, an online 1-day CBT-based workshop for PPD provides an effective, brief option for mothers, reducing PPD and anxiety as well as improving social support, the mother-infant relationship, and positive affectivity/surgency in offspring. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04485000.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Depression, Postpartum/therapy , Internet-Based Intervention , Mother-Child Relations , Psychotherapy, Brief , Social Support , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Behavior/physiology , Object Attachment , Ontario , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Temperament/physiology
3.
PLoS Med ; 18(6): e1003621, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, 235 million people are impacted by humanitarian emergencies worldwide, presenting increased risk of experiencing a mental disorder. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a brief group psychological treatment delivered by trained facilitators without prior professional mental health training in a disaster-prone setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) from November 25, 2018 through September 30, 2019. Participants in both arms were assessed at baseline, midline (7 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 1 week after treatment in the experimental arm), and endline (20 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 3 months posttreatment). The intervention was Group Problem Management Plus (PM+), a psychological treatment of 5 weekly sessions, which was compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) consisting of a family psychoeducation meeting with a referral option to primary care providers trained in mental healthcare. The setting was 72 wards (geographic unit of clustering) in eastern Nepal, with 1 PM+ group per ward in the treatment arm. Wards were eligible if they were in disaster-prone regions and residents spoke Nepali. Wards were assigned to study arms based on covariate constrained randomization. Eligible participants were adult women and men 18 years of age and older who met screening criteria for psychological distress and functional impairment. Outcomes were measured at the participant level, with assessors blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was psychological distress assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, "heart-mind" problems, social support, somatic symptoms, and functional impairment. The hypothesized mediator was skill use aligned with the treatment's mechanisms of action. A total of 324 participants were enrolled in the control arm (36 wards) and 319 in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). The overall sample (N = 611) had a median age of 45 years (range 18-91 years), 82% of participants were female, 50% had recently experienced a natural disaster, and 31% had a chronic physical illness. Endline assessments were completed by 302 participants in the control arm (36 wards) and 303 participants in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). At the midline assessment (immediately after Group PM+ in the experimental arm), mean GHQ-12 total score was 2.7 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 1.7, 3.7, p < 0.001), with standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.4 (95% CI: -0.5, -0.2). At 3 months posttreatment (primary endpoint), mean GHQ-12 total score was 1.4 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 0.3, 2.5, p = 0.014), with SMD of -0.2 (95% CI: -0.4, 0.0). Among the secondary outcomes, Group PM+ was associated with endline with a larger proportion attaining more than 50% reduction in depression symptoms (29.9% of Group PM+ arm versus 17.3% of control arm, risk ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.002). Fewer participants in the Group PM+ arm continued to have "heart-mind" problems at endline (58.8%) compared to the control arm (69.4%), risk ratio = 0.8 (95% CI, 0.7, 1.0, p = 0.042). Group PM+ was not associated with lower PTSD symptoms or functional impairment. Use of psychosocial skills at midline was estimated to explain 31% of the PM+ effect on endline GHQ-12 scores. Adverse events in the control arm included 1 suicide death and 1 reportable incidence of domestic violence; in the Group PM+ arm, there was 1 death due to physical illness. Study limitations include lack of power to evaluate gender-specific effects, lack of long-term outcomes (e.g., 12 months posttreatment), and lack of cost-effectiveness information. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that a 5-session group psychological treatment delivered by nonspecialists modestly reduced psychological distress and depression symptoms in a setting prone to humanitarian emergencies. Benefits were partly explained by the degree of psychosocial skill use in daily life. To improve the treatment benefit, future implementation should focus on approaches to enhance skill use by PM+ participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03747055.


Subject(s)
Depression/therapy , Mental Health , Natural Disasters , Problem Solving , Psychotherapy, Brief , Psychotherapy, Group , Relief Work , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(3): 152-163, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290432

ABSTRACT

Crisis intervention psychotherapy (CIP) is an underutilized form of therapy that can be offered as a treatment during psychiatric disasters and emergencies, and it may be especially useful during the age of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). CIP is a problem-solving, solution-focused, trauma-informed treatment, utilizing an individual or systemic/family-centered approach. CIP is a brief form of psychotherapy delivered as a companion or follow-up to psychological first aid. Crisis psychotherapy is designed to resolve a crisis and restore daily functioning. CIP can be adapted as a single session for a COVID-19 mental health emergency or for a hotline or as 2 to 20 sessions of treatment with COVID-19 patients and families offered virtually on a psychiatric inpatient unit, through a consultation-liaison service, or in outpatient settings. This article reviews the history of critical incident stress management and the use of its replacement, psychological first aid. The history and core principles of crisis psychotherapy and 8 core elements of treatment are described. The use of digital and virtual technology has enabled the delivery of crisis psychotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. A case study of a family impacted by COVID-19 is reported as an illustration. The use of a 6-week timeline, an ecological map, and a problem-solving wheel-and-spoke treatment plan are demonstrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Crisis Intervention , Family Therapy , Psychotherapy, Brief , Telemedicine , Crisis Intervention/methods , Crisis Intervention/standards , Family Therapy/methods , Family Therapy/standards , Humans , Psychotherapy, Brief/methods , Psychotherapy, Brief/standards , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards
7.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S174-S176, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607255

ABSTRACT

During the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, people around the world have faced a myriad of heart-rending and ethically difficult scenarios (e.g., not being able to tend to a sick or dying loved one) that may lead to subsequent guilt, shame, or moral injury. Trauma-informed guilt reduction therapy is a brief intervention that helps clients accurately appraise their role in a stressful event (such as those experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic) and find positive ways to express important values going forward. Future studies of trauma-informed guilt reduction therapy with those affected by COVID-19 will be helpful for clarifying its effectiveness with this population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Guilt , Morals , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Trauma/therapy , Shame , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Psychological Trauma/etiology , Psychotherapy, Brief
8.
Trials ; 21(1): 402, 2020 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245680

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of delivering Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) through telecommunication with a group of adolescents who present anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak. We hypothesize that participants who are randomly assigned to receive 2-4 sessions of Solution Focused Brief Therapy would have better clinical outcomes than participants who are in the waitlist group. We additionally hypothesized that using SFBT can also change participants' depression levels and their coping strategies in dealing with distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL DESIGN: This study employs a randomized delayed crossover open label controlled trial in adolescents who are presenting anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak. Participants who meet the enrollment criteria stated below will be invited to participate in this study through telecommunication. Those accepting will be randomly allocated to the intervention group or waitlist group.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychotherapy, Brief , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
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